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Course of

Mechanical Works

Power Plan

Pumps

Prepared by:
Eng. Khamis Farag

AWI 106 Att. 8 Rev. 3 02 Jan. 2011

6th June 2011 / Rev.: 0


Pump Training
Contents
1 Introduction.
2 Pump classification. 8
3 Pump components. 17
4 Pump wear rings. 56
5 Pump packing and Mechanical seal. 65
6 Axial thrust in single-stage pumps. 96
7 Overhung impeller centrifugal pump. 106
8 Pump bearing and coupling. 115
9 Split case centrifugal pump 154
10 Pump basic , Terms , Curves and Affinity laws. 161
11 Net positive suction head. 198

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Contents
12 Cavitation in centrifugal pumps 212

13 Principles of Operation and parallel and series operation. 231

14 Pump troubleshooting and centrifugal pump clinic. 255

15 Pump maintenance, vibration and shaft alignment 288

16 Fuel unloading pumps, types of fire pump, and RB pump. 342

17 Electrical , diesel fir pumps and jokey pump 385

18 Submersible and sump pumps. 415

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Pump Training

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INTRODUCTION

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Introduction

Pumps

Pumps are the first most common machine in use today.


They are exceeded in the numbers only by the electric motor.
By definition, a centrifugal pump is a machine.
More specifically, it is a machine that imparts energy to a fluid. This
energy infusion can cause a liquid to flow, rise to a higher level, or both.
The operating manual of any pump often starts with a general
statements, Your pump will give you completely trouble free and
satisfactory service only on the condition that it is installed and operated
with due care and is properly maintained.

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What is a Pump?
A device that raises, transfers, or compresses fluids by suction or
pressure or both.

Atypical Pumping system

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PUMPS CLASSIFICATION

Classification of displacement Pumps.

Classification of Dynamic Pumps.

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Pump Classification

Pumps

Positive
Dynamic
Displacement

Rotary Reciprocating Centrifugal Axial

Piston,
Multiple Rotor Single Rotor Diaphragm
Plunger

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Displacement Pumps

Lope pump

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Positive Displacement Pumps

Rotary Lope pump

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Dynamic Pumps

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Dynamic Pumps

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Type of Pumps

Dynamic pumps

Mode of operation
Rotating impeller converts kinetic energy into pressure or velocity to pump the fluid
Two types
Centrifugal pumps: pumping water in industry 75% of pumps installed
Special effect pumps: specialized conditions

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Type of Pumps

Centrifugal Pumps
How do they work?

Liquid forced into impeller.

Vanes pass kinetic energy to liquid:


liquid rotates and leaves impeller.

Volute casing converts kinetic energy


into pressure energy.

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Overhung
End suction
API Standard
Process Pump

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CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS COMPONENTS

Centrifugal Pump has two main parts

A rotating equipment, including an impeller and shaft.

A stationary element made up of a casing, stuffing box, and bearings.

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Centrifugal Pumps

Rotating and stationary components

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Rotating Components

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Rotating Components
Centrifugal Pumps

Impeller
Main rotating part that provides centrifugal
acceleration to the fluid
Number of impellers = number of pump stages
Impeller classification: direction of flow, suction
type and shape/mechanical construction
Shaft
Transfers torque from motor to impeller during
pump start up and operation

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IMPELLERS

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Impeller

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Impellers

Impellers are classified according to the major direction of flow in


reference to axis of rotation. Thus, centrifugal pumps may have:

Radial flow impellers


Axial flow impellers
Mixed-flow impellers, which combine radial-and axial-flow principles

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Impellers

Impellers are further classified as:

Single-suction, with a single inlet on one side


Double-suction, with water flowing to the impeller symmetrically from both
sides

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Impellers (Direct of Flow)

Radial flow (straight-vane) impeller

On a radial flow impeller the vane surfaces are generated by straight lines
parallel to the axis of rotation is the pump shaft. Flow strictly follows a line
perpendicular to this axis of rotation. The liquid enters the impellers at the
hub and flows radially to the periphery. In other words, the liquid enters the
impeller and makes a 90o turn and runs parallel to the vanes until it exits the
impeller at the vane tips.

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Radial Flow

Radial flow impeller showing flow patterns


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Impellers (Direct of Flow)
Axial flow impeller

In an axial flow impeller the vane surfaces are perpendicular to the axis
of rotation. On most pumps the axis of rotation is the pump shaft.
Flow strictly parallels this axis of rotation. The liquid enters the pump inlet
axially and discharge nearly axially. This means the flow enters the
impeller and keeps on going straight through, parallel to the shaft.
Pumps thats use these types of impellers are sometimes called propeller
pumps.

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Axial Flow

Axial flow impeller showing flow pattern


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Impellers (Direct of Flow)

Mixed flow impeller


In a mixed flow impeller the vane surfaces have both an axial and radial
components. Flow follows this mix of components with axial of radial
movement. Flow enters the pump axially and discharges in an axial radial
direction.
A mixed flow impeller with more radial than axial flow is sometimes called
a Francis-vane impeller.

