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Simulation and Analysis Methods


PUCT Panel Session

Austin, Nov 19, 2014

Garth Irwin
Electranix Corporation, Winnipeg, Canada

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Presentation Overview

SSR/SSTI/SSCI - Definitions
2009 event of a wind farm near a 345 kV series compensated line
Simulation/Analysis Techniques:
Screening Methods Impedance Scans
Perturbation Analysis
Advanced Multi-Port Perturbation Analysis
Time Domain Non-Linear Analysis
Mitigation Methods
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SS Phenomena - Definitions
SSR: Sub-Synchronous Resonance
Interaction between the mechanical/torsional masses in a generator
(or wind turbine) and the electrical resonance from a series
TA: Torque Amplification: Increase in peak shaft torques
leading to higher fatigue.
SSTI: Sub-Synchronous Torsional Interaction
Interactions between the mechanical/torsional masses in a
generator (or wind turbine) and a power electronic device (such as
an HVDC link, SVC, wind turbine etc).
SSCI: Sub-Synchronous Control Instability
Interactions between a power electronic device (such as an HVDC
link, SVC, wind turbine etc) and a series compensated system. 3
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Sub Synchronous Interactions

Device Series Power Electronics Gas Turbine

Capacitor or
Wind Shaft

Series Capacitor --- SSCI SSR

Power Electronics SSCI CI (control SSTI

interactions can be at
any frequency)
Gas Turbines SSR SSTI ---
or Wind Shaft

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SSCI Event in Texas

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Real System SSCI Event Trace
SSCI Event - PSCAD Studies - Comparison of Simulation to Measured Waveforms (SLG on 345 kV line)
Simulated:High_Side_Volts,_A Real System Measured:VA_345

Simulated:High_Side_Volts,_B Real System Measured:VB_345

Simulated:High_Side_Volts,_C Real System Measured:VC_345

Sec 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 ...

Real System Traces and PSCAD Simulation

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Wind Projects with Series
Compensated Transmission Lines
* Texas 2009 SSCI Event
* North Dakota series capacitor/wind turbines
* Alberta-Montana 230 kV series compensated line
ERCOT CREZ expansion 345 kV series compensated lines
Alberta southern system expansion
Project in Texas with a N-0 radial 345 kV series compensated line
UK large scale transmission expansion
Twin circuit 275 kV series capacitor expansion Australia

* Indicates real-system SSCI events.

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SSCI - Description

Voltages and currents are distorted due to the series

capacitor and electrical resonance
Difficult to filter:
Can be close to 60 Hz
Resonant frequency changes
Distorted inputs signals are processed by turbine controls,
and ultimately fire IGBTs/power electronics (creating a
feedback loop).
Overall controller response can introduce negative
damping, resulting in instabilities (growing or sustained
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SSCI - Description

Doubly Fed Induction Generator Wind Turbine

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SSCI - Description

Rotor Side Currents IRA IRDMeasured
IRB IRQMeasured
C 0

QOrder D + - IRDOrdered D + - URDOrdered
QMeasured IRDMeasured URAOrdered PWM Comparator IGBT_Pulse_A
URBOrdered Firing Pulse Generator IGBT_Pulse_B
P P 0 C
URCOrdered IGBT_Pulse_C
POrder D + - IRQOrdered D + - URQOrdered
PMeasured IRQMeasured

Cascaded PI Controller Outer and Inner PI Loops

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SS Analysis Methods Overview
1. Screening Studies
SSR/SSCI: Harmonic Impedance Scans
SSTI: Unit Interaction Factors
2. Perturbation Analysis
SSR/SSTI: Used to determine generator electrical damping vs freq
SSCI: Used to determine Effective Dynamic Impedance of a power
electronic device
3. Advanced Screening Studied
SSCI: Uses a combination of Harmonic Impedance Scans (linear
portion of a system) and Perturbation Analysis (Effective Dynamic
4. Full Time Domain Analysis
SSR/SSTI/SSCI: Uses fully detailed models of all devices
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SSR/SSCI 1) Screening Studies

Harmonic Impedance Scans

Determine net system impedance (as seen from behind the generator equivalent
impedance) as a function of frequency
Determines approximate frequency of electrical resonance
Impedance dip an approximate indicator of the likelihood of SS interactions
(large dips indicate closer to radial connections transition from positive to
negative reactances)
How should nearby SVC/Statcom/HVDC/non-linear-devices be represented?
What is the equivalent impedance of a wind turbine?
Does SSCI depend on the magnitude of a disturbance/oscillation?
If there are 2 or more wind farms nearby, how does a turbine non-linear controller
affect the impedance as seen from the other farm?
Screening Method used to determine system condition (for later
study with more accurate methods).
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SSR/SSCI 1) Screening Studies
Harmonic Impedance from Generator Bus
for SSR Screening Analysis

