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WCDMA RAN Protocols and Procedures

Agenda

oWCDMA System Architecture


oRadio interface
oRRC (Radio Resource controller )Protocols
oRLC (Radio link controller) Protocols
oMAC and Physical layer function
o cell selection and reselection in idle mode.
o UE States and connections.
WCDMA System Architecture

PCU
Abis
BTS BSC MSC / VLR GMSC

GSM BSS Gb
IP
Network
SGSN GGSN
Iu-CS

Iu-Ps
Iub Iu
Node-b RNC MGW
WCDMA Systems RAN

SGSN
Handle the PS services to and from the UE.
Forwards incoming and outgoing IP packets addressed to/from an UE that is attached within the SGSN SA
Provides functions such as ciphering and authentication, session management and mobility management
GGSN
Interface to the external IP packet network

MGW
Connects the Core Network to the RNC
CS traffic.
Cross connection between the RNC and the SGSN.
WCDMA RAN Interfaces. Uu Iub
Iu

MSC
RNC

MGW
IUR
SGSN

RNC
GGSN

WCDMA RAN Core Network


UE
NAS messages
Every interface contains protocols used over it.
Protocol used over the Iub interface
oNode B Application Part Protocol (NBAP).
Protocol used over the Iur interface
oRadio Network Subsystems Application Part (RNSAP).
Protocol used over the Iu interface
oRadio Access network application part(RNAP)
NAS Messages
oSignaling between the UE and CN directly
WCDMA RAN Interfaces (Contd).

CS Domain
Iu-CS Signaling MSC

data MGW

PS Domain
Iu-PS
RNC GGSN
In band Signaling
Direct tunneling SGSN

Iu-Bc Broadcast domain

CBC

Cell Broadcast center

WCDMA RAN
Core Network

The Iu interface to the circuit switched domain, i.e. to the MSC, is referred to as Iu-CS.

The Iu interface to the packet switched domain, i.e. to the SGSN, is referred to as Iu-PS.
INTRODUCTION TO RADIO INTERFACE (Uu)

UE
INTRODUCTION TO RADIO INTERFACE, UU
The interface is layered into three protocol layers:
oThe physical layer (L1);
oThe data link layer (L2);
o Network layer (L3)

Layer 3
Network layer (L3)

Data link layer (L2)

Layer 2

Physical layer (L1)

Layer 1
INTRODUCTION TO RADIO INTERFACE, Uu
Layer 3 (Network layer )
oLayer 3 consists of one protocol, called Radio Resource Control (RRC), which belong to the control plane.
o Function of RRC is to establish Signaling Radio Bearers between the UE and the RNC to handle most of the
control signals.
oRRC controls the lower layers
Control Plane

NAS

RRC Layer 3

Note :
oMessages that are not meant for the RAN but for the CN are called Non Access Stratum (NAS)
oTransferred transparently over the WCDMA RAN.
RRC (Radio Resource Controller) Contd
RRC provides the following functions:

Broadcast of system information


Initial cell selection and cell re-selection.
Paging.
Establishment, maintenance and release of an RRC connection between the UE and RAN.
Transparent message transfer.
Establishment, reconfiguration and release of Radio Bearers.
oCapacity managements .
RRC connection mobility functions.
oHandover evaluation
UE measurement reporting and control of the reporting.
oTake the decisions based on measurements report
INTRODUCTION TO RADIO INTERFACE, Uu (Contd)
Layer 2 (Data link layer)
oLayer 2 is split into different sub layers.
A- Radio Link Control (RLC) B-Medium Access Control (MAC)
Control Plane User Plan (User data)

NAS

RRC Layer 3

Signaling Radio Bearers Radio Bearers

RLC

Layer 2
MAC

RLC layer (Radio Link Control)


oRLC layer provides service in both
A-Control plane is called Signaling Radio Bearer (SRB) B-User plane it is called a Radio Bearer (RB).

oSignaling Radio Bearer, SRB


Signaling messages between the UE and the RNC.
oRadio Bearer, RB.
User data transport between the UE and the RNC.
RLC Protocols(Contd)
RLC Functions
1-Segmentation and re-assembly
oI dont know the user data size so I make segmentation into block size to feet the PDU
oReassembly I have to do the opposite on the other side
Uu
User data
User data RLC
RLC