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Mixed Flow

Axial flow impeller showing flow pattern

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Impellers

Axial flow impeller Radial flow impeller Mixed flow impeller

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Axial Flow Pump

Axial flow pump

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Mixed Flow Pump

Internal view of impeller inside casing

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Impellers Shap
Another method of classifying impellers is by mechanical design.
As such, impellers defined in this manner ca be designed as open, semi-
open, or closed.
Impellers are usually manufactured using one of two casting processes.
Sand casting uses a sand mold into which molten metal is poured and
allowed to cool. Sand casted impellers are the most common and least
expensive to produce. However, they very often leave a rough surface on
the wetted areas of the impeller. This can lead to lower pump efficiencies.
Investment casting uses a mold more from an extremely viscous (and
expensive) waxy like material.
Molten metal is poured into this mold.
As the metal cools, the mold melts leaving a smooth metal surface.
Impellers made this way are usually more expensive to produce than
sand casted impellers. however, because they leave a much smoother
surface on the wetted areas of the impeller, higher pump efficiencies are
often achieved.
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Open Impeller

Completely open impeller


An open impeller, strictly speaking,
consists of nothing but vanes
attached to a central hub. Because of
inherent weaknesses in this design,
ribs are usually used to strengthen
the vanes.

Completely open impeller

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Semi-Open Impeller

Semi-open impeller
A semi-open impeller uses a
single shroud, usually at the back
of the impeller.
This shroud may or may not have
pump out vanes or balance holes
to modify the pressure behind the
impeller.

Semi-Open Impeller

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Closed Impeller

Closed impeller
A closed impeller uses shrouds that
totally enclose the impeller from the
suction eye to its edges.
This design prevents liquid slippage
from the discharge to suction by
using a running joint between the
casing and the impeller. This running
joint is often called a wear ring.

Semi-Open Impeller

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If the pump is one in which the head is developed by a single impeller, it is
called a single-stage pump.

Two or more single-stage pumps can be connected in series or all the


impellers may be incorporated in a single casing. The unit is then called a
multistage pump.

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Pumps Shaft

The shaft is part of the rotating assembly


used to transmit energy (Power) from the
driver (motor) to the fluid through rotation
of the impeller. The shaft is the main
component of the rotating assembly and
is supported by the bearings.

Pump shaft

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Stationary Components
Centrifugal Pumps
Casings

Functions
Enclose impeller as pressure vessel
Support and bearing for shaft and
impeller
Volute case
Impellers inside casings
Balances hydraulic pressure on pump
shaft
Circular casing
Vanes surrounds impeller
Used for multi-stage pumps

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Volute
The volute, or casing as it is sometimes referred to, is a spiral-shaped
Component surrounding the impeller.
This section provides a path to accept and discharge the fluid being
pumped.
On the most overhung impeller centrifugal pumps, each casing has an
inlet (section) side and outlet (discharge) side. The fluid to be pumped is
fed under pressure to the inlet side of the pump. The casing collects this
fluid discharged by the impeller and converts its velocity energy to
pressure energy. The fluid then leaves the casing through the outlet at a
higher pressure.
A centrifugal pump volute increase in area from its initial points until it
encompasses the full 360o around the impeller and then flares out to the
final discharge opening. The wall dividing the initial section and the
discharge nozzle portions of the volute or the cutwater on many
centrifugal pumps (especially horizontal end-suction) is usually
positioned at approximately the 0o (top) position.

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Volute

External view of volute looking inside Internal view of volute showing impeller
(Note: Impeller is visible) rotation and fluid flow

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Casing and Diffusers

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Centrifugal Pump

Volute Diffuser

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Solid and Split Casings

Solid casing implies a design in which the discharge waterways leading to


the discharge nozzle are all contained in one casting, or fabricated piece.

It must have one side open so that the impeller may be introduced into the
casing. As the sidewalls surrounding the impeller are in reality part of the
casing, a solid casing, strictly speaking, cannot be used, and designs
normally called solid casing are really radially split.

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End-Suction Pumps

Most end-suction single-stage pumps are made of one-piece solid casings.


At least one side of the casing must be open so the impeller can be
assembled in the pump, thus requiring a cover for that side. If the cover is
on the suction side, it becomes the casing sidewall and contains the suction
opening. This is called the suction cover or casing suction head. Other
designs are made with stuffing box covers, and still others have both casing
suction covers and stuffing box covers.

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Nozzle Locations

The discharge nozzle of end-suction single-stage horizontal pumps is


usually in a top-vertical position. However, other nozzle positions may be
obtained, such as top-horizontal, bottom-horizontal, or bottomvertical
discharge.

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The Frontcover

The frontcover, or suction cover is a


removable piece used to enclose the
suction side of overhung Impeller
Centrifugal Pumps. Typically the inlet
nozzle (suction nozzle) is part of this
piece.

The pump frontcover

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The Backcover

The backcover is a removable


component of the volute, often with the
stuffing box attached, that encloses the
back side of the Impeller Centrifugal
Pumps.

The backcover is sometimes also


referred to as a backplate or a head.
The pump backcover

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Section 2

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WEARING RINGS

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Pump Wear Rings
Between the pump
Casing and the hub
Seal is between the lower
pressure of the intake side
and the higher pressure in
the volute.
Dirt/sediment can damage
ring resulting in decreased
pump effectiveness

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The Wear Ring
Wear rings are sacrificial components
installed on the casing and impeller to
inhibit fluid from recirculating back to
suction from the discharge they
provide a renewable restriction
between a closed impeller and the
casing. Wear rings are often installed
on both the front and back of the
impeller. When wear rings are
installed on the back of the impeller,
another set of rings is installed in the
backcover.

