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SCIENCE

Measurement

and Calculations

What is Science?

Science derived from Latin to know

Way of asking and answering questions

Seeking answers to questions about

natural phenomena (we are therefore

limited to what kinds of questions we ask)

Scientific thinking reduces emotional

reactions

What is a Science?

experimental investigation, and theoretical

explanation of natural phenomena.

observe

identify describe

Natural

Phenomena

experimentally theoretically

investigate explain

Forms of Scientific Inquiry

Discovery or Descriptive Science

Observation

Qualitative vs. Quantitative data

Hypothesis-Based Science

Types of Logic

Inductive Reasoning

Derive generalizations based on specific

observations

Deductive Reasoning

- Specific predictions follow from general

premise

The Scientific Method

involves a series of

steps that are used

to investigate a

natural occurrence.

We shall take a

closer look at these

steps and the

terminology you

will need to

understand before

you start a science

project.

Problem/Question

Observation/Research

Formulate a Hypothesis

Experiment

Collect and Analyze Results

Conclusion

Communicate the Results

Steps of the

Scientific Method

1. Problem/Question: Develop a

question or problem that can be

solved through experimentation.

Steps of the

Scientific Method

2. Observation/Research: Make

observations and research your

topic of interest.

Steps of the

Scientific Method

3. Formulate a Hypothesis: Predict

a possible answer to the problem

or question.

Steps of the

Scientific Method

4. Experiment: Develop and follow

a procedure.

Include a detailed materials list.

The outcome must be measurable

(quantifiable).

Steps of the

Scientific Method

5. Collect and Analyze Results:

Modify the procedure if needed.

Confirm the results by retesting.

Include tables, graphs, and

photographs.

Steps of the

Scientific Method

6. Conclusion: Include a statement

that accepts or rejects the

hypothesis.

Make recommendations for

further study and possible

improvements to the procedure.

Steps of the

Scientific Method

7. Communicate the Results: Be

prepared to present the project

to an audience.

Expect questions from the

audience.

Think you can name all

seven steps?

Collect

Formulate

Communicate

Observation/Research

Problem/Question

and

Experiment

Conclusion

Analyze

a Hypothesis

the Results

Lets put our knowledge of the

Scientific Method to a realistic

example that includes some of the

terms youll be needing to use and

understand.

Problem/Question

John watches his

grandmother bake

bread. He ask his

grandmother what

makes the bread rise.

She explains that yeast

releases a gas as it feeds

on sugar.

Problem/Question

amount of sugar used in

the recipe will affect the

size of the bread loaf?

Observation/Research

John researches the areas

of baking and

fermentation and tries

to come up with a way

to test his question.

He keeps all of his

information on this

topic in a journal.

John talks with his

teacher and she gives

him a Experimental

Design Diagram to help

him set up his

investigation.

Formulate a Hypothesis

After talking with his

teacher and conducting

further research, he

comes up with a

hypothesis.

If more sugar is added,

then the bread will rise

higher.

Hypothesis

The hypothesis is an educated

guess about the relationship

between the independent and

dependent variables.

Note: These variables will be

defined in the next few slides.

Do you know the difference

between the independent and

dependent variables?

Independent Variable

The independent, or manipulated

variable, is a factor thats

intentionally varied by the

experimenter.

John is going to use 25g., 50g.,

100g., 250g., 500g. of sugar in his

experiment.

Dependent Variable

The dependent, or responding

variable, is the factor that may

change as a result of changes

made in the independent variable.

In this case, it would be the size of

the loaf of bread.

Experiment

His teacher helps him

come up with a

procedure and list of

needed materials.

She discusses with John

how to determine the

control group.

Control Group

In a scientific experiment, the

control is the group that serves as

the standard of comparison.

The control group may be a no

treatment" or an experimenter

selected group.

Control Group

The control group is exposed to

the same conditions as the

experimental group, except for the

variable being tested.

All experiments should have a

control group.

Control Group

Because his grandmother always

used 50g. of sugar in her recipe,

John is going to use that amount in

his control group.

Constants

Johns teacher reminds

him to keep all other

factors the same so that

any observed changes in

the bread can be

attributed to the

variation in the amount

of sugar.

Constants

The constants in an

experiment are all the

factors that the

experimenter attempts

to keep the same.