RLC PDU RLC PCI Payload


RLC PDU RLC PCI Payload RLC PDU RLC PCI Payload
RLC PDU RLC PCI Payload RLC PDU RLC PCI Payload
RLC PDU RLC PCI Payload

MAC SDU MAC SDU

data 1
2-Concatenation RLC
If the contents of an RLC SDU do not fill RLC PDU
So I can concatenate in the PDU and use the headers RLC PCI RLC SDU
PCI to know the blocks

RLC PDU SDU 2 SDU 1


RLC Protocols(Contd) data 1
RLC Functions
RLC
3-Padding RLC PCI RLC SDU
Data to be transmitted does not fill RLC SDU of given size,
The remainder of the data field is filled with padding bits.
RLC PDU Dummy bits SDU 1

4-Transfer of user data


RLC supports data transfer in the below modes
oAcknowledged Mode
oUnacknowledged Mode
oTransparent Mode
Acknowledged Mode (AM)
Some data go through and get changed
if Error happened Retransmission is requested (interactive PS data)
RLC User data

RLC PDU RLC PCI Payload Buffer


RLC PDU RLC PCI Payload Buffer
RLC PDU RLC PCI Payload Buffer

I have to put the data in buffer and Release it once I get ACK If get NACK I retransmit the data in the buffer
RLC Protocols(Contd)
RLC Functions
Unacknowledged Mode (UM)
Some data to through and get changed but no retransmissions happened (Streaming )

RLC User data

RLC PDU RLC PCI Payload


RLC PDU RLC PCI Payload

Transparent Mode (TM).


Some data go through and no change happened on it
oSignaling
oNo change happened to it
oAs I designed it by 3GPP to feet the lower layers
CCCH
Amr Voice
RLC Protocols(Contd)
RLC Functions
5-In-sequence delivery of upper layer PDUs
RLC
RLC User data

RLC PDU 1
RLC PDU 1 RLC PDU 2
RLC PDU 2 RLC PDU 3
RLC PDU 3

MAC SDU MAC SDU

6-Duplicate detection
Ensures that PDU is delivered only once to the upper layer.

7-Error correction
This function provides error correction by retransmission in the acknowledged data transfer
mode. Operate in ACK
mode

8-Flow control
Keep the data in buffer until the resources are ready (Control the rate of transmission)
INTRODUCTION TO RADIO INTERFACE, Uu (Contd)
oRLC make sure the messages have correct length
Long messages convert them to segments
Short messages add padding bits to them

oRLC instance is configured by RRC to operate in one of three modes depending on the service :
Acknowledged Mode (AM), Control Plane User Plan (User data)
Unacknowledged Mode (UM) SRB RB
Transparent Mode (TM).
RLC
oRLC map messages on different logical channels.
Logical Channels Logical Channels

logical channels

Control Channels Traffic Channels


Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH, DL) Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH, DL & UL)
Downlink channel for broadcasting system information. Point-to-point channel, dedicated to one UE,
Paging Control Channel (PCCH, DL) Transferring user Information.
Downlink channel that transfers paging information Common Traffic Channel (CTCH, DL)
Common Control Channel (CCCH, DL & UL) Traffic channel for sending traffic to a group of UEs
Used by the UE needs to access the network.
Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH, DL & UL)
Point-to-point bi-directional channel
Transmits dedicated control information between UE and network.
INTRODUCTION TO RADIO INTERFACE, Uu (Contd)
MAC layer Medium Access Control
oLogical channels received from the RLC layer are mapped onto the transport channels.
oMultiplex signaling and data to transport channels
Layer 2
RLC RLC
Logical Channels Logical Channels