Front and back wear rings on a closed impeller

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Nomenclature for the casing or stationary part forming the leakage joint
surface is as follows:
Casing ring (if mounted in the casing)
Suction-cover ring or suction-head ring (if mounted in a suction cover
or head
Stuffing-box-cover ring or head ring (if mounted in the stuffing box
cover or head.

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Wearing-Ring Clearances
Typical clearance and tolerance standards for nongalling wearing joint
metals in general service pumps are shown. They apply to the following
combinations:
Bronze with a dissimilar bronze
Cast iron with bronze
Steel with bronze
Monel metal with bronze
Cast iron with same casing vary over a wide range, the design is
impractical in regular pump lines.

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Sealing Device
Pump Packing

Located around the pump shaft within the stuffing box


Lubricates and seals pump shaft
Too loose
Can result in drafting difficulties an pump efficiency
Too tight
Can result in damaging the pump shaft due to overheating

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Sealing Device

A sealing device comes in two forms. It is


either mechanical packing or a mechanical
seal. The sealing device is placed inside
the stuffing box to control or eliminate
leakage from the pump casing.

Mechanical packing in a stuffing box

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The Stuffing Box

The stuffing box is a cylindrical


opening in the pump casing where
the shaft passes through to the
impeller. It has the primary function
of containing a sealing device that
will minimize or eliminate leakage at
this point. If a mechanical seal is
used as the sealing device, the
stuffing box is often called a seal
chamber.

stuffing box with packing

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The Pump Stuffing Box Jacket
In some services, high temperatures can complicate the problem of
maintaining the sealing device within the stuffing box. Pumps in these
services are usually provided with jackets, liquid-cooled stuffing boxes. A
head transfer medium (usually water) reduces the temperature of the
fluid being pumped, only in the stuffing box area and not in the volute.
The temperature in the stuffing box is reduced by the flow of water
completely surrounding the stuffing box.

This improves the services conditions (i.e., reduces temperature) and


increases the life of the sealing device.

In rare occasions, the pump stuffing box, jacket is actually used to keep a
fluid warm or even hot. Liquids that need a jacket for the heating instead
of cooling. Without this external source of heat to keep it warm, the fluid
would solidify or at least become extremely viscous. This greatly reduces
the life of any sealing device.

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The Pump Stuffing box Jacket

Pump jacket. Note the restriction bushing in the bottom of the seal chamber

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The Lantern Ring
The function of the lantern ring is to establish a liquid seal around the
shaft and to provide a path to inject lubrication, thus reducing the heat
generation of the stuffing box packing. This ring can be made from softer
metals (like brass), carbon and various polymers ( like PTFE).
Another common name for lantern ring is seal cage.

The lantern ring is very important in rotating equipment, although it is also


used in static equipment like valves.
Properly used, this ring provides external lubrication to packing and a
hydrodynamic seal if the injection liquid is at a higher pressure than the
fluid in the stuffing box. This increases the life of the packing. When not
used properly, the lantern ring does nothing to enhance the life of the
packing and could actually decrease packing life.

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The Lantern Ring

Lantern ring within a packing set

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Sealing Device

Mechanical seals explained

The basics
Mechanical seals are leakage control device, which
are found on rotating equipment such as pumps and
mixers to prevent the leakage of liquids and gases
from escaping into the environment. Figure 1 shows
a typical centrifugal pump, which highlights its
Figure 1
constituent parts, including the mechanical seal.

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Sealing Device

A mechanical seal consists of 2 principle components.


One component is stationary and the other rotates
against it to achieve a seal (Figure 2). These are
many types of mechanical seal, ranging from simple
single spring designs to considerable more complex
cartridge seal types. The design, arrangement and
materials of construction are essentially determined by Figure 2

the pressure, temperature, speed of rotation and


product being sealed (the product medial)

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Sealing Device
Design
By way of example, a simple mechanical seal design has 7 components(Figure 3):
1) Stationary component; commonly referred to as the seat.
2) Stationary component sealing member. Figure 3

3) Rotating component.
4) Rotating component sealing member
5) Spring.
6) Gland plate.
7) Clamp ring.

A mechanical seal has 4 main sealing points(indicated by orange circles as per figure 3):
The seal between the rotating (3) and stationary faces (1). This is known as the primary seal.
The seal between the stationary member (1) and stuffing box face, i.e. Gasket (2).
The seal between the rotating member and the shaft or shaft sleeve (4). This is know as the
secondary seal and may be an o-ring as shown, a v-ring, a wedge or any similar sealing ring.
The seal between the gland plate and stuffing box, this is usually a gasket, or o-ring

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Sealing Device
Mechanical seal

Mechanical seal in a stuffing box

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MECHANICAL SEALS
PART 1:
PRIMARY

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Fig 1: Fig 2:
Mechanical seals are essentially two flat polished Let us simplify the idea and imagine the seal
cut
rings that rub against one another, held in contact
through in section. Bear in mind that the shaft
by a series of springs. or
Component (1) called the seat is normally spindle that is being seals passed through the
stationary and sealed into the housing. middle of these rings.
Component (2) called the face rotates with the
shaft.
The liquid being seals provides a lubricant that
prevents the faces making physical contact.

