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NFPA 20

Installation of Stationary Pumps


for Fire Protection
NFPA 20 Installation of Stationary
Introduction
Pumps for Fire Protection

This standard deals with the selection and installation


of pumps supplying liquid for private fire protection

NFPA 20 Eng Ahmed Shalaby


NFPA 20 General Requirements
Introduction
General Requirements Pumps
Pumps
This standard shall apply to centrifugal single-stage
and multistage pumps of the horizontal or vertical
shaft design and positive displacement pumps of
the horizontal or vertical shaft design.

Other Pumps
Pumps other than those specified in this standard
and having different design features shall be
permitted to be installed where such pumps are
listed by a testing laboratory.

These pumps shall be limited to capacities of less


than 1892 L/min (500 gpm).

NFPA 20 Eng Ahmed Shalaby


NFPA 20 General Requirements
Introduction
General Requirements
Pumps
Pumps and Drivers
Fire pumps shall be dedicated to and listed for fire
protection service.

Acceptable drivers for pumps at a single installation


are electric motors, diesel engines, steam turbines, or
a combination thereof.

NFPA 20 Eng Ahmed Shalaby


NFPA 20 General Requirements
Introduction
General Requirements
Pumps
Pumps and Drivers
A centrifugal fire pump for fire protection shall be
Centrifugal Fire Pump Capacities
selected to operate at less than or equal to 150
percent of the rated capacity.

Centrifugal fire pumps shall have one of the


rated capacities in L/min (gpm) identified in Table
5.8.2 and shall be rated at net pressures of 2.7 bar
(40 psi) or more.

NFPA 20 Eng Ahmed Shalaby


NFPA 20 General Requirements
Introduction
General Requirements
Pumps Pumps shall be provided with a nameplate.
Pumps and Drivers
Centrifugal Fire Pump Capacities
Nameplate

NFPA 20 Eng Ahmed Shalaby


NFPA 20 General Requirements
Introduction Discharge.
General Requirements A pressure gauge having a dial not less than 89 mm
Pumps (3.5 in.) in diameter shall be connected near the
Pumps and Drivers
discharge casting with a nominal 6 mm (0.25 in.)
Centrifugal Fire Pump Capacities
gauge valve.
Nameplate
pressure gauge s
The dial shall indicate pressure to at least twice the
rated working pressure of the pump but not less than
13.8 bar (200 psi).

Suction
A pressure gauge having a dial not less than 89 mm
(3.5 in.) in diameter shall be connected near the
discharge casting with a nominal 6 mm (0.25 in.)
gauge valve.

The gauge shall have a pressure range two times the


rated maximum suction pressure of the pump, but
not less than 6.9 bar (100 psi).

NFPA 20 Eng Ahmed Shalaby


NFPA 20 General Requirements
Introduction
General Requirements
Pumps
Pumps and Drivers Automatic Relief Valve
Centrifugal Fire Pump Capacities
Nameplate Minimum size of the automatic relief valve shall have
pressure gauge s a nominal size of 19 mm (0.75 in.) for pumps with a
Automatic Relief Valve
rated capacity not exceeding 9462 L/min (2500
gpm) and have a nominal size of 25 mm (1 in.) for
pumps with a rated capacity of 11,355 to 18,925
L/min (3000 to 5000 gpm).

NFPA 20 Eng Ahmed Shalaby


NFPA 20 General Requirements
Introduction
General Requirements The fire pump, driver, and controller shall be
Pumps protected against possible interruption of service
Pumps and Drivers through damage caused by explosion, fire, flood,
Centrifugal Fire Pump Capacities earthquake, rodents, insects, windstorm, freezing,
Nameplate vandalism, and other adverse conditions.
pressure gauge s
Automatic Relief Valve Indoor fire pump units shall be physically separated
Equipment Protection
or protected by fire-rated construction in accordance
with Table 5.12.1.1.

NFPA 20 Eng Ahmed Shalaby


NFPA 20 General Requirements
Introduction
General Requirements Steel Pipe
Pumps
Pumps and Drivers Steel pipe shall be used above ground except for
Centrifugal Fire Pump Capacities connection to underground suction and
Nameplate underground discharge piping.
pressure gauge s
Automatic Relief Valve Joining Method
Equipment Protection
Pipe and Fittings Sections of steel piping shall be joined by means of
screwed, flanged mechanical grooved joints or other
approved fittings.

Cutting and Welding

it is performed in accordance with NFPA 51B,


Standard for Fire Prevention During Welding,
Cutting, and Other Hot Work.

NFPA 20 Eng Ahmed Shalaby


NFPA 20 General Requirements
Introduction
General Requirements
Pumps Supervised Open
Pumps and Drivers
Centrifugal Fire Pump Capacities Where provided, the suction valve, discharge valve,
Nameplate bypass valves, and isolation valves on the backflow
pressure gauge s prevention device or assembly shall be supervised
Automatic Relief Valve open.
Equipment Protection
Pipe and Fittings
Valve Supervision Supervised Closed

The test outlet control valves shall be supervised


closed.

