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PHYSICAL

SCIENCE
Measurement
and Calculations

Cartoon courtesy of NearingZero.net


What is Science?
Science derived from Latin to know
Way of asking and answering questions
Seeking answers to questions about
natural phenomena (we are therefore
limited to what kinds of questions we ask)
Scientific thinking reduces emotional
reactions
What is a Science?

The observation, identification, description,


experimental investigation, and theoretical
explanation of natural phenomena.
observe
identify describe

Natural
Phenomena

experimentally theoretically
investigate explain
Forms of Scientific Inquiry
Discovery or Descriptive Science
Observation
Qualitative vs. Quantitative data
Hypothesis-Based Science
Types of Logic
Inductive Reasoning
Derive generalizations based on specific
observations
Deductive Reasoning
- Specific predictions follow from general
premise
The Scientific Method
involves a series of
steps that are used
to investigate a
natural occurrence.
We shall take a
closer look at these
steps and the
terminology you
will need to
understand before
you start a science
project.
Problem/Question
Observation/Research
Formulate a Hypothesis
Experiment
Collect and Analyze Results
Conclusion
Communicate the Results
Steps of the
Scientific Method
1. Problem/Question: Develop a
question or problem that can be
solved through experimentation.
Steps of the
Scientific Method
2. Observation/Research: Make
observations and research your
topic of interest.
Steps of the
Scientific Method
3. Formulate a Hypothesis: Predict
a possible answer to the problem
or question.
Steps of the
Scientific Method
4. Experiment: Develop and follow
a procedure.
Include a detailed materials list.
The outcome must be measurable
(quantifiable).
Steps of the
Scientific Method
5. Collect and Analyze Results:
Modify the procedure if needed.
Confirm the results by retesting.
Include tables, graphs, and
photographs.
Steps of the
Scientific Method
6. Conclusion: Include a statement
that accepts or rejects the
hypothesis.
Make recommendations for
further study and possible
improvements to the procedure.
Steps of the
Scientific Method
7. Communicate the Results: Be
prepared to present the project
to an audience.
Expect questions from the
audience.
Think you can name all
seven steps?

Collect
Formulate
Communicate
Observation/Research
Problem/Question
and
Experiment
Conclusion
Analyze
a Hypothesis
the Results
Lets put our knowledge of the
Scientific Method to a realistic
example that includes some of the
terms youll be needing to use and
understand.
Problem/Question
John watches his
grandmother bake
bread. He ask his
grandmother what
makes the bread rise.
She explains that yeast
releases a gas as it feeds
on sugar.
Problem/Question

John wonders if the


amount of sugar used in
the recipe will affect the
size of the bread loaf?
Observation/Research
John researches the areas
of baking and
fermentation and tries
to come up with a way
to test his question.
He keeps all of his
information on this
topic in a journal.
John talks with his
teacher and she gives
him a Experimental
Design Diagram to help
him set up his
investigation.
Formulate a Hypothesis
After talking with his
teacher and conducting
further research, he
comes up with a
hypothesis.
If more sugar is added,
then the bread will rise
higher.
Hypothesis
The hypothesis is an educated
guess about the relationship
between the independent and
dependent variables.
Note: These variables will be
defined in the next few slides.
Do you know the difference
between the independent and
dependent variables?
Independent Variable
The independent, or manipulated
variable, is a factor thats
intentionally varied by the
experimenter.
John is going to use 25g., 50g.,
100g., 250g., 500g. of sugar in his
experiment.
Dependent Variable
The dependent, or responding
variable, is the factor that may
change as a result of changes
made in the independent variable.
In this case, it would be the size of
the loaf of bread.
Experiment
His teacher helps him
come up with a
procedure and list of
needed materials.
She discusses with John
how to determine the
control group.
Control Group
In a scientific experiment, the
control is the group that serves as
the standard of comparison.
The control group may be a no
treatment" or an experimenter
selected group.
Control Group
The control group is exposed to
the same conditions as the
experimental group, except for the
variable being tested.
All experiments should have a
control group.
Control Group
Because his grandmother always
used 50g. of sugar in her recipe,
John is going to use that amount in
his control group.
Constants
Johns teacher reminds
him to keep all other
factors the same so that
any observed changes in
the bread can be
attributed to the
variation in the amount
of sugar.
Constants

The constants in an
experiment are all the
factors that the
experimenter attempts
to keep the same.
Can you think of some
constants for this experiment?
Constants
They might include:
Other ingredients to the bread
recipe, oven used, rise time,
brand of ingredients, cooking
time, type of pan used, air
temperature and humidity
where the bread was rising,
oven temperature, age of the
yeast
Experiment
John writes out his
procedure for his
experiment along with a
materials list in his
journal. He has both of
these checked by his
teacher where she
checks for any safety
concerns.
Trials