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Fig 3 Fig 4
In sealing terminology there are these three This shows a common method using O Ring
sealing points on a mechanical seal: for sealing the secondary and tertiary sealing
Primary Sealing Point Is the contact area points. These O Ring seals are described
between the face and seat. more fully in other modules, but are commonly
used by John Crane in synthetic rubber
2. Secondary Sealing Point Is where the materials.
mechanical seal makes contact with the shaft and O Rings are excellent in most static
slides along it to accommodate wear. applications but they do have serious
3. Tertiary Sealing Point Is where the seat fits into limitations in some areas.
the housing of the equipment and prevents There are very many different methods of
leakage around the back. sealing secondary
In practical terms the components shown cannot and tertiary points depending upon the
be fixed permanently in position. The face and experience of the seal manufacturer involved.
seats must be slightly flexible to allow for However, all face contact spring loaded
movement and misalignment that inevitable takes mechanical seals work on the same basic
place. principles.
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Part 2:
THE SECONDARY SEAL

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Fig 2
Fig 1 The main purpose of the secondary sealing
In the previous module you saw this drawing and device is to prevent leakage of fluid through
we explored the seal concepts where leakage the bore of the seal along the shaft.
must be prevented at the three points shown. In this particular case it is normal to use one of
Let us look at the secondary seal (2) and three design methods at the secondary
examine sealing point.
its purpose and method of operation. O RINGS
WEDGE RINGS
BELLOWS
It is a common practice to describe the seal by
its secondary sealing device: Wedge seals,
bellows seal, etc. All secondary sealing
devices clearly divide into two main groups,
those that slide along the shaft (pusher seals)
and those that do not slide along the shaft
(non-pusher)

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Fig 3 Fig 4
O Ring secondary seals are effective at this The O ring is pushed into the corner of the
point, but due to the small clearances required housing by hydraulic pressure. This closes the
they only have marginal flexibility. gap in the bore of the face.

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Fig 5 Fig 6
The second method of sealing on the shaft is to Movement is allowed by the bellows flexing or
use a bellows. extending and therefore it is described as a
nonpusher seal.
The actual sealing point becomes remote from
The actual mechanism of sealing the shaft can be
the face allowing a great deal more flexibility.
varied dependent upon the duty conditions and
The sealing point is fixed on the shaft and does
the materials of construction.
not have to slide to accommodate wear of the
Rubber bellows normally grip the shaft with an
face.
interference fit created by a metal drive ring. The
drive ring creates a squeeze effect on the tail.

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Part 3:
DRIVE METHODS

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Fig 1 Fig 2
In the now familiar design of a mechanical seal, One of the most common forms of drive is a
one element rotates against another which is Peg.
stationary. This is normally a length of solid round metal
fixed into a hole in the driving shaft and
The devices used to ensure that the elements
protruding into a slot in the driven component.
rotate or remain stationary are called Drive
Methods.

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Fig 3 Fig 4
Pegs fitted to stationary components are A combination of the peg and grubscrew can
preferred, because if fitted in rotating be used in a Drive Collar.
components they can be subject to vibration The drive collar can be locked to a rotating
and work loose. Where possible they should be shaft using a grubscrew and peg fitted a
a tight fit in a substantial piece of metal. shown to locate in a driven component.

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Part 4:
SPRINGS

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Fig 1 Fig 2
A mechanical seal helical spring used for Multiple spring sets are usually small in
compressive purposes needs to be ground on its diameter, as each spring presents a parallel
ends to present parallel contact areas (2). This contact area the loading on the rubbing face is
evenly distributes the spring loading at the back of very uniform. They can, however, become
clogged with debris if present in the liquid
the rubbing face, otherwise cocking can occur
being sealed.
(1).
As a helix can only be ground flat over 75% of its
contact area, it is essential that both ends of the
spring are in line to reduce the cocking effect (2).
On a single spring seal, the loading on the face is
not 100% uniform.

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Fig 3 Fig 4
Multiple springs sets need some form of For a single spring the locating ring (1) and
containment to space them out evenly around drive sleeve (2) maintain the shape and
a circumference and to prevent loss. relative position of the spring.
A retainer provides the necessary
containment.

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Fig 6
The design or type of spring used in a
mechanical seal is dependent upon a number
of factors.
Materials of construction
Corrosion Levels
Shaft Diameter
Load Required
Space Available
Face Wear Allowance
Fig 5
Amount of Axial Movement Required
Here are two more variations of the combined
spring and drive method used by:- Speed and direction of rotation
The formed asymmetrical metal bellows The nature of the fluid being handled:
The edge welded metal bellows Solids in suspension
Viscosity
Solidification
Crystallization
Process Temperature

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SPRING TYPE ADVANTAGES DISDVANTAGES

Helical Large Volume Variable load circumference


(Single) Resistant to corrosion Take up space
Do not clog Unwind at speed
Create circulation of Create vibrations and out of balance
product forces

Helical Small compact High stress concentration


(Multiple) Uniform load by spacing High spring rate
Easy to install Corrosion can be serious
Can be lost. Tend to clog

Wave Washer Compact High spring rate


Allows malalignment

Metal Bellows No loose springs required Limited range of materials

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Part 5:
UNIT CONSTRUCTION

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Fig 2 Fig 3
2.1 Simple Face This shows all the Seal Components
2.2 O-ring assembled in a Retainer to form the Seal
2.3 Spring Head Assembly.
To energise face and compensate for wear
2.4 Abutment Ring
To seat seal to working length
2.5 Combined Retainer
To drive face and to hold loose components

This composite of parts is referred to as a seal


unit or seal head assembly.

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Part 6:
BALANCE

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Fig 1

Factors involved in The Creation of Heat


Size of Seal
Rotational speed
Nature of service fluid
Temperature of fluid
Surface finish of faces
Materials of construction
Pressure acting on seal

The first four items are normal process requirements where we have little or no influence.