NFPA 20 Eng Ahmed Shalaby


NFPA 20 General Requirements
Introduction 1. Electric Supply
General Requirements
Pumps Careful consideration shall be given in each case to
Pumps and Drivers the dependability of the electric supply system and
Centrifugal Fire Pump Capacities the wiring system.
Nameplate
pressure gauge s Consideration shall include the possible effect of
Automatic Relief Valve
fire on transmission lines either in the property or in
Equipment Protection
adjoining buildings that could threaten the property.
Pipe and Fittings
Valve Supervision
Power Supply Dependability
2. Steam Supply

Careful consideration shall be given in each case to


the dependability of the steam supply and the steam
supply system.

Consideration shall include the possible effect of


fire on transmission piping either in the property or
in adjoining buildings that could threaten the
property.

NFPA 20 Eng Ahmed Shalaby


NFPA 20 General Requirements
Introduction
General Requirements
Pumps Pump shaft rotation shall be determined and
Pumps and Drivers correctly specified when ordering fire pumps and
Centrifugal Fire Pump Capacities
equipment involving that rotation.
Nameplate
pressure gauge s
Automatic Relief Valve
Equipment Protection
Pipe and Fittings
Valve Supervision
Power Supply Dependability
Pump Shaft Rotation

NFPA 20 Eng Ahmed Shalaby


NFPA 20 General Requirements
Introduction
General Requirements
Pumps Pressure maintenance pumps shall have rated
Pumps and Drivers capacities not less than any normal leakage rate.
Centrifugal Fire Pump Capacities
Nameplate The pumps shall have discharge pressure sufficient
pressure gauge s to maintain the desired fire protection system
Automatic Relief Valve pressure.
Equipment Protection
Pipe and Fittings
A check valve shall be installed in the discharge
Valve Supervision
pipe.
Power Supply Dependability
Pump Shaft Rotation
Pressure Maintenance Indicating butterfly or gate valves shall be installed
in such places as needed to make the pump, check
valve, and other miscellaneous fittings accessible for
repair.

NFPA 20 Eng Ahmed Shalaby


NFPA 20 General Requirements
Introduction
General Requirements
Check valves and backflow prevention devices and
Pumps
assemblies shall be listed for fire protection service.
Pumps and Drivers
Centrifugal Fire Pump Capacities
Where the backflow prevention device or assembly
Nameplate
incorporates a relief valve, the relief valve shall
pressure gauge s
discharge to a drain appropriately sized for the
Automatic Relief Valve
Equipment Protection
maximum anticipated flow from the relief valve.
Pipe and Fittings
Valve Supervision Water discharge from the relief valve shall be
Power Supply Dependability readily visible or easily detectable.
Pump Shaft Rotation
Pressure Maintenance
Backflow Preventers

NFPA 20 Eng Ahmed Shalaby


NFPA 20 General Requirements
Introduction
General Requirements
Pumps
Pumps and Drivers Suction and discharge piping shall be thoroughly
Centrifugal Fire Pump Capacities inspected, including checking all flanged and
Nameplate mechanical connections per manufacturers'
pressure gauge s recommendations, after the pump house or skid
Automatic Relief Valve unit is set in place on the permanent foundation
Equipment Protection
Pipe and Fittings
Valve Supervision
Power Supply Dependability
Pump Shaft Rotation
Pressure Maintenance
Backflow Preventers
Packaged Fire Pump Systems

NFPA 20 Eng Ahmed Shalaby


NFPA 20 Centrifugal Pumps
Introduction
General Requirements
Centrifugal Pumps
Types
Centrifugal pumps shall be of the overhung impeller
design and the impeller between bearings design.

The overhung impeller design shall be close coupled or


separately coupled single- or two-stage end suction -
type [see Figure A.6.1.1(a) and Figure A.6.1.1(b)] or in-
line-type [see Figure A.6.1.1(c) through Figure
A.6.1.1(e)] pumps.

NFPA 20 Eng Ahmed Shalaby


NFPA 20 Centrifugal Pumps
Introduction
General Requirements
Centrifugal Pumps
Types
FIGURE A.6.1.1(a) Overhung Impeller Close
Coupled Single Stage End Suction.

NFPA 20 Eng Ahmed Shalaby


NFPA 20 Centrifugal Pumps
Introduction
General Requirements
Centrifugal Pumps FIGURE A.6.1.1(b) Overhung Impeller Separately
Types Coupled Single Stage Frame Mounted.

NFPA 20 Eng Ahmed Shalaby


NFPA 20 Centrifugal Pumps
Introduction
General Requirements FIGURE A.6.1.1(c) Overhung Impeller Close
Centrifugal Pumps Coupled Single Stage In-Line (Showing Seal and
Types Packaging).

NFPA 20 Eng Ahmed Shalaby


NFPA 20 Centrifugal Pumps
Introduction
General Requirements
FIGURE A.6.1.1(e) Overhung Impeller Separately
Centrifugal Pumps
Coupled Single Stage In-Line Flexible Coupling.
Types

NFPA 20 Eng Ahmed Shalaby


NFPA 20 Centrifugal Pumps
Introduction
General Requirements Pumps shall furnish not less than 150 percent of
Centrifugal Pumps rated capacity at not less than 65 percent of total
Types rated head.
Factory and Field Performance The shutoff head shall not exceed 140 percent of
rated head for any type pump.