Trials refer to replicate


groups that are exposed
to the same conditions in
an experiment.
John is going to test each
sugar variable 3 times.
Collect and Analyze Results
John comes up with a
table he can use to
record his data.
John gets all his
materials together
and carries out his
experiment.
Size of Baked Bread (LxWxH) cm3

Size of Bread Loaf (cm3)


Trials
Amt. of Average
1 2 3
Sugar (g.) Size (cm3)

25 768 744 761 758

50 1296 1188 1296 1260


Control group

100 1188 1080 1080 1116

250 672 576 588 612

500 432 504 360 432


Collect and Analyze Results
John examines his data
and notices that his
control worked the
best in this experiment,
but not significantly
better than 100g. of
sugar.
Conclusion
John rejects his
hypothesis, but
decides to re-test
using sugar amounts
between 50g. and
100g.
Experiment

Once again, John gathers


his materials and carries
out his experiment.
Here are the results.
Can you tell which group
did the best?
Size of Baked Bread (LxWxH) cm3

Size of Bread Loaf (cm3)


Trials
Amt. of Average
1 2 3
Sugar (g.) Size (cm3)

50 1296 1440 1296 1344


Control group

60 1404 1296 1440 1380

70 1638 1638 1560 1612

80 1404 1296 1296 1332

90 1080 1200 972 1084


Conclusion
John finds that 70g. of
sugar produces the
largest loaf.
His hypothesis is
accepted.
Communicate the Results
John tells his
grandmother about
his findings and
prepares to present
his project in Science
class.
Scientific Method in Action

We use the scientific method in everyday life


Example:
You got in your car to drive up here and
turned the key but the car wouldnt start
(observation)
Scientific Method in Action
Example:
You got in your car to drive up here and
turned the key but the car wouldnt start
(observation)
Hypothesis: There is something wrong with
the car
Scientific Method in Action
Example:
You got in your car to drive up here and
turned the key but the car wouldnt start
(observation)
Hypothesis: There is something wrong with
the car
Predictions: battery dead, ignition problem,
out of gas
Scientific Method in Action
Test predictions: turn on headlights,
check spark plug wires, dip stick in gas
tank
Scientific Method in Action
Test predictions: turn on headlights,
check spark plug wires, dip stick in gas
tank
Analyze results: headlights work, strong
ignition spark, no gas on dip stick-gas
gauge reads half full
Scientific Method in Action
Test predictions: turn on headlights,
check spark plug wires, dip stick in gas
tank
Analyze results: headlights work, strong
ignition spark, no gas on dip stick-gas
gauge reads half full
Draw conclusion: gauge inaccurate, out of
gas
Nature of Measurement
Measurement - quantitative observation

consisting of 2 parts

Part 1 - number
Part 2 - scale (unit)

Examples:
20 grams
6.63 x 10-34 Joule seconds
The Fundamental SI Units
(le Systme International, SI)

Physical Quantity Name Abbreviation


Mass kilogram kg
Length meter m
Time second s
Temperature Kelvin K
Electric Current Ampere A
Amount of Substance mole mol
Luminous Intensity candela cd
SI Units
Prefixes and Numerical Values for SI Units
Power of 10
Prefix Symbol Numerical Value Equivalent
exa E 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 1018
peta P 1,000,000,000,000,000 1015
tera T 1,000,000,000,000 1012
giga G 1,000,000,000 109
mega M 1,000,000 106
kilo k 1,000 103
hecto h 100 102
deca da 10 101
1 100
58
Prefixes and Numerical Values for SI Units
Power of 10
Prefix Symbol Numerical Value Equivalent
deci d 0.1 10-1
centi c 0.01 10-2
milli m 0.001 10-3
micro 0.000001 10-6
nano n 0.000000001 10-9
pico p 0.000000000001 10-12
femto f 0.00000000000001 10-15
atto a 0.000000000000000001 10-18

59
Precision and Accuracy
Accuracy refers to the agreement of a
particular value with the true value.
Precision refers to the degree of agreement
among several measurements made in the same
manner.

Neither Precise but not Precise AND


accurate nor accurate accurate
precise
Rules for Counting Significant
Figures - Details
Nonzero integers always count as
significant figures.

3456 has
4 sig figs.
Rules for Counting Significant
Figures - Details
Zeros
- Leading zeros do not count as

significant figures.