MAC
Transport Channels

Transport channels

Common transport channel(Several users use the same channel) Dedicated transport channel
-Broadcast Channel (BCH) (DL) (For exclusive use of one user)
Continuous transmission of system and cell information -Dedicated Channel (DCH) (UL & DL)
- Paging Channel (PCH) (DL) Service data, such as speech frames
When the network wants to initiate communication
with the terminal.
-Random Access Channel (RACH) (UL)
The RACH is an uplink transport channel used to make requests to set
up a connection
-Forward Access Channel (FACH) (DL)
Control signaling during call setup
Packet data transmission in low rates
-High Speed Downlink Shared Channel (HS-DSCH)(DL)
HSDPA
INTRODUCTION TO RADIO INTERFACE, Uu (Contd)
Different MAC entities depend on the traffic type:
oMAC-b handles the transport channel for the broadcast channel.
oMAC-c handles the transport channels for common channels
oMAC-d handles all dedicated transport channels
oMAC-hs handles the HS-DSCH transport channels
oMAC-e handles the EUL
MAC(Medium Access control Protocol) Protocols
Take data from RLC layer and put them on the Right transport channel

RLC
Logical Channels
Layer 2
MAC

Transport Channels

MAC Architecture UE Side PCCH BCCH CCCH DCCH DTCH

MAC -D
MAC C
MAC -e MAC -hs

E-DCH HS -DSCH PCH FACH RACH DCH


INTRODUCTION TO RADIO INTERFACE, Uu (Contd)
Layer 1 (physical layer)
Control Plane User Plan (User data)

oTransport channels are mapped onto the NAS


physical layer.

oMapped to combination of: RRC Layer 3


Carrier frequency
Codes (channelization/scrambling code pair) SRB RB
Relative phase (UL only) RLC
Logical Channels Logical Channels
Layer 2
MAC
Transport Channels

Physical Layer
Layer 1
Physical Layer Overview
Mapped to combination of
oCarrier frequency
oCode
oRelative phase (UL only)

Transport channels

Channel Coding

Multiplexing

Mapping to physical channels

Spreading

Modulation

Air interface
Logical Channel Transport Channels Physical Channels
CPICH
Common Pilot Channel (Aids
BCCH channel estimation )
BCH
Broadcast Control Ch. Broadcast Ch. P-CCPCH(*)
Primary Common Control Physical
PCCH
Ch.
Paging Control Ch. PCH
Paging Ch.
CCCH S-CCPCH
Common Control Ch. Secondary Common Control S/P
FACH Physical Ch.
CTCH Forward Access Ch.
Common Traffic Ch.
CH Code
DCH DPDCH (one or more per UE)
DCCH M
Dedicated Ch. Dedicated Physical Data Ch.
Dedicated Control Ch. U
X I/Q
DCH SC code Modulator
DTCH
Dedicated Ch. DPCCH (one per UE)
Dedicated Traffic Ch.
Dedicated Physical Control Ch.
Pilot /TPC /TFCI
AICH Acknowledges that RBS has
acquired a UE Random Access attempt Gain
(Acquisition Indicator Channel)

PICH
(Paging Indicator Channel )
HSDPA
HS- PDSCH (one or more per UE)
HS-DSCH High Speed Physical Downlink
High Speed DL shared Ch
Shared Ch.
HS-SCCH (<=4 per UE)
High Speed Shared Control Ch
Exchanges of signaling and user data between the UE and the UTRAN

Node- RNC
B Control Plane
Control Plane
User Plan (User data) User Plan (User data)

RRC L3 RRC
L3
SRB

Radio Bearer

RLC RLC

Logical Channels L2 Logical Channels

MAC L2
MAC
Transport Channels
FP
Transport Channels FP
AAL2
AAL2
Layer ATM
1 ATM
Layer PHY
PHY L1 1 L1
RRC (Radio Resource Controller)
CN-CS
Signaling connection
UTRAN

CN-PS
Signaling connection

SC
SRB Iu Signaling Bearer

Radio Bearer RAB Iu Bearer

oSC provides confidential transport of signaling between UE and CN


oRAB provides confidential transport of user data between UE and CN
oThe signaling Radio Bearers, SRB, can carry layer 3 signaling (RRC connection establishment),
oA Radio Bearer responsible for transfer of data between UE and UTRAN.
oRadio bearers are mapped successively on logical channels, transport channels and physical channels
RNC CN

RRC Channel Iu Signaling Bearer


--------------Signaling Radio Bearer-------------------
--------------------------------------------------Signaling Connection---------------------------

Traffic Channel Iu Bearer


--------------Radio Bearer--------------------------
--------------------------------------------------RAB---------- -----------------------------------
Exchanges of signaling between the UE and the CN
oExample for protocols used when delivering message from UE to CN
oMessage from UE to CN (NAS message)
NAS includes Mobility Management (Location area update)
Short Message Services (SMS).