We do have a controlling influence on the remaining three items.

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Factors involved and benefits obtained by reducing FACES STRESSESS.
Reduction of the closing forces is done to lower the face stresses at the running track.

BENEFITS: obtained by reducing face stresses:


Reduction of power absorbed by the seal
- cheaper to run
Reduction of friction and wear
- longer life
Increases pressure range of seal
Reduces amount of heat to be dissipated

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Axial Thrust
Axial Thrust in Single-Stage Pumps

The pressures generated by a centrifugal pump exert forces on both its


stationary and rotating parts. The design of these parts balances some of
these forces but separate means may be required to counter-balance
others.

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Axial hydraulic thrust is the summation of unbalanced forces on an impeller
acting in the axial direction. As reliable large capacity thrust bearings are
now readily available, axial thrust in single-stage pumps remains a problem
only in a larger units. Theoretically, a double-suction impeller is in hydraulic
axial balance with the pressures on one side equal to an counterbalancing
the pressures.

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In practice this balance may not be achieved for the following reasons:
The suction passages to the two suction keys may not provide equal or
uniform to the two sides.
External conditions, such as an elbow located too close to the pump
suction nozzle, may cause unequal flow to the two suction eyes.
The two sides of the discharge casing waterways may not be
symmetrical or the impeller may be located off center. These conditions
will alter the flow characteristics between the impeller shrouds and the
casing, causing unequal pressures on the shrouds.
Unequal leakage through the two leakage joints can upset the balance.

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Combined, these factors can create axial unbalance. To compensate for this
all centrifugal pumps, even those with double-suction impellers, incorporate
thrust bearings.

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To eliminate the axial thrust of a single-suction impeller, a pump can be
provided with both front and back wearing rings; to equalize thrust areas, the
inner diameter of both rings is made the same.

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Axial forces acting on an overhung impeller with a single stuffing box are
definitely affected by suction pressure. In additional to the unbalanced force
found in a single-suction two-box design, there is an axial force equivalent to
the product of the shaft area through the stuffing box and the difference
between suction and atmospheric pressure. This force acts toward the
impeller suction when the suction pressure is less than atmospheric or in the
opposite direction when it is higher that atmospheric.

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Section 3

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Overhung Impeller Centrifugal Pump
Configuration
What are the four sections of an overhung impeller centrifugal pump
configuration?
The four sections of an overhung impeller centrifugal pump consist of the
following:
Wet End

Power End
Driver
Baseplate and Foundation

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The Power End Section

Overhung impeller centrifugal pump power end parts and function


What are the parts in the power end section of an overhung impeller
centrifugal pump?
The parts in the power end section (2nd ) consist of the following:

A. Bearing housing I. Breather


B. Frame adaptor J. Snap ring
C. Shaft K. Deflector
D. Bearings L. Oil flinger
E. Bearing protection M. Thrust bearing
F. Oil sump area cartridge
G. Oil sight glass
H. Power-end cooling
jacket

Power end components


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The Power End Section

Power end components

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The Frame Adaptor

The frame adaptor is a machine


component used to permit assembly
of the power end section to the wet
end section of the centrifugal pump.
The frame adaptor can be a separate
bolted-on piece or can be cast as part
of the bearing housing.

Frame adaptor cast integrally with the bearing housing

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The Bearing Housing
The bearing housing provides a body in which the
bearings are mounted.
This housing, technicality, encompasses many of
the other components found within the power
end. The items listed below are often considered
part of the bearing housing when it is discussed.
However, each item is defined separately later in
the course.
Oil sump
Breather
Bearing protection
Snap ring
Oil sight glass
Deflector
Power end cooling jacket Bearing housing (highlighted without other
components)
Oil flinger
Thrust bearing cartridge
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The Thrust Bearing Cartridge

The thrust bearing cartridge provides an adjustable platform for the


trust bearing assembly. This cartridge allows for easier installation of
the bearings and for performing impeller adjustments. It is becoming a
standard item found on many overhung impeller centrifugal Pumps.

Thrust bearing cartridge

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The Pump Bearing

The bearings function to keep the shaft or


rotor in correct alignment with the stationary
parts under the action of the radial or
transverse loads.
Bearings that provide radial positioning are
referred to as radial or line bearings. These
bearings maintain the shaft alignment up,
down, and/or sideways. Radial bearings are
almost always located closed to the impeller.
This is because the majority of the radial loads
occur inside the casing acting impeller.
Bearings that locate the rotor (Shaft) axially
are called trust bearings.
These bearings maintain the shaft alignment
with respect to movement back and forth. In
most applications the trust bearings are
usually located to the coupling. Thrust bearing cartridge

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The Snap Ring

the snap ring maintains the positioning of the trust bearings to prohibits any axial
movement of the bearing inside the bearing housing or trust bearing cartridge.
The snap ring is installed into a groove that is machined into the housing or
cartridge. Sometimes the groove is machined in the outer race of the thrust
bearing.
A drawback with using a
snap ring in this location is
that the groove can become
worm and enlarged allowing
excessive axial movement.
This movement can cause
problems with the thrust
bearing and the mechanical
seal leading toward
premature failure. Snap ring

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BEARINGS

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The function of bearings in centrifugal pump is to keep the shaft or rotor in
correct alignment with the stationary parts under the action of radial and
transverse loads. Those that give radial positioning to the rotor are known as
line bearings, whereas those that locate the rotor axially are called thrust
bearings. In most applications the thrust bearings actually serve both as
thrust and radial bearings.