0.0486 has
3 sig figs.
Rules for Counting Significant
Figures - Details
Zeros
- Captive zeros always count as
significant figures.

16.07 has
4 sig figs.
Rules for Counting Significant
Figures - Details
Zeros
Trailing zeros are significant only
if the number contains a decimal
point.

9.300 has
4 sig figs.
Rules for Counting Significant
Figures - Details
Exact numbers have an infinite
number of significant figures.

1 inch = 2.54 cm, exactly


Exact Numbers

Exact numbers occur in simple counting


operations

5
4
3
2
1
Defined numbers are exact.
12 inches
100 centimeters
= 1 foot
= 1 meter
66
Sig Fig Practice #1
How many significant figures in each of the following?

1.0070 m 5 sig figs


17.10 kg 4 sig figs

100,890 L 5 sig figs

3.29 x 103 s 3 sig figs


0.0054 cm 2 sig figs
3,200,000 2 sig figs
Rounding Off Numbers
Often when calculations are performed
extra digits are present in the results.
It is necessary to drop these extra digits so
as to express the answer to the correct
number of significant figures.
When digits are dropped the value of the
last digit retained is determined by a
process known as rounding off
numbers.

68
Rounding Off Numbers

Rule 1. When the first digit after those you


want to retain is 4 or less, that digit and all
others to its right are dropped. The last digit
retained is not changed.

4 or
less

80.873
69
Rounding Off Numbers

Rule 1.When the first digit after those you


want to retain is 4 or less, that digit and all
others to its right are dropped. The last digit
retained is not changed.

4 or
less

1.875377
70
Rounding Off Numbers

Rule 2.When the first digit after those you


want to retain is 5 or greater, that digit and all
others to its right are dropped. The last digit
retained is increased by 1.
increase
5
drop by 1 figures
or greater
these

5.459672
6
71
Rules for Significant Figures in
Mathematical Operations

Multiplication and Division: # sig figs


in the result equals the number in the
least precise measurement used in the
calculation.

6.38 x 2.0 =
12.76 13 (2 sig figs)
2.3 has two significant figures.

(190.6)(2.3) = 438.38
190.6 has four significant
Answer given by
figures.
calculator.

The answer should have two significant figures


because 2.3 is the number with the fewest significant
figures.

Drop these three


Round off this digit to
digits.
four.

438.38
The correct answer is 440 or 4.4 x 102 73
Rules for Significant Figures in
Mathematical Operations
Addition and Subtraction: The
number of decimal places in the result
equals the number of decimal places in
the least precise measurement.

6.8 + 11.934 =
18.734 18.7 (3 sig figs)
Add 125.17, 129 and 52.2
Least precise number.

125.17
Answer given by 129.
calculator.
52.2
306.37
Round off to the nearest
Correct answer.
unit.

306.37
75
1.039 - 1.020
Calculate Answer given by
1.039 calculator.

1.039 - 1.020
= 0.018286814
1.039 Two significant
figures.

1.039 - 1.020 = 0.019


Drop these 6 digits.
0.019
= 0.018286814
1.039
The answer should have two significant figures
because 0.019 is the number with the fewest
0.018286814
significant figures.

76
1.039 - 1.020
Calculate Answer given by
1.039 calculator.

1.039 - 1.020
= 0.018286814
1.039 Two significant
figures.
1.039 - 1.020 = 0.019

0.019
= 0.018286814 0.018286814
0.018286814
1.039
The answer should have two significant figures
Drop these 6
because 0.019 is the number with the fewest Correct answer.
digits.
significant figures.

77
Sig Fig Practice #2
Calculation Calculator says: Answer
3.24 m x 7.0 m 22.68 m2 23 m2
100.0 g 23.7 cm3 4.219409283 g/cm3 4.22 g/cm3
0.02 cm x 2.371 cm 0.04742 cm2 0.05 cm2
710 m 3.0 s 236.6666667 m/s 240 m/s
1818.2 lb x 3.23 ft 5872.786 lbft 5870 lbft
1.030 g 2.87 mL 2.9561 g/mL 2.96 g/mL
Sig Fig Practice #3
Calculation Calculator says: Answer
3.24 m + 7.0 m 10.24 m 10.2 m
100.0 g - 23.73 g 76.27 g 76.3 g
0.02 cm + 2.371 cm 2.391 cm 2.39 cm
713.1 L - 3.872 L 709.228 L 709.2 L
1818.2 lb + 3.37 lb 1821.57 lb 1821.6 lb
2.030 mL - 1.870 mL 0.16 mL 0.160 mL
Scientific Notation

In science, we deal with some very


LARGE numbers:
1 mole = 602000000000000000000000

In science, we deal with some very


SMALL numbers:
Mass of an electron =
0.000000000000000000000000000000091 kg
Imagine the difficulty of calculating
the mass of 1 mole of electrons!