Can you think of some

constants for this experiment?

Constants

They might include:

Other ingredients to the bread

recipe, oven used, rise time,

brand of ingredients, cooking

time, type of pan used, air

temperature and humidity

where the bread was rising,

oven temperature, age of the

yeast

Experiment

John writes out his

procedure for his

experiment along with a

materials list in his

journal. He has both of

these checked by his

teacher where she

checks for any safety

concerns.

Trials

groups that are exposed

to the same conditions in

an experiment.

John is going to test each

sugar variable 3 times.

Collect and Analyze Results

John comes up with a

table he can use to

record his data.

John gets all his

materials together

and carries out his

experiment.

Size of Baked Bread (LxWxH) cm3

Trials

Amt. of Average

1 2 3

Sugar (g.) Size (cm3)

Control group

Collect and Analyze Results

John examines his data

and notices that his

control worked the

best in this experiment,

but not significantly

better than 100g. of

sugar.

Conclusion

John rejects his

hypothesis, but

decides to re-test

using sugar amounts

between 50g. and

100g.

Experiment

his materials and carries

out his experiment.

Here are the results.

Can you tell which group

did the best?

Size of Baked Bread (LxWxH) cm3

Trials

Amt. of Average

1 2 3

Sugar (g.) Size (cm3)

Control group

Conclusion

John finds that 70g. of

sugar produces the

largest loaf.

His hypothesis is

accepted.

Communicate the Results

John tells his

grandmother about

his findings and

prepares to present

his project in Science

class.

Scientific Method in Action

Example:

You got in your car to drive up here and

turned the key but the car wouldnt start

(observation)

Scientific Method in Action

Example:

You got in your car to drive up here and

turned the key but the car wouldnt start

(observation)

Hypothesis: There is something wrong with

the car

Scientific Method in Action

Example:

You got in your car to drive up here and

turned the key but the car wouldnt start

(observation)

Hypothesis: There is something wrong with

the car

Predictions: battery dead, ignition problem,

out of gas

Scientific Method in Action

Test predictions: turn on headlights,

check spark plug wires, dip stick in gas

tank

Scientific Method in Action

Test predictions: turn on headlights,

check spark plug wires, dip stick in gas

tank

Analyze results: headlights work, strong

ignition spark, no gas on dip stick-gas

gauge reads half full

Scientific Method in Action

Test predictions: turn on headlights,

check spark plug wires, dip stick in gas

tank

Analyze results: headlights work, strong

ignition spark, no gas on dip stick-gas

gauge reads half full

Draw conclusion: gauge inaccurate, out of

gas

Nature of Measurement

Measurement - quantitative observation

consisting of 2 parts

Part 1 - number

Part 2 - scale (unit)

Examples:

20 grams

6.63 x 10-34 Joule seconds

The Fundamental SI Units

(le Systme International, SI)

Mass kilogram kg

Length meter m

Time second s

Temperature Kelvin K

Electric Current Ampere A

Amount of Substance mole mol

Luminous Intensity candela cd

SI Units

Prefixes and Numerical Values for SI Units

Power of 10

Prefix Symbol Numerical Value Equivalent

exa E 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 1018

peta P 1,000,000,000,000,000 1015

tera T 1,000,000,000,000 1012

giga G 1,000,000,000 109

mega M 1,000,000 106

kilo k 1,000 103

hecto h 100 102

deca da 10 101

1 100

58

Prefixes and Numerical Values for SI Units

Power of 10

Prefix Symbol Numerical Value Equivalent

deci d 0.1 10-1

centi c 0.01 10-2

milli m 0.001 10-3

micro 0.000001 10-6

nano n 0.000000001 10-9

pico p 0.000000000001 10-12

femto f 0.00000000000001 10-15

atto a 0.000000000000000001 10-18

59

Precision and Accuracy

Accuracy refers to the agreement of a

particular value with the true value.

Precision refers to the degree of agreement

among several measurements made in the same

manner.

accurate nor accurate accurate

precise

Rules for Counting Significant

Figures - Details

Nonzero integers always count as

significant figures.

3456 has

4 sig figs.

Rules for Counting Significant

Figures - Details

Zeros

- Leading zeros do not count as

significant figures.

0.0486 has

3 sig figs.