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Pump bearings may be rigid of self-aligning. A self-aligning bearing will
automatically adjust itself to a change in the angular position of the shaft. In
babbitted or sleeve bearings, the name self-aligning is applied to bearings
that have a spherical fit to sleeve in the housing. In antifriction bearings it is
applied to bearings the outer race of which is spherically ground or the
housing of which provides a spherical fit.

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The most common antifriction bearings used on centrifugal pumps are the
various types of bearings. Roller bearings are used less often, although the
spherical roller bearing is used frequently for large shafts sizes for which
there is a limited choice of ball bearings. As most roller bearings are suitable
only for radial loads, their use on centrifugal pumps tends to be limited to
applications in which they are not required to carry a combined radial and
thrust load.

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The thrust capacity of the bearing of a double-suction pump is usually far in
excess of the probable imbalance caused by irregularities. This provision is
made because:

Unequal wear of the rings and other parts may cause imbalance
The flow of the liquid into the two suction eyes may be unequal and
cause imbalance because of an improper suction-piping arrangement

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Ball Bearings
As the coefficient of rolling friction is less than that of sliding friction, one
must not consider a ball bearing in the same light as a sleeve bearing. In the
former, the load is carried on a point contact of the ball with the race, but the
point of contact does not rub or slide over the race and no appreciable heat
is generated. Furthermore, the point of contact is constantly changing as the
ball rolls in the race, and the operation is practically frictionless. In the
sleeve bearing there is a constant rubbing of one surface over another, and
the friction must be reduced by the use of a lubricant.

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Ball thrust bearings are built to carry heavy loads by pure rolling motion

on an angular contact. As thrust load is axial, it is equally distributed to

all the balls around the race, and the individual load on each balls is only

a very small fraction of the total thrust load. In such bearings it is

essential that the balls be very equally spaced, and for this purpose a

retaining cage is used between the balls and between the inner and outer

race. This cage carries no load, but the contact between it and the ball

produces sliding friction that generates a small amount of heat. It is for

this reason that the ball thrust bearings are generally water-jacketed.

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The most common ball bearings used on centrifugal pumps are:
Single-row, deep-grove
Double-row, deep grove
Double-row self-aligning
Angular-contact, either single or double-row

All except the double-row, self-aligning bearings are capable of carrying


thrust loads a well as radial loads.

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A bearing fully packed with grease prevents proper grease circulation in
itself and its housing. As a rough rule, therefore, it is recommended that only
one-third of the avoid spaces in the housing be filled. An excess amount of
grease will cause the bearing to heat up, and grease will flow out of the
seals to relieve the situation. Unless the excess grease can escape through
the seal or through the relief cock that is used on many large unit, the
bearings will probably fail early.

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Oil-lubricated ball bearings require an adequate method for maintaining a
suitable oil level in the housing. This level should be at about the center of
the lowermost ball of a stationary bearing. It may be achieved by a dam and
an oil slinger to maintain the level behind the dam and thereby increase the
leeway in the amount of oil the operator must keep in the housing. Oil rings
are sometimes used to supply oil to the bearings from the bearing housing
reservoir. In other designs, a constant-level boiler is used.

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The Face Seal

Face seals are not very common.


These seals have only recently been
introduced to the marketplace.
They act similarly to a mechanical seal.
They cost about the same as labyrinth
seals, but have a finite life however, this life
can exceed 10 years when used correctly.
A. Rotary face
B. Positive drive O-ring
C. seal hosing
D. Retainer
E. Spring
F. Secondary O-ring Typical face seal

G. Excluder ring
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Deflector
The deflector is a drive located on the
wet end side of the power end. The
purpose of the deflector is to keep
fluid from traveling down the shaft and
entering through the bearing
protection component, typically a lip
seal. the deflector is supposed to
deflect the fluid away from this
bearing protection device. Often, this
device provides little additional
protection for the bearings because it
fails to deflect anything.

Typical deflector installed on radial bearing side


of bearing housing

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The Oil Sight Glass
The oil sump area
The oil sump area is where the oil is contained to provide lubrication and cooling for
the bearings. Sometimes grease is used instead of oil for bearings lubrication. In
this case the sump area is usually very small.
The oil sight glass
The oil sight glass is used to indicate the level and the
condition of the oil contained in the oil sump area.
The device comes in many forms. Two of the most
common found on pumps are Bulls-eye and tube
sight glasses.
A device that is often confused with the sight glass
is the constant-level or bulb type oilers found on
many pumps.
These devices are designed to provide additional
lubrication to the oil sump area in the event of an
Bulls-eye oil sight glass
oil leak through the bearing protection, usually a lip seal.
They provide no viewing of the level or condition of the oil found inside the pump.
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The Breather

As the shaft rotates in the


enclosed oil sump area, the air
heats up and expands. The
breather acts as a small vent
allowing the air from the
enclosed oil sump area to
escape.
Air also re-enters the oil sump
area when the pump stops due
to its cooling.

Typical oil sump breather

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Driver Parts
Overhung Impeller Centrifugal Pump
The Pump driver is the third section we will discuss. This Lesson will indentify
and describe the parts found in the driver section of an Overhung Impeller
Centrifugal Pump. A definition of the purpose of each part will also be given.