NAS messages

Uu Nod
RNC IU
e-B IUB CN

Peer
NAS NAS
RRC RRC RANAP RANAP
RLC RLC SCCP SCCP
MAC MAC MTP -3b MTP -3b
FP FP NNI -SAAL NNI -SAAL

AAL2 AAL2 AAL5 AAL5


Layer 1
Layer
1 ATM ATM ATM ATM
Layer Layer
1
Layer 1 Layer 1
1
INITIAL CELL SELECTION AND CELL
RESELECTION
INITIAL CELL SELECTION AND CELL RESELECTION

After the UE has read the system information, it shall use the cell selection and Reselection parameters
and choose the most suitable cell to camp on.

Cell selection procedure


oThe cell consider as accepted if

Squal > 0 and Srxlev > 0


oSqual = Qqualmeas - qQualMin (For WCDMA)

Qqualmeas is CPICH Ec/No


qQualMin is minimum required Ec/No

oSrxlev = Qrxlevmeas qRxlevMin (for all cells)

Qrxlevmeas is CPICH RSCP


qRxlevMin is minimum required RSCP
Cell selection occurs when
UE is switched on
UE goes from common channel(cellFACH) to idle mode
UE goes from connected mode (cellDCH) to idle
UE goes to idle mode after an emergency call on any PLMN
UE in idle mode has had a number of failed RRC connection request
INITIAL CELL SELECTION AND CELL RESELECTION (Contd)
Cell reselection procedure

3G F1 3G F2 GSM

3G F1

When it occurs
When cell on which it is camping is no longer suitable
When there is any neighbor with better quality than the selected one
When the UE in the limited service state on an acceptable cell
When the UE is in cell _FACH state
RRC (Radio Resource Controller) Contd
2- INITIAL CELL SELECTION AND CELL RESELECTION (Contd)
Cell reselection procedure(Contd)
1- Intra frequency measurements starts when

Squal <= Sintrasearch

SintraSearch : Controls when intrafrequency measurements are performed

Qqualmeas - qQualMin <= Sintrasearch

Qqualmeas <= Sintrasearch + qQualMin

2. Inter frequency measurements starts when

Squal <= SinterSearch

Sintersearch : Controls when intrafrequency measurements are performed

Qqualmeas - qQualMin <= SinterSearch

Qqualmeas <= SinterSearch + qQualMin


RRC (Radio Resource Controller) Contd
2- INITIAL CELL SELECTION AND CELL RESELECTION (Contd)
Cell reselection procedure(Contd)
3. GSM measurements starts when

Squal <= sRatSearch

Qqualmeas <= sRatSearch + qQualMin

OR Srxlev <= SHcsRat

Qrxlevmeas <= sHcsRat + qrxlevmin

sRatSearch : Controls quality (Ec/No)Threshold at which GSM measurements are performed


SHcsRat : Controls Signal Strength Threshold at which GSM measurements are performed
RRC (Radio Resource Controller) Contd
2- INITIAL CELL SELECTION AND CELL RESELECTION (Contd)
Cell reselection procedure(Contd)

Qqualmeas

-14
SRAT Search=4dB

Qqualmin
-18

GSM measurement

Qqualmeas <= Sintrasearch + qQualMin Time


RRC (Radio Resource Controller) Contd
2- INITIAL CELL SELECTION AND CELL RESELECTION (Contd)
Cell reselection procedure(Contd)