0.000000000000000000000000000000091 kg
x 602000000000000000000000
???????????????????????????????????
Scientific Notation:
A method of representing very large or
very small numbers in the form:
M x 10n

M is a number between 1 and 10


n is an integer
2 500 000 000 .
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Step #1: Insert an understood decimal point
Step #2: Decide where the decimal must end
up so that one number is to its left
Step #3: Count how many places you bounce
the decimal point
Step #4: Re-write in the form M x 10n
2.5 x 109

The exponent is the


number of places we
moved the decimal.
0.0000579
1 2 3 4 5

Step #2: Decide where the decimal must end


up so that one number is to its left
Step #3: Count how many places you bounce
the decimal point
Step #4: Re-write in the form M x 10n
5.79 x 10 -5

The exponent is negative


because the number we
started with was less
than 1.
Dimensional Analysis

Dimensional analysis converts one


unit to another by using conversion
factors.

unit1 x conversion factor = unit2

87
Basic Steps
1. Read the problem carefully. Determine
what is to be solved for and write it down.
2. Tabulate the data given in the problem.
Label all factors and measurements with the
proper units.

88
Basic Steps
3. Determine which principles are involved
and which unit relationships are needed
to solve the problem.
You may need to refer to tables for needed
data.
4. Set up the problem in a neat, organized
and logical fashion.
Make sure unwanted units cancel.
Use sample problems in the text as guides
for setting up the problem.

89
Basic Steps
5. Proceed with the necessary mathematical
operations.
Make certain that your answer contains the
proper number of significant figures.
6. Check the answer to make sure it is
reasonable.

90
Measurement of Length

91
Metric Units of Length
Exponential
Unit Abbreviation Metric Equivalent Equivalent
kilometer km 1,000 m 103 m
meter m 1m 100 m
decimeter dm 0.1 m 10-1 m
centimeter cm 0.01 m 10-2 m
millimeter mm 0.001 m 10-3 m
micrometer m 0.000001 m 10-6 m
nanometer nm 0.000000001 m 10-9 m
angstrom 0.0000000001 m 10-10 m

92
How many millimeters are there in 2.5
meters?
The conversion factor must
unit x conversion factor
accomplish two things:
1 = unit2

m x conversion factor = mm
It must cancel It must introduce
meters. millimeters

93
The conversion factor takes a fractional form.

mm
mx = mm
m

94
Convert 2.5 meters to millimeters.
Use the conversion factor with millimeters in the
numerator and meters in the denominator.

1000 mm
2.5 m x = 2500 mm
1m 3
2.5 x 10 mm

95
Convert 16.0 inches to centimeters.

96
Convert 16.0 inches to centimeters.

Use this
conversion
factor

2.54 cm
1 in
2.54 cm
16.0 in x = 40.6 cm
1 in
97
Convert 3.7 x 10 3 cm to micrometers.

Centimeters can be converted to


micrometers by writing down conversion
factors in succession.
cm m
meters
3 1m 10 m
6
3.7 x 10 cm x x = 3.7 x 10 m
7
100 cm 1m

98
Convert 3.7 x 10 3 cm to micrometers.

Centimeters can be converted to


micrometers by two stepwise conversions.
cm m
meters
3 1m 1
3.7 x 10 cm x = 3.7 x 10 m
100 cm
1 10 m 6
3.7 x 10 m x = 3.7 x 10 m
7
1m
99
Measurement of Mass

100
Metric Units of mass
Exponential
Unit Abbreviation Gram Equivalent Equivalent
kilogram kg 1,000 g 103 g
gram g 1g 100 g
decigram dg 0.1 g 10-1 g
centigram cg 0.01 g 10-2 g
milligram mg 0.001 g 10-3 g
microgram g 0.000001 g 10-6 g

101
Convert 45 decigrams to grams.

1 g = 10 dg

1g
45 dg x = 4.5 g
10 dg

102
Example 2: An atom of hydrogen weighs 1.674 x 10-24
g. How many ounces does the atom weigh?

Grams can be converted to ounces by a


series of stepwise conversions.
1 lb = 454 g

1 lb
1.674 x 10 -24
gx 3.69 x 10 lb
-27
454 g
16 oz = 1 lb

16 oz
3.69 x 10 -27
lb x 5.90 x 10 -26
oz
1 lb 103
Example 2: An atom of hydrogen weighs 1.674 x 10-24
g. How many ounces does the atom weigh?

Grams can be converted to ounces using a


linear expression by writing down
conversion factors in succession.
1 lb 16 oz
-24
1.674 x 10 g x x 5.90 x 10 -26
oz
454 g 1 lb

104
Measurement of Volume

105
Volume is the amount of space
occupied by matter.
In the SI system the standard unit of
volume is the cubic meter (m3).
The liter (L) and milliliter (mL) are the
standard units of volume used in most
chemical laboratories.

106
107
Convert 4.61 x 10 2 microliters to
milliliters.
Microliters can be converted to milliliters by
a series of stepwise conversions.
L L mL
1L
4.61x10 L 2
x 4.61x10-4
L
10 L
6

-4 1000 mL -1
4.61x10 L x = 4.61 x 10 mL
1L
108
Convert 4.61 x 10 2 microliters to
milliliters.
Microliters can be converted to milliliters
using a linear expression by writing down
conversion factors in succession.
L L mL

1L 1000 mL
4.61x10 L x 6
2
x -1
= 4.61 x 10 mL
10 L 1L

109
Measurement of
Temperature

110
Heat
A form of energy that is associated with
the motion of small particles of matter.
Heat refers to the quantity of this energy
associated with the system.
System is the entity that is being heated
or cooled.

111
Temperature

A measure of the intensity of heat.


It does not depend on the size of the
system.
Heat always flows from a region of higher
temperature to a region of colder
temperature.

112
Temperature Measurement

The SI unit of temperature is the Kelvin.

There are three temperature scales: Kelvin,


Celsius and Fahrenheit.
In the laboratory temperature is commonly
measured with a thermometer.

113
Degree Symbols

degrees Celsius = oC
Kelvin (absolute) = K
degrees Fahrenheit = oF

114
To convert between the scales use the
following relationships.

o
K = C + 273.15
o o o
F = 1.8 x C + 32
o
o o F - 32
o o
F C- 32
= = 1.8 x C
1.8
115
180 Farenheit Degrees
= 100 Celcius degrees
180
=1.8
100

116
It is not uncommon for temperatures in the Canadian
planes to reach 60oF and below during the winter.
What is this temperature in oC and K?

o
o F - 32
C=
1.8
o 60. - 32 o
C= = -51 C
1.8
117
It is not uncommon for temperatures in the Canadian
planes to reach 60oF and below during the winter.
What is this temperature in oC and K?

o
K = C + 273.15
o
K = -51 C + 273.15 = 222 K

118
Density

119
Density is the ratio
of the mass of a mass
substance to the d=
volume occupied by volume
that substance.

120
Mass is ofusually
The density
expressed
gases is
in grams
gramsper
g
expressed in
and
liter.volume in ml or
ddd=== 3
cm3. mL
cm
L

121
Density varies with temperature

4oC 1.0000 g g
d H 2O = = 1.0000
1.0000 mL mL
o
80 C 1.0000 g g
d H 2O = = 0.97182
1.0290 mL mL
122
123
124
Examples

125
A 13.5 mL sample of an unknown liquid has a mass of
12.4 g. What is the density of the liquid?

M 12.4g
D 0.919 g/mL
V 13.5mL

126
A graduated cylinder is filled to the 35.0 mL mark with water. A
copper nugget weighing 98.1 grams is immersed into the cylinder and
the water level rises to the 46.0 mL. What is the volume of the
copper nugget? What is the density of copper?

Vcopper nugget = Vfinal - Vinitial = 46.0mL - 35.0mL = 11.0mL

M 98.1g 46.0 mL

D 8.92 g/mL
35.0 mL
V 11.0 mL
98.1 g

127
The density of ether is 0.714 g/mL. What is the
mass of 25.0 milliliters of ether?
Method 1
(a) Solve the density equation for mass.

mass
d= mass = density x volume
volume
(b) Substitute the data and calculate.
0.714 g
25.0 mL x = 17.9 g
mL 128
The density of ether is 0.714 g/mL. What is the
mass of 25.0 milliliters of ether?
Method 2 Dimensional Analysis. Use density as a
conversion factor. Convert: mL g

g
The conversion of units mL x =g
is mL
0.714 g
25.0 ml x = 17.9 g
mL
129
The density of oxygen at 0oC is 1.429 g/L. What is the
volume of 32.00 grams of oxygen at this temperature?

Method 1
(a) Solve the density equation for volume.
mass mass
d= volume =
volume density
(b) Substitute the data and calculate.
32.00 g O2
volume = = 22.40 L
1.429 g O2 /L 130