What are the parts in the driver section of an Overhung Impeller Centrifugal
pump?
The parts in the driver section can consist of the following:
Motor (Driver)
Coupling
Motor adapter
Belts
Gears
The Driver section need not contain all of the items listed above. As a minimum,
a driver (usually a motor) is required . The coupling, belts and gears are power
transmission devices that may or may not be required with the pump.

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Pump Drivers

The Motor
Energy is required to move the fluid.
Many types of drivers are used to
provide this energy. The motor is, by
far, the most common devices used to
drive pumps. It is an electrical
component that provides the input
energy ( power) being transferred
through the power end to the fluid
being pumped.
Motors come in a varying array of
types, sizes, enclosures and insulation
classes. However is the squirrel-
cage induction motor.
A typical squirrel-cage induction motor

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Motor Adapter

The motor adapter


The Motor (driver) adapter is a
machined component used to
assemble the motor to the power end
section of the pump. Its primary
purpose is to allow easier pump and
motor alignment, maintain this
alignment, and compensate for
thermal growth. This adapter is
required for most vertical pump
applications and is now becoming
more in demand for horizontal
applications.
A motor adapter

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Pump Coupling

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Pump Coupling
The coupling
A coupling is a power transmission devices that is used to connect the motor
(driver) shaft to power end shaft of the pump. The primary purpose of the
coupling is to transmit rotary motion and torque from the motor to the pump.
Couplings often are required to perform other secondary functions as well. These
other functions include accommodating misalignment between shafts,
transmitting axial thrust loads from one machine to another, permitting
adjustment of shafts to compensate for wear and maintaining precise alignment
between connected shafts.

Many times pumps use couplings installed with a spacer. A spacer coupling
allows the pump to be disassembled without moving piping, the pump casing or
motor. A typical installation showing a spacer coupling is shown below.

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Pump Coupling

A coupling

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Pump Spacer Coupling

A typical pump disassembly using a spacer coupling

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Coupling Types Used in Pump Drive
Systems
A coupling is used wherever there is a need to connect a prime mover to a
piece of driven machinery. The principal purpose of coupling is to transmit
rotary motion and torque from one piece of equipment to another.
Couplings may perform other secondary functions, such as
accommodating misalignment between shafts, transmitting axial thrust
loads between machines, permitting adjustment of shafts to compensate
for wear, and maintaining precise alignment between connected shafts.

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Rigid Couplings
Rigid couplings are used to connect machines where it is desired to
maintain shaft I precise alignment. They are also used where the rotor of

one machine is used to support and position the other rotor in a drive
train. A coupling of this type cannot accommodate misalignment between
shafts, so precise alignment of machinery is necessary when using a
coupling of this design.

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Flexible Couplings

Flexible couplings accomplish the primary purpose of any coupling, that


is, to transmit a driving torque between prime mover and driven machine.
In addition, they perform a second important function: they accommodate
unavoidable misalignment between shafts. A proliferation of designs
exists for flexible couplings, which may be classified into two types:
mechanically flexible, and material-flexible.

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Overhung Impeller Centrifugal Pump
Support structure Parts and Function
The pump support structure is the fourth
What are the Parts in the support structure of an Overhung Impeller Centrifugal
pump?
The Parts in the support structure consist of the following:
Baseplate (Bedplate)
Foundation
Grouting
Jack-bolts
Shims
Not all of the above parts are required for the pump installation. Pumps are
usually mounted on the baseplate which , in turn, is mounted securely to the
foundation.
These two parts, along with the shims for alignment, are mot often the minimum
structure setup used. However, good installation and maintenance practices
grout the baseplates and provide jack-bolts for alignment.

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The Support Structure

Pump support structure showing foundation, baseplate, grout (in grout hole),
shims(under motor feet) and jack-bolts

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Split Case Centrifugal Pump Part
Differences
Although we have focused mainly on the Overhung Impeller
Centrifugal pump, let's look at another common kinetic pump that is
found in industry. This other pump is an Impeller Between Bearing
pump or sometimes called Split Case pump. It operates similarly to
the Overhung Impeller pump, but has some distinct differences. This
lesson will describe the main differences between the Overhung
Impeller and Impeller Between Bearings Centrifugal Pumps.
Overhung Impeller and Impeller Between Bearings Centrifugal Pump
differences
The functions of the Overhung Impeller and Impeller Between
bearings Centrifugal pumps are primarily the same. Most of the
differences are a result of the mechanical design and configuration of
each pump type.

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Split Case Centrifugal Pump Part
Differences

Overhung Impeller Centrifugal pumps have the impeller located at one


end of the pump shaft . This configuration consists of one stuffing box
area where the shaft enters the volute and one set of bearings that
support the impeller from the opposite end of the shaft. This design
was previously discussed in this chapter.
Impeller between Bearings (Split Case) Centrifugal pumps have the
impeller located in the center of the pump and supported by bearings
on each side. These pumps can be split axially (horizontally) or
radially (vertically). With this design, there are two stuffing box areas
where the shaft enters the volute. There is no separate power end
area as found in the Overhung Impeller design because the bearings
are on both sides of the casing.

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Split Case Centrifugal Pump

Impeller between bearings (split case) centrifugal pump

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Multistage Pump
The split case design offers a large amount of flexibility when more than
one impeller is required. Because of this fact , most multiple stage (multi
impeller) pumps are designed and built using the Impeller Between
Bearings configuration.

Another common name for Impeller Between Bearings Centrifugal


pumps is Double Suction pumps. This name is often used because the
impeller is a closed impeller with two suction eyes, one on each side,
hence the name Double Suction pump.

