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Fig.2.Repetitive pattern of the cells


structure in power MOSFET

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EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS

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EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS
Thyristor: I-V Characteristics


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EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS
Thyristors

‡ Most important type of power


semiconductor device.
‡ Have the highest power handling
capability.they have a rating of 1200V /
1500A with switching frequencies ranging
from 1KHz to 20KHz.

EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS
‡ Is inherently a slow switching device
compared to BJT or MOSFET.
‡ Used as a latching switch that can be
turned on by the control terminal but
cannot be turned off by the gate.

EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS
Different types of Thyristors
‡ Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR).
‡ TRIAC.
‡ DIAC.
‡ Gate Turn-Off Thyristor (GTO).

EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS
SCR

Symbol of
Silicon Controlled
Rectifier

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Structure
A   














¢
X








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X








 
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X









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EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS
Device Operation

Simplified model of a
thyristor

EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS
V-I
Characteristics
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Effects of gate current

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Two Transistor Model of SCR

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4    5  
 
2   /

#  /    # /

# /
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  #  # 
#   #    #

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EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS
 
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EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS
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EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS
Turn-on
Characteristics

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Turn-off
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Characteristi


EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS c
Methods of Thyristor Turn-on
‡ Thermal Turn-on.
‡ Light.
‡ High Voltage.
‡ Gate Current.
‡ dv/dt.

EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS
Thyristor Types
‡ Phase-control Thyristors (SCR¶s).
‡ Fast-switching Thyristors (SCR¶s).
‡ Gate-turn-off Thyristors (GTOs).
‡ Bidirectional triode Thyristors (TRIACs).
‡ Reverse-conducting Thyristors (RCTs).

EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS
‡ Static induction Thyristors (SITHs).
‡ Light-activated silicon-controlled rectifiers
(LASCRs).
‡ FET controlled Thyristors (FET-CTHs).
‡ MOS controlled Thyristors (MCTs).

EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS
Phase Control Thyristor
‡ These are converter thyristors.
‡ The turn-off time tq is in the order of 50 to
100Xsec.
‡ Used for low switching frequency.
‡ Commutation is natural commutation
‡ On state voltage drop is 1.15V for a 600V
device.

EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS
‡ They use amplifying gate thyristor.

EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS
Fast Switching
Thyristors
‡ Also called inverter thyristors.
‡ Used for high speed switching applications.
‡ Turn-off time tq in the range of 5 to 50Xsec.
‡ On-state voltage drop of typically 1.7V for
2200A, 1800V thyristor.
‡ High dv/dt and high di/dt rating.

EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS
Bidirectional Triode
Thyristors (TRIAC)

EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS
Mode-I
Operation
 
 


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Mode-II
Operation
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Mode-III Operation
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Mode-IV Operation
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Triac Characteristics

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EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS
   

EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS
   

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Mode  
  Reverse Reverse
 Forward Reverse
 


  Reverse Forward
 

   Forward Forward
EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS
    
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EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS
     


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EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS 

MOSFET
‡ D N-channel Metal
Oxide Semiconductor
‡ ! = channel length
"
$ ‡ " = channel width

³Metal´ (heavily
doped poly-Si) #$

|
‡ A GATE electrode is placed above (electrically insulated
from) the silicon surface, and is used to control the
resistance between the SOURCE and DRAIN regions
EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS
 %D
Gate
p Drain
Source
p gate p
oxide insulator
n n
p

‡ Without a gate-to-source voltage applied, no current can


flow between the source and drain regions.
‡ Above a certain gate-to-source voltage (@  
@
 ), a conducting layer of mobile electrons is
formed at the Si surface beneath the oxide. These
electrons can carry current between the source and drain.
EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS
N-channel R  P-channel
MOSFETs
Y  „ 

  

 

   

‡ For current to flow, GS > T ‡ For current to flow, GS < T
‡ Enhancement mode: T > 0 ‡ Enhancement mode: T < 0
‡ Depletion mode: T < 0 ‡ Depletion mode: T > 0
± Transistor is ON when G=0V ± Transistor is ON when G=0V

þ  
  
     
  
   
EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS
D &'%

D A A

n+ poly-Si

n+ n+

p-type Si

D A A
Body
p+ poly-Si

p+ p+

n-type Si

Body
EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS
MOSFET Terminals
‡ The voltage applied to the GATE terminal determines whether
current can flow between the SOURCE & DRAIN terminals.
± For an n-channel MOSFET, the SOURCE is biased at a v 
potential (often 0 V) than the DRAIN
(Electrons flow from SOURCE to DRAIN when  > )
± For a p-channel MOSFET, the SOURCE is biased at a 
potential (often the supply voltage ) than the DRAIN
(Holes flow from SOURCE to DRAIN when  <  )

‡ The BODY terminal is usually connected to a fixed potential.


