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Proces Flow Diagram (PFD)

Merupakan suatu diagram yang digunakan dalam


kimia dan rekayasa proses untuk menunjukkan aliran
umum proses pabrik dan peralatan.
PFD menampilkan hubungan antara peralatan utama
fasilitas pabrik namun tidak menunjukkan rincian
detil tentang pemipaan.
Istilah lain yang sering digunakan untuk PFD adalah
flowsheet.
Process flow diagrams of a single unit process will
include the following:

Process piping
Major equipment items
Control valves and other major valves
Connections with other systems
Major bypass and recirculation streams
Operational data (temperature, pressure, mass flow rate,
density, etc.), often by stream references to a mass balance.
Process stream names
Process flow diagrams generally do not include:

Pipe classes or piping line numbers


Process control instrumentation (sensors and final elements)
Minor bypass lines
Isolation and shutoff valves
Maintenance vents and drains
Relief and safety valves
Flanges
Some typical elements from process
flow diagrams, as provided by the
open source program, Dia. Click for
image legend.
Row-by-row, they are:
fan/stirrer, pneumatic line, pneumatic line vertical, measurement, simple heat
exchanger
simple heat exchanger vertical, alternative heat exchanger, alternative heat
exchanger, fixed-sheet heat exchanger, floating-head or u-tube heat exchanger.
kettle reboiler, air cooler, forced-flow air cooler, induced-flow air cooler, plate
exchanger.
double-pipe exchanger, heating/cooling coil, heating/cooling coil, simple furnace,
simple vessel, knockout drum, tray column, tray column detailed
fluid contacting vessel, reaction/absorption vessel, autoclave, open tank,
clarifier/settling tank, sealed tank, covered tank, tank with fixed roof
tank with floating roof, storage sphere, gas holder basic, centrifugal pump or fan,
positive displacement rotary pump or compressor, reciprocating pump or
compressor, axial flow fan
compressor or turbine, ejector or injector, AC generator, valve, valve, control valve,
control valve
basic filter, mixer, cyclonic seperation or hydrocyclone, spray dryer, centrifuge
A Unit Process is a step in manufacturing in which chemical reaction takes
place, e.g, the oxidation of paraxylene to terephthalic acid is a unit
process, the hydrogenation of vegetable oil to ghee is a unit process. In
1930 P.H. Groggins introduced Unit processes in order to classify and
standardize chemical reactions
A unit operation is a basic step in a process. Unit operations involve
bringing a physical change such as separation, crystallization, evaporation,
filtration etc. For example, in milk processing, homogenization,
pasteurization, chilling, and packaging are each unit operations which are
connected to create the overall process. A process may have many unit
operations to obtain the desired product.
Chemical engineering unit operations consist of five classes:

Fluid flow processes, including fluids transportation, filtration, solids fluidization


Heat transfer processes, including evaporation, condensation
Mass transfer processes, including gas absorption, distillation, extraction,
adsorption, drying
Thermodynamic processes, including gas liquefaction, refrigeration
Mechanical processes, including solids transportation, crushing and pulverization,
screening and sieving
Chemical engineering unit processing consists of the following
important processes:

Oxidation Alkaline fusion


Reduction Alkylation
Hydrogenation Dealkylation
Esterification
Dehydrogenation
Polymerization
Hydrolysis Polycondensation
Hydration reaction Catalysis
Dehydration
Halogenation
Nitrification
Sulfonation
Ammoniation
Single process unit

The process flow diagram


below depicts a single
chemical engineering unit
process known as an amine
treating plant:

Process flow diagram of a


typical amine treating process
used in petroleum refineries,
natural gas processing plants
and other industrial facilities.

Monoethanolamine: About 20 % for removing H2S and CO2, and about 32 % for removing only C
Diethanolamine: About 20 to 25 % for removing H2S and CO2
Methyldiethanolamine: About 30 to 55% % for removing H2S and CO2
Diglycolamine: About 50 % for removing H2S and CO2
Multiple process units within an
industrial plant

The process flow diagram below is an


example of a schematic or block flow
diagram and depicts the various unit
processes within a typical oil refinery: