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HUMAN RESOURCE

MANAGEMENT

HUMAN RESOURCE
PLANNING

CHAPTER NO. 2
AFTER STUDYING THIS CHAPTER YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO:

Understand Human Resource Planning (HRP) and


purpose of HRP.
Identify the relationship between strategy and HRP.
Identify the steps of HR planning process.
Describe the approaches to understand the jobs.
Discuss the phases of job analysis, including what it is and
how its used.
Design model for forecasting HR requirements and
employee requisition form.
Develop job descriptions , including summaries and job
functions, using the Internet and traditional methods by
using Job analysis questionnaire.
Develop job specifications using the Internet as well as
your judgment.
Explain job analysis in a jobless world, including what it
means and how its done in practice.
HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING

The process of analyzing and identifying the need for and


availability of Human Resources so that the Organization
can meet its objectives.

Or

The Process of determining an Organizations human


resources needs.
PURPOSE OF HR PLANNING

To maximize the use of Human Resources


1 and ensure their ongoing development.

To secure the Production Capacity required


2 to support Organizational
objectives.

To synchronize human resources activities


3 with the organizational objectives.

4 To increase the organizations productivity.


HR PLANNING PROCESS
Organizational
Objectives &
Strategies

Scanning the Analyze Internal


External inventory of HR
Environment Capabilities

Forecasting

Organizational Survey of People


Need for People Available

HR Strategies &
Plans
a. LINKING ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGY
TO THE EMPLOYMENT PLANNING

Determining what business


Mission in the organization will be
in.

Objective and
Setting goals and Objectives
Goal

Determining how goals and


Strategy
objectives will be attained

Determining what jobs need to


Structure
be done and by whom

Matching skills, knowledge, and


People
abilities to required jobs
HUMAN RESOUCE
PLANNING PROCESS
b. ENVIRONMENTAL SCANNING:
Process of studying the environment of the organization to
pinpoint opportunities and threats.
HUMAN RESOUCE
PLANNING PROCESS Cont . . .
c. Internal Assessment of the Organizational
Workforce :

Analyzing the jobs that will need to be done and the skills of people
currently available to do them is the next part of HR planning.

i. Auditing Jobs and


Skills

C. Internal Assessment
of the Organizational
Workforce

ii. Organizational
Capabilities Inventory
HUMAN RESOUCE
PLANNING PROCESS Cont . . .

i. Auditing Jobs and Skills :


Following questions are addressed during internal assessment

What jobs exist now?

How many individuals are performing each job?

How essential is each job?

What jobs will be needed in future?


HUMAN RESOUCE
PLANNING PROCESS Cont . . .

ii. Organizational Capabilities Inventory:


By Utilizing different databases in an HRIS ,it is possible to identify the
employees SKAS. planners can use these inventories to determine long
term needs for staffing and HR development.

Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS):

Database systems containing the records and qualifications of each


employee that can be accessed to facilitate employment planning
decisions.
HUMAN RESOUCE
PLANNING PROCESS Cont . . .

Uses of an HR
Information System
(HRIS)
HUMAN RESOURCE
PLANNING PROCESS Cont . . .
d. Forecasting :
Forecasting is the use of Information from the Past and Present to
identify expected future conditions.

FORECASTING

i. Forecasting ii. Forecasting


Demand for Supply for Human
Human Resources Resources
HUMAN RESOURCE
PLANNING PROCESS Cont . . .
i. Forecasting Demand for Human Resources:
1. Organization-wide estimate for total demand.
2. Unit breakdown for specific skill needs by number and type of
employee.
Develop decision rules (fill rates) for positions to be filled
internally and externally.
Develop additional decision rules for positions impacted by the
chain effects of internal promotions and transfers.
HUMAN RESOURCE
PLANNING PROCESS Cont . . .

ii. Forecasting Supply for


Human Resources:

1. Forecasting
External HR Supply

2. Forecasting Internal
HR Supply
HUMAN RESOURCE
PLANNING PROCESS Cont . . .

1. Forecasting External HR Supply


The Following factors affect the External HR Supply.

