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QoS in UMTS Network

16 November 2017 By Ying weimin


UMTS QoS

CONTENT:

UMTS QoS concept


QoS requirement on UMTS
QoS mechanism in UMTS
QoS in UMTS network
UTRAN mechanism
UMTS QoS concept

Quality of Service (QoS) refers to the


collective effect of service performance
that determines the degree of satisfaction
of the end-user of the service.
UMTS QoS concept

Why UMTS QoS is so important


-1G cellular system (AMPS)
Analog voice/ circuit switch
-2G cellular system (GSM)
Digital voice/circuit switch
-2.5G cellular system (GPRS)
Digital data/ packet switch
Address QoS issues but not required to implement.
-3G cellular system (wcdma)
Digital voice/data/ packet switch
QoS features are designed in and ready for providing packet
multi-medium service. Cellular system can server as mobile
internet.
UMTS QoS concept

UMTS QoS classes(1) :

Conversational class
speech, video telephony
most delay sensitive

Streaming class
can tolerate some delay
jitter should be minimized

Interactive class
web browsing
less stringent delay
better error rate
UMTS QoS concept

UMTS QoS classe(2) :

Background class
Email, downloads
Error rate minimized
Lower priority in scheduling than interactive class
Uses resource only when interactive class dont need
the them
UMTS QoS concept

UMTS QoS classe(3) :


Bit error
tolerant

conversational

streaming

interactive

background

Delay tolerant
UMTS QoS concept

Qos impact on resources

Required Required
Network Buffering
Resources Resources

Delay Delay
UMTS QoS concept

QoS attibutes(1):
Traffic Class:
Conversational , Streaming, Interactive, Background;
Traffic class indicates the type of application for which
the UMTS bears is optimized.
Max Bit Rate
Maximum bit rate is defined as maximum number of bits
delivered by the UMTS and within a period of time,
divided by the duration of the period.
Guaranteed Bit Rate
Guaranteed bit rate is defined as the guaranteed number
of bits delivered by the UMTS within a period of time,
divided by the duration of the period.
UMTS QoS concept

QoS attibutes(2):
Delivery Order
Delivery order indicates whether the UMTS bearer
service should offer in-sequence SDU delivery or not.
Max SDU Size
Maximum SDU size indicates the maximum allowed
size of an SDU.
Transfer Delay
Transfer delay is defined as the maximum delay for the
95th percentile of the distribution of delay for all
delivered SDUs during the lifetime of the bearer service.
UMTS QoS concept

QoS attibutes(3):
SDU Format Information
List of possible exact sizes of SDUs.
SDU Error Ratio
SDU error is defined as the fraction of lost or erroneous
SDUs.
Residual Bit Error Ratio
Residual bit error ratio indicates the undetected bit error
ratio in the delivered SDUs if error detection has been
requested, otherwise it indicates the bit error ratio (BER)
in the delivered SDUs.
UMTS QoS concept

QoS attibutes(4):
Delivery of Erroneous SDUs
Indicates whether SDUs detected as erroneous shall be
delivered or discarded
Traffic Handle Priority
Specifies the relative importance for handling of all
SDUs belonging to the UMTS bearer compared to the
SDUs of other bearers.
Allocation/Retention Priority
Specifies the relative importance compared to other
UMTS bearers for allocation and retention of the UMTS
bearer. The Allocation/Retention Priority attribute is a
subscription attribute which is not negotiated from the
mobile terminal.
UMTS QoS concept
Call Setup Quality:
Accessibility
No coverage
Network equipment down
Cell barred
Generic call setup failure (signaling or other reason)
Call Blocking Probability
A blocking event occurs when the network
admission controller denies the users access
attempt.
Call Setup Delay
The call setup delay is measured from the time
instant when the user places an access request, or
query, to the instant when the user data exchange
become possible with the other end of the call
entity.
UMTS QoS concept

Call Quality ( Key parameters are covered by QoS Atributes )


Acceptable Delay Variation

This is used to define how much jitter the


application can tolerate, beyond which the packet
is treated as being lost.
Acceptable Transport Service Interruption Duration