MC_0_SC - 1 series comp. line, 35 ohms

MC_0_2xSC_1 - 2 series comp. line, 35 ohms each
MC_0_2xSC_2 - as above, 2nd line not terminated
MC_0_2xSC_3 - 2 series comp. lines, 2nd cap is 47 ohms
MC_0_SC_4 - as above, 1st line out of service

Frequency (Hz)

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2) Perturbation Analysis
Consider open loop transfer function from generator rotor
speed to electrical torque

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2) Perturbation Analysis
Enable PSCAD Multi-mass feature on a generator
Force the speed to be 1 pu plus a small oscillation at 5 Hz (this will
rock the full system at 5 Hz)
Run until steady state in the time domain
Measure the relative magnitude and angle between the electrical torque
and delta W
May require a variable/tuned filter on both Te and W to remove noise and DC, or
(better) use FFT methods.
The electrical damping is the real part of dTe/dW
Compute and store the damping factor for this frequency
Increment the frequency to 6 Hz and repeat
Use multiple run features to sweep from 5 Hz to 55 Hz
Plot damping vs frequency
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2) Perturbation Analysis

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2) Perturbation Analysis
HVDC links can directly affect torsional damping
Not a problem however, as SSDC stabilizers are easy to design and very effective
Should be studied using detailed models (PLL and main PI controls are critical)
SVCs are usually not an SSR concern, however indirect effects
through nearby loads can cause interactions
Interpolation in SVC and HVDC firing controls is essential!
Exciter and governor models are often not validated at torsional
frequencies simplified PSS/E models often are not valid.
Impact with and without mitigation methods can be tested
We always recommend TSRs (torsional stress relays) for all generators
near series caps, HVDC links or SVCs.

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2) Perturbation Analysis
Torsional Damping With and Without SVC

(N-0, Constant Power Loads)

Electrical Damping (pu/rad/sec)

wo SVC

Frequency (Hz, Mechanical)

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2) Perturbation Analysis

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3) SSCI Advanced Screening
Dynamic Effective Impedance
Perturbation Analysis can be used to determine the Dynamic Effective
Impedance of a non-linear device (wind farm):
Perturb voltage with sub-synchronous components
Measure sub-synchronous magnitude and phase of measured terminal current
Impedance (Z) = V/I (performed with complex vectors at each frequency)
Table of Z (R + jX) as a function of frequency
Calculation for wind turbines (Dynamic Effective Impedances) can be
added to linear system impedance (including the series capacitor).
Relatively easy for 1 wind farm connected through 1 port to a series
compensated system.
Can be applied for a 2 port (2 wind farm) scenario:
Requires 3 system harmonic impedance scans for each system conditions
Solve 3 equations in 3 unknowns to device a 2x2 two port linear network
Add wind Dynamic Effective Impedances, solve 2x2 network as seen from each 20
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3) SSCI Advanced Screening
Dynamic Effective Impedance
Dynamic Impedance as seen from the 345 kV Bus
(Varying Perturbation Magnitudes)


500 R - 1 kV
R - 2 kV
R - 3 kV
300 R - 4 kV
R - 5 kV

R - 6 kV
100 R - 10 kV
R - 20 kV
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 R - 30 kV
-100 R - 40 kV
R - 20 kV (Damped)

Frequency (Hz)

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Perturbation Analysis
Limitations for SSCI
Some devices have a damping characteristic which is
magnitude sensitive
Non-linearities in the system and device models are not

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4) Complete System Time Domain Analysis
Ultimate Simulation Model the entire system including
multi-mass shaft models, HVDC/SVC/Statcoms, wind
farms etc
Apply a small signal disturbance and measure log-
decrement (quantify damping)
Apply faults and observe large signal disturbances (and
watch for tripping/ride through)
Time consuming (varying loadflow conditions,
contingencies, wind turbine combinations, two segment
series capacitors)
Used in conjunction with Screening Studies (to focus on
most-concerning cases)
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Mitigation Methods

SSR SSCI SSTI Description

Select other transmission or generator options (higher

voltage AC lines etc)

Select Series Compensation Level to Avoid Problems

Use transfer trips to avoid trouble conditions

Design damping controllers (SEDC, SSDC)

SSCI resistant wind farm controllers

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Mitigation Methods

SSR SSCI SSTI Description

Add generator step up transformer filters

Add shunt compensation with stabilizers (SVC/Statcom)?

Series Capacitor Bypass Filters


Combinations of all of the above

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New Simulation Products
Parallel Processing of PSCAD Simulations
- break the PSCAD simulation into several cases and
run them in parallel talking with each other

E-TRAN Plus for PSS/E

Hybrid Simulation
- PSCAD and Transient Stability simulations are run
in parallel talking with each other
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Garth Irwin
Electranix Corporation Engineering Consultants
Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

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