Individuals Demographics
Technological Developments and Shifts
Actions of Competing Employers
Government Regulations and Pressures
HUMAN RESOURCE
PLANNING PROCESS Cont . . .
1. Forecasting Internal HR Supply:

a. Through Promotions, Lateral Moves, and Terminations.


b. Succession Analysis:
A method used to forecast the supply of people for certain
positions
Replacement Charts (Succession Plans)
Transition Matrix (Markov Matrix)
HUMAN RESOURCE
PLANNING PROCESS Cont . . .
HUMAN RESOURCE
PLANNING PROCESS Cont . . .

Transition Matrix (Markov Matrix)

Line
Job Title Exit Manager Supervisor
Worker

Manager 0.15 0.85 0.00 0.00

Supervisor 0.10 0.15 0.70 0.05

Line
0.20 0.00 0.15 0.65
Worker
HUMAN RESOURCE
PLANNING PROCESS Cont . . .

e. Managing Human Resource Surplus or Shortage :

i. WORKFORCE REALIGNMENT:
Downsizing, Rightsizing, and Reduction in Force (RIF) all
mean reducing the number of employees in an organization.

Weak Product demand, loss of Market Share to


Economic
Competitors.
Technological Change, Mergers and Acquisitions.
Structural
HUMAN RESOURCE
PLANNING PROCESS Cont . . .
f. HR Strategies and Plan :

i. The means used to anticipate and manage the supply of and


demand for human resources.
Provide overall direction for the way in which HR activities
will be developed and managed.

Human
Overall
Resources HR Activities
Strategic Plan
Strategic Plan
f. Employee Requisition Form :

Marie Stopes Society


Wateen Telecom
Fauz
EMPLOYEE
REQUISITION
FORM
EMPLOYEE
REQUISITION
FORM
EMPLOYEE
REQUISITION
FORM
HR MANAGEMENT AND JOBS

1. Job Analysis

2. Job Design Approaches


to
Understand
the Jobs
3. Work Analysis

4. JD & JS
1. Job Analysis:
A Systematic way of gathering and analyzing information about the
Content, Context, and the Human Requirements of jobs.

Phases of Job Analysis

Methods & Uses of Job Analysis


HR MANAGEMENT AND JOBS Cont . . .

The Phases of Job Analysis:


Methods & Uses
of Job Analysis:
HR MANAGEMENT AND JOBS Cont . . .

Components of Job Analysis Questionnaire:


HR MANAGEMENT AND JOBS Cont . . .

2. Job Design:
Organizing tasks, duties, and responsibilities into a productive unit of
work.

Job
Satisfaction

Physical and
Mental Job
Health Performance

JOB
DESIGN
HR MANAGEMENT AND JOBS Cont . . .

3.Workflow Analysis:
A study of the way work (inputs, activities, and outputs) moves through
an organization.

INPUTS ACTIVITIES OUTPUTS

People
Materials Goods and
Tasks and Jobs
Equipment Services

EVALUATION
HR MANAGEMENT AND JOBS Cont . . .

4. Job Descriptions and Job Specifications:

Job Description

Identification of the tasks, Job Specification


duties, and responsibilities
of a job The knowledge, skills, and
abilities (KSAs) an
individual needs to
perform a job satisfactorily.
HR MANAGEMENT AND JOBS Cont . . .

Job Description Components:

Job Title
Knowledge, Skills, and
Reporting Relationship
Abilities
Identification Department Job Specifications Education and Experience
Location
Physical Requirements
Date of Analysis

Describes the jobs


General distinguishing
responsibilities and Disclaimer Of Implied Contract
Summary components

Task
Essential Functions Signature of
Duties -------------------------
and Duties Approvals
Responsibilities
HR MANAGEMENT AND JOBS Cont . . .

Sample of job Description


and Specification:
HR MANAGEMENT AND JOBS Cont . . .
HR MANAGEMENT AND JOBS Cont . . .
HR MANAGEMENT AND JOBS Cont . . .

Job Analysis in a
Jobless World
JOB:
Generally defined as A set of closely related Activities carried out for
Pay.
HR MANAGEMENT AND JOBS Cont . . .

From Specialized to Enlarged Jobs:


JOB
ENRICHMENT
Redesigning jobs in a way that JOB
increases the opportunities for the ENLARGEMENT
worker to experience feelings of
responsibility, achievement, growth, Assigning workers additional same level
and recognition. activities, thus increasing the number of
activities they perform.

JOB
ROTATION

Systematically moving workers from one


job to another to enhance work team
performance.
HR MANAGEMENT AND JOBS Cont . . .

Why Managers are De Jobbing their Companies:

DE JOBBING:
Broadening the responsibilities of the companys jobs.
Encouraging Employee Initiative.

DE JOBBING

Internal factors External factors


leading to De leading to De
Jobbing Jobbing
HR MANAGEMENT AND JOBS Cont . . .

Why Managers are De Jobbing their


Companies:
INTERNAL FACTORS EXTERNAL FACTORS
LEADING TO DE LEADING TO DE
JOBBING JOBBING

Rapid Product and


Flatter Technological Change
Organizations Global Competition
Work Teams Deregulation,
Boundary Less Political Instability,
Organizations Demographic
Reengineering Changes
Rise of a Service
Economy
HR MANAGEMENT AND JOBS Cont . . .

Competency-Based Job Analysis:

COMPETENCY

Demonstrable characteristics of a person that


enable performance of a job.

COMPETENCY- BASED JOB


ANALYSIS

Describing a job in terms of the measurable, observable,


behavioral competencies (knowledge, skills, and/or
behaviors) an employee must exhibit to do a job well.
HR MANAGEMENT AND JOBS Cont . . .

Why Use Competency Analysis?

Traditional job descriptions (with


To Support their lists of specific duties) may
HPWS actually backfire if a high-
performance work system is the goal.

Describing the job in terms of the


Maintain a
Strategic
skills, knowledge, and
Focus competencies the worker needs is
more strategic.

Measurable skills, knowledge, and


Measuring competencies are the heart of any
performance companys performance management
process.
HR MANAGEMENT AND JOBS Cont . . .

Examples of Competencies:

General Reading, Writing, and Mathematical


competencies
reasoning.

Leadership Leadership, Strategic Thinking, and


competencies
Teaching others.

Specific Technical Competencies


Technical
competencies required for specific types of jobs
and/or Occupations.
HR MANAGEMENT AND JOBS Cont . . .

The Skills Matrix for One Job at BP

Note: The light blue boxes indicate the minimum level of skill required for the job.
To Maximize the use of
Human Resources & ensure Human resource CHAPTER : 2
their ongoing development planning
To secure the production
capacity required to support
organizational objectives

To synchronize human
resources activities with the Purpose of HR HR Planning
organizational objectives. Planning Process
To increase the
organizational productivity.

Scanning the Internal Assessment Managing Human Job Analysis in a


Forecasting HR HR Strategies & HR Management &
External of Organizational Resource Surplus or Jobless World
Demand & Supply Plan Jobs
Environment Workforce Shortage

Environment Workforce Workflow From Specialized


Forecasting
Scanning Realignment Inputs Analysis to Enlarged Jobs

Organizational Forecasting
Auditing Jobs Overall Job
Capabilities & Skills
Demand for HR
Strategic Plan
Activities Enlargement
Job Design
inventory
Forecasting
HR Strategies Job
Supply for HR
Plan
Outputs Enrichment
Human Resource Job
Information Satisfaction
System HR Activities Job Rotation
External Supply Job
Getting Performance
Organized Why Managers are De
Internal Supply
Choosing Jobs Job Rotation Jobbing their Companies
Uses of an HRIS Reviewing
System
Knowledge
Selecting Job Competency-Based
JD & JS
Replacement Charts Agents Job Analysis
Transition Matrix Collecting Job
Information
Management Quality Circle Creating a JD Job Analysis
Creating a JS
THOUGHT FOR THE DAY

The Journey to Happiness involves


finding the courage to go down into
ourselves and take responsibility for
what's there: all of it.
(Richard Rohr)