NFPA 20 Eng Ahmed Shalaby


NFPA 20 Centrifugal Pumps
Introduction
General Requirements Where necessary, the following fittings for the pump
Centrifugal Pumps shall be provided by the pump manufacturer or an
Types authorized representative:
Factory and Field Performance
Fittings 1. Automatic air release valve
2. Circulation relief valve
3. Pressure gauges

Pipeline Strainer

Pumps that require removal of the driver to remove


rocks or debris from the pump impeller shall have a
pipeline strainer installed in the suction line a
minimum of 10 pipe diameters from the suction flange.
The strainer screens shall have a free area of at least
four times the area of the suction connections, and
the openings shall be sized to restrict the passage of
a 7.9 mm (0.3125 in.) sphere.

NFPA 20 Eng Ahmed Shalaby


NFPA 20 Centrifugal Pumps
Introduction
General Requirements
Coupling Type
Centrifugal Pumps
Types
The pump and driver on separately coupledtype
Factory and Field Performance
Fittings
pumps shall be connected by a rigid coupling,
Connection to Driver flexible coupling, or flexible connecting shaft.
All coupling types shall be listed for this service.

NFPA 20 Eng Ahmed Shalaby


NFPA 20 Electric Driver
Introduction Power Source
General Requirements
Centrifugal Pumps Power shall be supplied to the electric motor
Electric Driver driven fire pump by a reliable source or two or more
General approved independent sources.
Motors
All motors shall comply with NEMA MG-1, Motors
and Generators, shall be marked as complying with
NEMA Design B standards, and shall be specifically
listed for fire pump service.

On-Site Standby Generator Systems

All electrical equipment and installation methods


shall comply with NFPA 70, National Electrical
Code

NFPA 20 Eng Ahmed Shalaby


NFPA 20 Engine Driver
Introduction
General Requirements Engine Type
Centrifugal Pumps
Electric Driver 1. Diesel engines for fire pump drive shall be of the
Engine Driver compression ignition type.
Engine Type
2. Spark-ignited internal combustion engines shall
not be used.
3. Listing. Engines shall be listed for fire pump
service.

NFPA 20 Eng Ahmed Shalaby


NFPA 20 Engine Driver
Introduction
General Requirements
Centrifugal Pumps Over speed Shutdown Device
Electric Driver
Engine Driver 1. Engines shall be provided with an over speed
Engine Type shutdown device.
Over speed Shutdown Device 2. It shall be arranged to shut down the engine at a
speed approximately 20 percent above rated
engine speed and to be manually reset.
3. Also, A tachometer shall be provided to indicate
revolutions per minute of the engine, including
zero, at all times.

NFPA 20 Eng Ahmed Shalaby


NFPA 20 Engine Driver
Introduction
General Requirements
Centrifugal Pumps
Electric Driver Accessories
Engine Driver
Engine Type
1. Oil Pressure Gauge
Over speed Shutdown Device
Accessories
2. Temperature Gauge
3. Instrument Panel
4. Main Battery
5. Radiators
6. Fan

NFPA 20 Eng Ahmed Shalaby


NFPA 20 Engine Driver
Introduction
General Requirements
Centrifugal Pumps Ventilation
Electric Driver
Engine Driver Ventilation shall be provided for the following
Engine Type functions:
Over speed Shutdown Device
Accessories 1. To control the maximum temperature to 49C
Pump and Engine Protection
(120F) at the combustion air cleaner inlet with
engine running at rated load
2. To supply air for engine combustion
3. To remove any hazardous vapors
4. To supply and exhaust air as necessary for
radiator cooling of the engine when required

Engine Exhaust

Each pump engine shall have an independent


exhaust system.

NFPA 20 Eng Ahmed Shalaby


NFPA 20 Acceptance Testing
Introduction
Flushing
General Requirements
Centrifugal Pumps
Electric Driver
Suction piping shall be flushed at a flow rate not less
Engine Driver than indicated in Table 14.1.1.1(a) or at the
Acceptance Testing hydraulically calculated water demand rate of the
Hydrostatic Tests and Flushing system, whichever is greater.

NFPA 20 Eng Ahmed Shalaby


NFPA 20 Acceptance Testing
Introduction
General Requirements
Centrifugal Pumps Hydrostatic Test
Electric Driver
Engine Driver Suction and discharge piping shall be
Acceptance Testing hydrostatically tested at not less than 13.8 bar (200
Hydrostatic Tests and Flushing psi) pressure, or at 3.4 bar (50 psi) in excess of the
maximum pressure to be maintained in the system,
whichever is greater.

The installing contractor shall furnish a certificate


for flushing and hydrostatic test prior to the start
of the fire pump field acceptance test.

NFPA 20 Eng Ahmed Shalaby


NFPA 20 Questions
Introduction
General Requirements
Centrifugal Pumps
Electric Driver
Engine Driver
Acceptance Testing
Questions

NFPA 20 Eng Ahmed Shalaby