This defines to what degree an interrupt to


transport services is regarded as acceptable,
provided it happens only occasionally during a call.
Call Drop Probability

A call drop is defined as an event where the


communication connection has
UMTS QoS

CONTENT:
UMTS QoS concept
QoS requirement on UMTS
QoS mechanism in UMTS
QoS in UMTS network
UTRAN mechanism
QoS requirement on UMTS

Error Conversational Streaming audio


Voice messaging Fax
tolerant voice and video and video

E-commerce, E-mail arrival notification


Error Telnet, WWW browsing, FTP, still image,
notification
intolerant interactive games paging

Conversational Interactive Streaming Background


(delay <<1 sec) (delay approx.1 sec) (delay <10 sec) (delay >10 sec)
QoS requirement on UMTS
QoS attributers (Profile) :
Traffic class conversation Streaming Interactive Backgroun
al class class class d class
Maximum bit rate
< 2048 < 2048 < 2048 < 2048
(kbps)
Delivery order Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No
Maximum SDU size <=1500 <=1500 <=1500 <=1500
Delivery of
Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No
erroneous SDU
Residual BER 5*10-2 10-6 5*10-2 10-6 4*10-3 6*10-8 4*10-3 6*10-9
SDU error ratio 10-2 10-5 10-1 10-5 10-3 10-6 10-3 10-6
Transfer delay 100ms upto FFS 250ms upto FFS
Guaranteed bit rate < 2048 < 2048
Traffic handling
1,2,3
priority
Allocation and
1,2,3 1,2,3 1,2,3 1,2,3
retention priority
QoS requirement on UMTS
QoS example(1):
AMR speech codec payload
Bit rate: 4,75 - 12,2 kbit/s
Delay: end-to-end delay not to exceed 300ms
BER: < 10-3
FER < 1 % (with graceful degradation for higher erasure
rates)
QoS requirement on UMTS
QoS example(2):
Videophone carries both video and audio and intended for
use in a conversational environment. As such, in principle
the same delay requirements as for conversational voice will
apply, In fact, due to the long delays incurred in even the
latest video codecs, it will be difficult to meet these
requirements.
Once again, the human eye is tolerant to some loss of
information, so that some degree of packet loss is acceptable
depending on the specific video coder and amount of error
protection used. It is expected that the latest video codecs
will provide acceptable video quality with frame erasure
rates up to about 1%.
UMTS QoS

CONTENT:
UMTS QoS concept
QoS requirement on UMTS
QoS mechanism in UMTS
QoS in UMTS network
QoS mechanism in UTRAN
QoS in UMTS

QoS profile configuration:


UE RNC SGSN GGSN HLR Subscriber#1

PDP context #3
PDP context #2
PDP context #1
-----------------
PDP context ID
APN
Qos Profile
UMTS QOS Classes :
Conversational class
Steaming class
Interactive class
Background class
QoS in UMTS network

General idea: 2 Attach


1 Subscribe time
UE RNC SGSN GGSN HLR
PDP
cont
ext

3 PDP Context Activation

3 IP Qos mapping & establishment


5 RL/RB estabilishment 4 RAB establishment

5 RRM to map QoS to channals 4 QoS map to radio access bearers

5 PDP modification

5 IP-QoS remapping if required


QoS in UMTS network

Subscribers attach to net work

Subscriber#1
PDP context #3
PDP context #2

PDP context #1 Subscriber#1


-----------------
PDP context ID
APN
PDP address PDP context #3
Qos Profile
PDP context #2
UE SGSN GGSN HLR PDP context #1
-----------------
PDP context ID
1.Attach Req APN
2.Insert Sub.Data
Qos Profile
3.Insert sub. Data Ack
4.Attach Acpt
QoS in UMTS network
Admission control and QoS session establishment:
Subscriber#1

