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UNIT-IV

DIRECTING
Communication
Hurdles to effective communication
Organization culture
Elements and types of culture
Managing cultural diversity
DIRECTING

It is that part of managerial function which actuates the


organizational methods to work efficiently for
achievement of organizational purposes.

Directing is telling people what


to do and seeing that they do it
to the best of their ability.
Communication

According to Koontz and O'Donnell,


"Communication, is an intercourse by words,
letters symbols or messages, and is a way that
the organization members shares meaning
and understanding with another"
Elements/Process of Communication
Hurdles/ Barriers to Communication
Filtering
Selective Perception
Emotions
Language
Stereotyping
Status difference
Use of conflicting signal
Reluctance to communicate
projections
Tomorrow will be a holiday, try to pass this
message correctly
Types or channels of communication

1. Formal Communication:

Downward communication

Upward communication

Horizontal communication

2. Informal Communication or Grapevine


communication
Downward communication
Upward Communication
Horizontal Communication
Grapevine/Informal Communication
Organizational Culture
What is culture ?
The attitude, traits and behavioral patterns which govern the way an individual
interacts with others is termed as culture. Culture is something which one inherits
from his ancestors and it helps in distinguishing one individual from the other.

Organizational culture is a system of shared assumptions, values, and beliefs, which


governs how people behave in organizations. These shared values have a strong
influence on the people in the organization and dictate how they dress, act, and
perform their jobs. Every organization develops and maintains a unique culture,
which provides guidelines and boundaries for the behavior of the members of the
organization.
Elements of organizational culture
Stories
Rituals and routines
Symbols
Organizational structure
Control system
Managing cultural diversity
Setting a good example
Communicate in writing
Training programs
Recognize individual differences
Actively seek input from minority groups
Revamp reward systems
Make room for social events
Flexible work environment
Don't assume similar values and opinions
Continuous monitoring