Rules for Counting Significant

Figures - Details

Zeros

- Captive zeros always count as

significant figures.

16.07 has

4 sig figs.

Rules for Counting Significant

Figures - Details

Zeros

Trailing zeros are significant only

if the number contains a decimal

point.

9.300 has

4 sig figs.

Rules for Counting Significant

Figures - Details

Exact numbers have an infinite

number of significant figures.

Exact Numbers

operations

5

4

3

2

1

Defined numbers are exact.

12 inches

100 centimeters

= 1 foot

= 1 meter

66

Sig Fig Practice #1

How many significant figures in each of the following?

17.10 kg 4 sig figs

0.0054 cm 2 sig figs

3,200,000 2 sig figs

Rounding Off Numbers

Often when calculations are performed

extra digits are present in the results.

It is necessary to drop these extra digits so

as to express the answer to the correct

number of significant figures.

When digits are dropped the value of the

last digit retained is determined by a

process known as rounding off

numbers.

68

Rounding Off Numbers

want to retain is 4 or less, that digit and all

others to its right are dropped. The last digit

retained is not changed.

4 or

less

80.873

69

Rounding Off Numbers

want to retain is 4 or less, that digit and all

others to its right are dropped. The last digit

retained is not changed.

4 or

less

1.875377

70

Rounding Off Numbers

want to retain is 5 or greater, that digit and all

others to its right are dropped. The last digit

retained is increased by 1.

increase

5

drop by 1 figures

or greater

these

5.459672

6

71

Rules for Significant Figures in

Mathematical Operations

in the result equals the number in the

least precise measurement used in the

calculation.

6.38 x 2.0 =

12.76 13 (2 sig figs)

2.3 has two significant figures.

(190.6)(2.3) = 438.38

190.6 has four significant

Answer given by

figures.

calculator.

because 2.3 is the number with the fewest significant

figures.

Round off this digit to

digits.

four.

438.38

The correct answer is 440 or 4.4 x 102 73

Rules for Significant Figures in

Mathematical Operations

Addition and Subtraction: The

number of decimal places in the result

equals the number of decimal places in

the least precise measurement.

6.8 + 11.934 =

18.734 18.7 (3 sig figs)

Add 125.17, 129 and 52.2

Least precise number.

125.17

Answer given by 129.

calculator.

52.2

306.37

Round off to the nearest

Correct answer.

unit.

306.37

75

1.039 - 1.020

Calculate Answer given by

1.039 calculator.

1.039 - 1.020

= 0.018286814

1.039 Two significant

figures.

Drop these 6 digits.

0.019

= 0.018286814

1.039

The answer should have two significant figures

because 0.019 is the number with the fewest

0.018286814

significant figures.

76

1.039 - 1.020

Calculate Answer given by

1.039 calculator.

1.039 - 1.020

= 0.018286814

1.039 Two significant

figures.

1.039 - 1.020 = 0.019

0.019

= 0.018286814 0.018286814

0.018286814

1.039

The answer should have two significant figures

Drop these 6

because 0.019 is the number with the fewest Correct answer.

digits.

significant figures.

77

Sig Fig Practice #2

Calculation Calculator says: Answer

3.24 m x 7.0 m 22.68 m2 23 m2

100.0 g 23.7 cm3 4.219409283 g/cm3 4.22 g/cm3

0.02 cm x 2.371 cm 0.04742 cm2 0.05 cm2

710 m 3.0 s 236.6666667 m/s 240 m/s

1818.2 lb x 3.23 ft 5872.786 lbft 5870 lbft

1.030 g 2.87 mL 2.9561 g/mL 2.96 g/mL

Sig Fig Practice #3

Calculation Calculator says: Answer

3.24 m + 7.0 m 10.24 m 10.2 m

100.0 g - 23.73 g 76.27 g 76.3 g

0.02 cm + 2.371 cm 2.391 cm 2.39 cm

713.1 L - 3.872 L 709.228 L 709.2 L

1818.2 lb + 3.37 lb 1821.57 lb 1821.6 lb

2.030 mL - 1.870 mL 0.16 mL 0.160 mL

Scientific Notation

LARGE numbers:

1 mole = 602000000000000000000000

SMALL numbers:

Mass of an electron =

0.000000000000000000000000000000091 kg

Imagine the difficulty of calculating

the mass of 1 mole of electrons!

0.000000000000000000000000000000091 kg

x 602000000000000000000000

???????????????????????????????????

Scientific Notation:

A method of representing very large or

very small numbers in the form:

M x 10n

n is an integer

2 500 000 000 .

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Step #1: Insert an understood decimal point

Step #2: Decide where the decimal must end

up so that one number is to its left

Step #3: Count how many places you bounce

the decimal point

Step #4: Re-write in the form M x 10n

2.5 x 109

number of places we

moved the decimal.

0.0000579

1 2 3 4 5

up so that one number is to its left

Step #3: Count how many places you bounce

the decimal point

Step #4: Re-write in the form M x 10n

5.79 x 10 -5

because the number we

started with was less

than 1.

Dimensional Analysis

unit to another by using conversion

factors.

87

Basic Steps

1. Read the problem carefully. Determine

what is to be solved for and write it down.

2. Tabulate the data given in the problem.

Label all factors and measurements with the

proper units.

88

Basic Steps

3. Determine which principles are involved

and which unit relationships are needed

to solve the problem.

You may need to refer to tables for needed

data.

4. Set up the problem in a neat, organized

and logical fashion.

Make sure unwanted units cancel.

Use sample problems in the text as guides

for setting up the problem.

89

Basic Steps

5. Proceed with the necessary mathematical

operations.

Make certain that your answer contains the

proper number of significant figures.

6. Check the answer to make sure it is

reasonable.

90

Measurement of Length

91

Metric Units of Length

Exponential

Unit Abbreviation Metric Equivalent Equivalent

kilometer km 1,000 m 103 m

meter m 1m 100 m

decimeter dm 0.1 m 10-1 m

centimeter cm 0.01 m 10-2 m

millimeter mm 0.001 m 10-3 m

micrometer m 0.000001 m 10-6 m

nanometer nm 0.000000001 m 10-9 m

angstrom 0.0000000001 m 10-10 m

92

How many millimeters are there in 2.5

meters?

The conversion factor must

unit x conversion factor

accomplish two things:

1 = unit2

m x conversion factor = mm

It must cancel It must introduce

meters. millimeters

93

The conversion factor takes a fractional form.

mm

mx = mm

m

94

Convert 2.5 meters to millimeters.

Use the conversion factor with millimeters in the

numerator and meters in the denominator.

1000 mm

2.5 m x = 2500 mm

1m 3

2.5 x 10 mm

95

Convert 16.0 inches to centimeters.

96

Convert 16.0 inches to centimeters.

Use this

conversion

factor

2.54 cm

1 in

2.54 cm

16.0 in x = 40.6 cm

1 in

97

Convert 3.7 x 10 3 cm to micrometers.

micrometers by writing down conversion

factors in succession.

cm m

meters

3 1m 10 m

6

3.7 x 10 cm x x = 3.7 x 10 m

7

100 cm 1m

98

Convert 3.7 x 10 3 cm to micrometers.

micrometers by two stepwise conversions.

cm m

meters

3 1m 1

3.7 x 10 cm x = 3.7 x 10 m

100 cm

1 10 m 6

3.7 x 10 m x = 3.7 x 10 m

7

1m

99

Measurement of Mass

100

Metric Units of mass

Exponential

Unit Abbreviation Gram Equivalent Equivalent

kilogram kg 1,000 g 103 g

gram g 1g 100 g

decigram dg 0.1 g 10-1 g

centigram cg 0.01 g 10-2 g

milligram mg 0.001 g 10-3 g

microgram g 0.000001 g 10-6 g

101

Convert 45 decigrams to grams.

1 g = 10 dg

1g

45 dg x = 4.5 g

10 dg

102

Example 2: An atom of hydrogen weighs 1.674 x 10-24

g. How many ounces does the atom weigh?

series of stepwise conversions.

1 lb = 454 g

1 lb

1.674 x 10 -24

gx 3.69 x 10 lb

-27

454 g

16 oz = 1 lb

16 oz

3.69 x 10 -27

lb x 5.90 x 10 -26

oz

1 lb 103

Example 2: An atom of hydrogen weighs 1.674 x 10-24

g. How many ounces does the atom weigh?

linear expression by writing down

conversion factors in succession.