PDP context #3
PDP context #2

PDP context #1
-----------------
PDP context ID

RNC SGSN
APN
PDP address
GGSN Host
UE Qos Profile

1 Activate PDP Context Req (QoS Req)


2 Activate PDP Context Req (QoS Neq)
SGSN may restrict requested QoS
Given its capabilities, load and the 3 Activate PDP Context Rsp (QoS Neq)
Subscribed QoS

SGSN selects radio priority based on GGSN may further restrict the
QoS negotiated QoS given its capabilities and
4 RAB Setup (QoS Neg) load

5 RL/RB Establishment
RRM Algorithms

6 RAB Est.Rsp
QoS in UMTS network
Admission control and QoS session establishment:
Subscriber#1
PDP context #3
PDP context #2

PDP context #1
-----------------
PDP context ID
APN

RNC SGSN PDP address GGSN Host


UE Qos Profile

In case QoS was downgraded by RNC , SGSN


may inform GGSN about the new QoS 7 Update PDP Context Req (QoS Neq)

8 Update PDP Context Rsp (QoS Neq)

9 Active PDP context Acpt (QoS Neg)

MS either accepts the QoS or


deactivates the PDP context
QoS in UMTS network
Inter SGSN RA update:

RNC New SGSN Old SGSN GGSN


UE

1 RA Update Req
2 SGSN Context Req/Ack.(QoS profile)

3 Update PDP Context Req (QoS Neq)

4 Update PDP Context Rsp (QoS Neq)

5 RA Update Acpt / Complete


QoS in UMTS network
Serving RNC Relocation:

UE Source RNC Target RNC Old SGSN New SGSN GGSN


1 Relocation required (Source ID, target ID, SRNC-TRNC container)

2 Forward Rel. Req( PDP Context)

3 Relocation Req (SRNC-TRNC container,RABS)

Establishment of RABs, RBs


4 Relocation Req ack ( RABS ok, RABS fail)

5 Forward Rel. Rsp


6 Relocation command

7 Relocation commit

8 Relocation of data
QoS in UMTS network
Serving RNC Relocation:

UE Source RNC Target RNC Old SGSN New SGSN GGSN


9 Relocation detect
10 Update PDP context Req
(Qos.neq)
11 Update PDP context Rsp

12 Relocation Comlete

13 Forward Rel. comp

14 Forward Rel. comp.ack


15 Iu release command

16 Iu release complete
UMTS QoS

CONTENT:
UMTS QoS concept
QoS requirement on UMTS
QoS mechanism in UMTS
QoS in UMTS network
QoS mechanism in UTRAN
QoS mechanism in UTRAN
Radio interface protocals:
RRC L3
User Plane Radio Bearers

PDCP
BMC
Signaling
Radio Bearers

RLC L2

Logical channel

MAC

Transport channel
L1
PHY
QoS mechanism in UTRAN

PDCP

Packet data convergence protocol :


Header compression and decompression of IP data
stream.
Maintenance of PDCP sequence number for radio
bearers that are configured to support lossless SRNS
relocation.
QoS mechanism in UTRAN

RLC

RLC mode
Transparent mode : no overhead is added to higher layer
data.
Unacknowledged mode: no retransmission protocol is
used and data delivery in not guaranteed.
Acknowledged mode: Automatic repeat request (ARQ)
mechanism is used for error correction.
RLC function:
segmentation and reassemble ;
ARQ error correction
ciphering
QoS mechanism in UTRAN

MAC function:
Priority handling between different data flow is done by MAC;
Transport Formation Selection , It control transport format for
each flow.

TFC
TFS

TF
TFCS

TrCH#1 TrCH#2 TrCH#3 TrCH#4


QoS mechanism in UTRAN

Mapping from QoS attributers to radio resource

Prameters value Radio resource mapping

Maximum bit rate (kbps) 128 Spreading factor =16

Maximum SDU size 1500 map to transport format


1/3 Turbo codec,
Residual BER 10-6
Acknowledged RLC

Delivery of erroneous SDU No RLC configuration

Transfer delay Na interlever 10-80 ms

Guaranteed bit rate 64 Spreading factor =64

Set appropriate threshold


SDU error ratio 1% for open loop power
control
delivery order yes RLC configuration