QRxlevmeas

-112
sHcsRat =3dB

Qrxlevmin
GSM measurement
-115

Qqualmeas <= sHcsRat + qrxlevmin Time


RRC (Radio Resource Controller) Contd
2- INITIAL CELL SELECTION AND CELL RESELECTION (Contd)
Cell reselection procedure(Contd)
oWhen the UE triggers a cell reselections procedure it starts ranking for the cell satisfy Scriteria
o(Squal > 0 and Srxlev > 0)

oRanking is done for the serving cell and the neighbor cell
oR(serving)= Qmeas(s)+qHyst(s)
oR(neighbor)= Qmeas(n)qOffset(s,n)
oQmeas: is the quality value of the received signal
oCPICH Ec/No
oCPICH RSCP

oqHyst(s): hystersis value sent to mobile in system information used to delay the reselection
oqHyst1 if the ranking based on CPICH RSCP
oqHyst2 if the ranking based on CPICH Ec/No

oqOffset(s,n): is the offset between the serving and the neighbor cell also used to shift the cell boarder
oqOffset1sn : if the ranking based on RSCP.
oqOffset2sn : if the ranking based on Ec/No

oqualMeasQuantity
oParameter that determine if we will do the ranking based on RSCP or Ec/No

o The UE reslect the better cell if it stay better for time interval more than Treselection
RRC (Radio Resource Controller) Contd
2- INITIAL CELL SELECTION AND CELL RESELECTION (Contd)
Cell reselection procedure(Contd)

Qmeas
R(S) Qmeas(n)
R(n) >R(S) R(n)
qHyst2=4 qOffset2SN=o
Qmeas(S)

TreSelection

Cell Re-Selection to Neig Time


RRC (Radio Resource Controller) Contd
2- INITIAL CELL SELECTION AND CELL RESELECTION (Contd)
Cell reselection procedure(Contd)
UMTS to GSM cell Reselection

Qmeas Scriteria
Srxlev > 0 Qmeas(n) (GSM)
R(S) Srxlev > Qrxlevmeas qRxlevMin
qHyst1=4
qoffset1SN
R(N)

qrxlevmin
+SHcsSearch
Cell Re-Selection to Neig (GSM)

TreSelection
Qrxlevmin Qmeas(S)
R(N)>R(S)

Qmeas(S)< qrxlevmin+SHcsSearch
Time

GSM measurements
3G States Introduction
RRC (Radio Resource Controller) Contd

oUE has dedicated channel


o(DCCH) for control signaling
o (DTCH) is used for user data Transmission
CELL DCH oDCCH and DTCH are mapped onto dedicated transport channels (DCH).
oThe UE performs measurements and sends reports to the RNC
DL/UL

oUE has no dedicated channel allocated


oUE uses the common channels, RACH and FACH, for signaling messages and
Cell FACH small amounts of data (Transport Channels)
DL /UL oUE needs to send Cell Update messages to RNC every time it selects a new cell.

oUE can only be reached via the Paging Indicator Channel (PICH).
oBattery consumption of the UE very low because:
Cell PCH PICH includes (DRX) functionality.
UE does not have to monitor the FACH any more.
DL only If the network initiates any activity
Page the UE.
When the UE receives the paging it changes to the CELL_FACH state
performs a Cell Update.
Idle IF UE initiates any activity
it triggers a switch to the CELL_FACH state
oA UE on FACH is switched down to Cell_PCH if it shows no activity for a long
period of time (system resources are freed)
oWhen extended inactivity on both the uplink and the downlink, a Cell_PCH state
will be switched down to IDLE
Transfer of NAS messages at Mobile Originated Call Setup

RAN CN

RRC: RRC Connection Request

RRC: RRC Connection Setup

RRC Connection Setup complete

Initial Direct Transfer NAS: (Service Request)

RRC: Downlink Direct Transfer NAS: (Authentication Request)

Authentication Response

RRC: Security Mode Command

RRC: Security Mode Complete

RRC: Uplink Direct Transfer NAS: (Setup) (i want to make a call)

Check Iu resources

RAB Assignment Request

Check RNC resources and QOS

RRC: Downlink Direct Transfer NAS: (Call Proceeding)

RRC: Radio Bearer Setup

RRC: Radio bearer Setup complete


Thanks You