1 lb 16 oz

-24

1.674 x 10 g x x 5.90 x 10 -26

oz

454 g 1 lb

104

Measurement of Volume

105

Volume is the amount of space

occupied by matter.

In the SI system the standard unit of

volume is the cubic meter (m3).

The liter (L) and milliliter (mL) are the

standard units of volume used in most

chemical laboratories.

106

107

Convert 4.61 x 10 2 microliters to

milliliters.

Microliters can be converted to milliliters by

a series of stepwise conversions.

L L mL

1L

4.61x10 L 2

x 4.61x10-4

L

10 L

6

-4 1000 mL -1

4.61x10 L x = 4.61 x 10 mL

1L

108

Convert 4.61 x 10 2 microliters to

milliliters.

Microliters can be converted to milliliters

using a linear expression by writing down

conversion factors in succession.

L L mL

1L 1000 mL

4.61x10 L x 6

2

x -1

= 4.61 x 10 mL

10 L 1L

109

Measurement of

Temperature

110

Heat

A form of energy that is associated with

the motion of small particles of matter.

Heat refers to the quantity of this energy

associated with the system.

System is the entity that is being heated

or cooled.

111

Temperature

It does not depend on the size of the

system.

Heat always flows from a region of higher

temperature to a region of colder

temperature.

112

Temperature Measurement

Celsius and Fahrenheit.

In the laboratory temperature is commonly

measured with a thermometer.

113

Degree Symbols

degrees Celsius = oC

Kelvin (absolute) = K

degrees Fahrenheit = oF

114

To convert between the scales use the

following relationships.

o

K = C + 273.15

o o o

F = 1.8 x C + 32

o

o o F - 32

o o

F C- 32

= = 1.8 x C

1.8

115

180 Farenheit Degrees

= 100 Celcius degrees

180

=1.8

100

116

It is not uncommon for temperatures in the Canadian

planes to reach 60oF and below during the winter.

What is this temperature in oC and K?

o

o F - 32

C=

1.8

o 60. - 32 o

C= = -51 C

1.8

117

It is not uncommon for temperatures in the Canadian

planes to reach 60oF and below during the winter.

What is this temperature in oC and K?

o

K = C + 273.15

o

K = -51 C + 273.15 = 222 K

118

Density

119

Density is the ratio

of the mass of a mass

substance to the d=

volume occupied by volume

that substance.

120

Mass is ofusually

The density

expressed

gases is

in grams

gramsper

g

expressed in

and

liter.volume in ml or

ddd=== 3

cm3. mL

cm

L

121

Density varies with temperature

4oC 1.0000 g g

d H 2O = = 1.0000

1.0000 mL mL

o

80 C 1.0000 g g

d H 2O = = 0.97182

1.0290 mL mL

122

123

124

Examples

125

A 13.5 mL sample of an unknown liquid has a mass of

12.4 g. What is the density of the liquid?

M 12.4g

D 0.919 g/mL

V 13.5mL

126

A graduated cylinder is filled to the 35.0 mL mark with water. A

copper nugget weighing 98.1 grams is immersed into the cylinder and

the water level rises to the 46.0 mL. What is the volume of the

copper nugget? What is the density of copper?

M 98.1g 46.0 mL

D 8.92 g/mL

35.0 mL

V 11.0 mL

98.1 g

127

The density of ether is 0.714 g/mL. What is the

mass of 25.0 milliliters of ether?

Method 1

(a) Solve the density equation for mass.

mass

d= mass = density x volume

volume

(b) Substitute the data and calculate.

0.714 g

25.0 mL x = 17.9 g

mL 128

The density of ether is 0.714 g/mL. What is the

mass of 25.0 milliliters of ether?

Method 2 Dimensional Analysis. Use density as a

conversion factor. Convert: mL g

g

The conversion of units mL x =g

is mL

0.714 g

25.0 ml x = 17.9 g

mL

129

The density of oxygen at 0oC is 1.429 g/L. What is the

volume of 32.00 grams of oxygen at this temperature?

Method 1

(a) Solve the density equation for volume.

mass mass

d= volume =

volume density

(b) Substitute the data and calculate.

32.00 g O2

volume = = 22.40 L

1.429 g O2 /L 130

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