± For an n-channel MOSFET, the BODY is connected to 0 V
± For a p-channel MOSFET, the BODY is connected to 

EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS
Dp     
Consider the current p (flowing into ) versus :

p
G
S D

oxide
 +
 semiconductor +


p
The gate is insulated from the
semiconductor, so there is no
significant steady gate current.
always zero!


EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS
Dp     
Next consider p (flowing into #) versus , as  is varied:

G p
S D

oxide
 +
 semiconductor +


p $'
  %  + 
³inversion layer´ of electrons
 > appears, so conduction
between  and # is possible
zero if  <
  %(  %)  *
no charge no conduction

EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS
 D %%   
‡ The MOSFET behaves as a resistor when 
is low:
± Drain current  increases linearly with 

± Resistance 
between SOURCE & DRAIN depends on 

‡ 
is lowered as 
increases above  oxide thickness — @ 

D,%

p

 = 2 V

 = 1 V >



   &X -   .
p = 0 if  <    —  ]@
EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS
p     

The MOSFET p  curve consists of two regions:


˜  
( )  /*# *   



      

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r   X  ›
     
    
# +   
 

     !

!
r   X  › (|)   *
EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS
 
%  
Part I: Bipolar Power Transistors
‡ Bipolar Power Transistor Uses Vertical Structure For
Maximizing Cross Sectional Area Rather Than Using Planar
Structure
 
%  
Part II:Power MOSFET
‡ Power MOSFET Uses Vertical Channel Structure Versus
The Lateral Channel Devices Used In IC Technology
Lateral MOSFET structure

EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS
 
%  
Part III: BJT(discrete) + Power MOSFET(discrete)
‡ Discrete BJT + Discrete Power MOSFET In Darlington
Configuration
 
%  
Part IV: BJT(physics) + Power MOSFET(physics) =  

‡ More Powerful And Innovative Approach Is To Combine


Physics Of BJT With The Physics Of MOSFET Within Same
Semiconductor Region

‡ This Approach Is Also Termed è @ v @@  



  v  

‡ Using This Concept, The  v@ @  v   @ 


  Emerged

‡ Superior On-State Characteristics, Reasonable Switching


Speed And Excellent Safe Operating Area
 
%  
Part IV: BJT(physics) + Power MOSFET(physics) =  
‡ IGBT Fabricated Using Vertical Channels (Similar To Both
The Power BJT And MOSFET)
#
   
‡ Operation Of IGBT Can Be Considered Like A PNP
Transistor With Base Drive Current Supplied By The
MOSFET
DRIVER CIRCUIT (BASE / GATE)

‡ Interface between control (low power electronics) and (high power) switch.

‡ Functions:
± amplifies control signal to a level required to drive power switch

± provides electrical isolation between power switch and logic level

‡ Complexity of driver varies markedly among switches. MOSFET/IGBT drivers


are simple but GTO drivers are very complicated and expensive.

EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS
ELECTRICAL ISOLATION FOR DRIVERS

‡ Isolation is required to prevent damages on


the high power switch to propagate back to
low power electronics.

‡ Normally opto-coupler (shown below) or high


frequency magnetic materials (as shown in
the thyristor case) are used.

EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS
ELECTRICAL ISOLATION FOR DRIVERS

‡ Power semiconductor devices can be categorized into 3


types based on their control input requirements:

a) Current-driven devices ± BJTs, MDs, GTOs


b) Voltage-driven devices ± MOSFETs, IGBTs, MCTs
c) Pulse-driven devices ± SCRs, TRIACs

EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS
CURRENT DRIVEN DEVICES (BJT)

‡ Power BJT devices have low current gain due to


constructional consideration, leading current than would
normally be expected for a given load or collector current.
‡ The main problem with this circuit is the slow turn-off time.
Many standard driver chips have built-in isolation. For
example TLP 250 from Toshiba, HP 3150 from Hewlett-
Packard uses opto-coupling isolation.
EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS
ELECTRICALLY ISOLATED DRIVE CIRCUITS

EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS
EXAMPLE: SIMPLE MOSFET GATE DRIVER

‡ Note: MOSFET requires VGS =+15V for turn on and 0V to


turn off. LM311 is a simple amp with open collector
output Q1.

‡ When B1 is high, X˜  . VGS is pulled to ground.


MOSFET is off.

‡ When B1 is low, X˜ %%' . VGS is pulled to VGG. If


VGG is set to +15V, the MOSFET turns on.
EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS