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Water Resources Engineering (Semester A -2017)

M3H124594

Design of sewer system


KEY LEARNING POINTS

Good understanding of:

othe different types of sewerage systems

othe different types of methods used for sewer design

othe design of foul water sewer

othe design of storm water sewer

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SEWERAGE
o is the water found in sewers.
o it can be a mixture of water which
has been used for a variety of
purposes at home, at work or in free
time activities, and water used for
business and industrial purposes.
SEWERAGE SYSTEM
The system of pipes used to collect and carry rain,
waste water and trade waste away for treatment
and disposal is called the sewerage or the waste
water system
SOURCES OF WASTE WATER

Domestic- 70-80% of the water supply

Industrial (Permitted industries)- Depends upon the types of

industry

Commercial

Storm water- flow from the precipitation

Infiltration- Rain water likely to enter through leaky joints


TYPES OF SEWERAGE SYSTEMS

There are three types of sewerage systems:

1- Foul sewers carry waste water, for cooking

and washing and waste from toilets to the

wastewater treatment plants;

2- Surface water, or Storm sewers carry

rainwater from roofs, paved areas, pavements and roads, generally flow into streams,
rivers or watercourses.

3- Combined sewer this is a single pipe system carries both wastewater and surface water
to the wastewater treatment plants, (in older town). All new sewerage systems should be
designed on separate foul and surface water (storm sewers) systems.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN COMBINED AND SEPARATE
SEWERAGE SYSTEMS
Sl. Combined System Separate System
No.
1 Domestic sewage + Industrial Flows are carried in separate pipes
flow in one pipe
2 Simpler in its arrangements and There are two laterals in each street
its operation
3 Sewer size is big Main sewer is smaller
4 Possibility of settlement of solid Flushed daily automatically
in dry weather
5 Suitable for the countries where Suitable for arid countries
rainfall is distributed all over the
year.
6 Because high volume, cost of Cost of treatment is less.
treatment is high.
DESIGN PROCEDURE:
foul sewer system

1. Preliminary horizontal layout


2. Preliminary breakdown in section
3. Estimation of quantities of wastewater
generated (Dry Weather Flow)
4. Hydraulic design
5. Determination of invert level and outlet level
1. Preliminary horizontal layout
The sewerage pipe must be located in the surrounding area of the road. (public
properties)
The pipe to be located in private property due to certain topographies must apply for
permission to certain individual before the construction can begin.
Before any construction work can begin, the layout and overall existing building, pipe
and electrical must first to be determine.
During the construction work, the separation of sewer and main water should be
requires of minimum horizontal separation of 3 m and a minimum vertical separation
of 46 cm from water mains.
The system must be drawn to show the location of the pipe and manholes location
and flow of sewerage
Sewer follow natural drainage ways to minimize excavation and pumping
requirements.
Location of pipe:
place for easy connection for future user
provide access for maintenance.
Location of outfall:
outfall point should be specified, near to the lowest point, next to receiving water body
2.Preliminary breakdown in section

Manholes are structures designed to provide access to


a sewer. Access is required for testing, visual inspection
of sewers, and placement and maintenance of flow or
water quality monitoring instruments.
Manholes are usually provided at heads of runs, at
locations where there is changes in direction, changes
in gradient; changes in size, at major junctions with
other sewers and at every 90 meter intervals
depending on the size of the sewer pipes. The diameter
of the manhole will depend on the size of sewer and
the orientation and number of inlets.
Sewer Appurtenances: Manholes
Sewer Appurtenances: Street inlets
Street inlets called gutter are the openings through
which storm water is admitted and conveyed to the storm
sewer or combined sewer. The inlets are located by the
sides of pavement with maximum spacing of 30 m.
3.Estimation of quantities of wastewater
generated
Estimation of quantities of flow considered for
design is based on Dry weather flow for a
separate sewer system
Estimation of future population
Prospective population of the project area is calculated using
the following formula (Growth rate method):

Nfuture = Nactual . (1+a)b


Nfuture : Number of inhabitant over design period of the project
Nactuel : Number of inhabitant over the actual year
a: population growth rate (in %)
b : Design period of the project (in year)

Design period: The length of the time up to which the capacity


of a sewer will be adequate is called a design period.
Normally design period for a sewerage system is considered as
30 years
DRY WEATHER FLOW (DWF)
It is the quantity of water that flows through a sewer in dry weather
when no storm water is in the sewer.
The quantity of DWF primarily depends on:
1- Rate of water consumption
2- Population
3- Groundwater infiltration
4- Industrial discharge

DWF = LP + I + E
where:
L = Domestic water consumption per head,
P = Population connected to the sewer,
I = Infiltration to porous pipes,
E = Industrial discharge. 16
4.Hydraulic design of sewer

Select pipe material


Formula of Manning-Strickler

Q : Discharge in m3/s ;
S : Wetted area (m2) ;
RH: Hydraulic radius(m);
I : pipe slope ;
Ks : rugosity coefficient (Ks=1/n with n Manning
coefficient) ;
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Pipe partially full
Sewer pipe are never designed to run full; there is always an empty space
provided at the top.

Select diameter (start with minimum diameter)


Calculation of discharge for pipe running fully QFS
Calculation of ratio Qmax/QFS, then determine
Vact/Vmax
It is very poor design to use less than 150 mm diameter foul
pipes and some engineers specify a 225 mm minimum due to
frequent blockages, which occur in 150 mm pipes.
The design flow is checked for Maximum flow Q max = 6 DWF
Full section flow for circular pipe made in concrete is
QFS=23.97 * I1/2 * D8/3
Full section flow for circular pipe made in concrete is
Flow ratio Qmax/QFS is calculated, if 1 increase pipe size
Partial flow chart is used to determine velocity ratio Vact/VFS
Partial flow chart
Check of Velocity: self-cleansing condition

Vact/VFS

If 0.6 m/s Vact 2.5 to 3 m/s OK, keep pipe size

If not The pipe size should be adjusted or


the slope should be slightly increased
EXAMPLE
The proposed layout for a small sewerage scheme is shown
below and the data relevant to this network is shown in the
table below. Select suitable pipe size for the network.

Branch L(m) Grad 1: Population E(m3/day)


A 120 55 350 800
B 150 60 450 250
C 110 62 200 400

Water consumption = 400 liters per head per day


Infiltration = 5% D.W.F.
Design of Storm sewer
DESIGN PROCEDURE:
Storm sewer system
1. Preliminary horizontal layout
2. Preliminary breakdown in section
3. Estimation of quantities of storm water
generated (Rational Method)
4. Hydraulic design using Manning formula
5. Check for velocity; if not in the range change
the sewer diameter
6. Determination of invert level and outlet level
Storm sewer design
Two main methods used in sewer design in U.K.

1-The Lloyd-Davies method (Rational Method)

2-The Modified Rational Method (MRM)


LLOYD-DAVIES METHOD (RATIONAL
METHOD)

This method uses:

- the rational formula to calculate runoff

- the Ministry of Health formula (MOH equations) to


calculate rainfall.
THE RATIONAL FORMULA

A = Total area of the catchment, ha


THE MOH EQUATIONS TO CALCULATE
RAINFALL

where,
i = Intensity of rainfall in mm/hr
T = Duration of storm (is taken to be the time of
concentration)
TIME OF CONCENTRATION
The duration of storm is taken to be the time of concentration
of the area i.e. the time that any discharge of water takes to
travel from one end of the catchment area to the outlet:

Where,
Te is the time of entering i.e. the time it takes for the droplet of rain to
entry of the sewer.
Tf is the time of flow i.e. the length of the pipe divided by the velocity
Tf=L/V
ASSUMPTIONS OF LLOYD-DAVIES
METHOD

a) The rainfall intensity is constant throughout the storm


duration and the frequency is once per year.
b) The impermeable area is evenly distributed around the sewer.
c) The impermeabilities of all surfaces remain constant
throughout the storm and during subsequent periods of runoff.
d) The velocities of flow in sewer are complete bore velocities.
STEPS IN LLOYD-DAVIES METHOD

1- Find or assume a gradient for each pipe

2- Assume a pipe diameter

3- Estimate Te and find Tf =L/v

4- Find i (rainfall intensity) from MOH equations

5- Find Ap contributing to sewer

6- Find Q (runoff) from the rational formula

7- Check that diameter suits Q, if not go back to step no. 2


Hydraulic design of sewer

Select pipe material


Formula of Manning-Strickler

Q : Discharge in m3/s ;
S : Wetted area (m2) ;
RH: Hydraulic radius(m);
I : pipe slope ;
Ks : rugosity coefficient (Ks=1/n with n Manning
coefficient) ;
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Circular pipe

Check that diameter select can transit


maximum discharge generated by catchment
area (Qp)
Minimum commercial Diameter = 300mm
Check self-cleansing conditions (Vmin = 0,6 m/s
Vmax=4 m/s)

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Example 1
A storm sewer is proposed to drain a 12 hectares
drainage area shown in the figure below. With given
data in the table below determine the design discharge.

Site Area (ha) C Time of


concentration
(min)
A 4 0.8 10
B 8 0.5 30
EXAMPLE
The projected plan for a small rainstorm water drainage scheme is shown below. Assuming a
worldwide time of entry of 6 minutes, design the pipe sizes using the rational (Lloyd-Davies)
method.
Impermeable Area
Sewer Length of flow, Gradient
In hectares,
Pipe L(m) 1:
Ap(ha)
A 0.35 110 70
B 0.22 70 65
C 0.25 80 70
D 0.19 68 65
E 0.28 73 55

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Application

Design storm sewer for the three pipes draining the above catchment area. Check self-
cleansing condition.

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5.Determination of invert level

invert level : The pipe


invert level is the level of
the inside bottom of the
pipe.

Upper Invert Elevation=Ground surface depth of cover pipe wall thickness pipe
diameter.

Lower Invert Elevation= Upper Invert Elevation-(Slope of sewer)x(Length of sewer)

Minimum depth of cover is 1 to 2 m


Example

Upper Invert Elevation=Ground surface depth of cover pipe wall thickness pipe dia.
= 20.00 m - 2.00 m - 0.05 m - 0.45 m =17.5 m

Lower Invert Elevation= Upper Invert Elevation-(Slope of sewer)x(Length of sewer)


17.5 m - (0.0018 m/m) x (707 m) = 16.23 m
Check: Depth of Cover Adequate/ Not adequate ?
=19.00 m (16.23 m + 0.45 m + 0.05 m) = 2.27 m OK

If Depth of Cover Not adequate / too shallow Two alternatives:


(1) Repeat with a lower invert elevation, or
(2) A steeper slope
vertical profile of sewer line:
Application
The figure below present horizontal layout of foul sewer network. Four gravity
pipes are lying starting from Manhole 1 to manhole 4. Manhole ground
elevations for MH1 to MH4 are given respectively 237.74m, 237m, 236.6m
and 235 m. Distances between manhole are respectively 50m, 20m and 50m.
Pipe 1 is bounded by MH1 and MH2 have a diameter of 200 mm and a slope
of 2%. Pipe 2 is bounded by MH2 and MH3 have a diameter of 200 mm and a
slope of 2%. Pipe 3 is bounded by MH3 and MH4 have a diameter of 250 mm
and a slope of 2%.
Calculate inert elevation for sewer line from Manhole 1 to 4. Check cover then
plot vertical profile of the same sewer line.