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Multistage Pump

Multiple-stage pump with three stages (impellers)

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Section 4

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Centrifugal Pump Operation
Improper operation of centrifugal pump can result in damage to the
pump and loss of function of the system that the pump is installed in.
It is helpful to know what conditions can lead to pump damage to
allow better understanding of pump operation procedures and how the
procedures aid the operator in avoiding pump damage.
Define the following items
Pump terms
Net positive suction head
Cavitation

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Pump Basic
DO YOU KNOW YOUR CENTRIFUGAL PUMP?

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Pump Basic
In order to understand MECHANICAL SEALS
It is equally important to know something about the operating
of a Centrifugal Pump !

Pump operation can


effect the performance If a pump does not run
of a mechanical seal ! smoothly, it will be the
seal that fails First!

Do not blame the seal ! Always check for reasons


that may be connected with the performance of the
pump !

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Pump Terms

As with any subject, there are essential terms that we must understand
without this knowledge of terms, it is very difficult to know pump
operation and system.

Pressure Terms:

Pressure is a Term that has many meanings to different people. It is


important that we define these various pressure terms and their
differences in order to understand pump operation.

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Pump Terms
The Pressure :
Pressure is defined as a force acting over an area. Pressure, when
applied to a surface such as a fluid , acts in all directions equally.
Pressure will move through the path of least resistance. Pressure is often
expressed in pounds per square inch (psi or bar.
The atmospheric pressure:
Atmospheric pressure is the force exerted on an area by the weight of
the atmosphere. Atmospheric pressure will be different in Denver,
Colorado than it is in Miami , Florida.
The reason for this is due to the elevation with respect to sea level.
Places closer to sea level will have more of the atmosphere weighing
down on them and hence, more pressure. Atmospheric pressure at sea
level is defined as 14.69 ponds per square inch (psi) or 1.013 bar.

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The Absolute Pressure

Absolute pressure is the true total pressure. Absolute pressure is the


sum of gauge pressure and atmospheric pressure. Another way of
defining absolute pressure is, the amount by which the measured
pressure exceeds a perfect vacuum. Absolute pressure is measured
in units of psia or bar abs.

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The Gauge Pressure
Gauge pressure is the difference between a given fluid pressure and
that of the atmosphere. Gauge pressure is measured by a mechanical
or electrical device known as a pressure gauge.

Another way of stating gauge pressure is, the amount by which the
measured pressure is greater than atmospheric pressure.

Gauge pressure is measured in units of pounds per square inch


gauge (psig) or bar gauge (barg).

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Absolute & Gauge Pressure

Absolute and gauge pressure comparisons

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The Specific Gravity
Specific gravity is the density ratio of a liquid as compared to water at a
given temperature.
Water is used as the standard at 14.69 psia (1.013 bar abs) and at
60F (15.5 C). Its specific gravity is 1.0 at this standard temperature
and pressure. Because specific gravity is a ratio of the same property
(i.e., density), it has no units.
If a liquid has a specific gravity ratio greater than 1.0, it will sink in
water based on the standard. If a liquid has a specific gravity less than
1.0, it will float in water based on the standard.
Specific gravity of a liquid affects pressure relative to the height of the
liquid. The power requirement changes as specific gravity changes.
Common sense will tell you that the heavier a fluid is, more energy will
be required to pump it.
Specific gravity should not be confused with viscosity. Viscosity is a
measure of a liquids resistance to flow. Specific gravity and viscosity
are both properties of liquids, but there is no correlation between them.
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The Specific Gravity

Illustration of how liquids with different specific gravities and the same column
height produce different pressures at the bottom
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The Capacity
Capacity is defined as the volume of liquid per unit time delivered by
the pump. It can also be described as the volumetric flowrate of the
fluid being transferred. The most common units for capacity are
usually gallons per minutes (GPM) or cubic meters per hour.
Centrifugal pumps do not offer a large amount of flexibility in capacity
variations without affecting the pump efficiency. Capacity is often
designated by the letter Q in current nomenclature.

When specifying capacity requirements for a centrifugal pump a range


of capacities should be stated. Minimum and maximum capacity limits
are very important. These limits ensure proper pump operation, both
mechanically and hydraulically.

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The Head
Head is a pump term often used to describe the mechanical energy
added to the fluid by centrifugal force. It is the quantity used to
express the energy content of the liquid per unit weight of the liquid.
Head is a good term to sue with centrifugal pumps because they are
constant energy devices. This means that for a given pump operating
at a certain speed and handling a definite fluid volume, the energy
transferred to this fluid (in foot Ibs. Per foot or Newtons per meter of
fluid) is the same for any fluid regardless of density.
The head generated by a given pump at a certain speed and capacity
will remain constant for all fluids, barring any viscosity effects.
Therefore, head when applied to centrifugal pumps is commonly
expressed in feet (or meters) of liquid. Head can also be used to
represent the vertical height in feet (or meters) of a static column of
liquid.

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The Head

Head
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Head vs Pressure

The Term Head is used to measure the kinetic energy created by the
pump.

In other words, head is a measurement of the height of a liquid


column that the pump could create from the kinetic energy imparted to
the liquid. Imagine a pipe shooting a jet of water straight up into the
air, the height the water goes up would be the head.

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Head vs Pressure
The main reason for using head instead of pressure to measure a
centrifugal pumps energy is that the pressure from a pump will
change if the specific gravity (weight) of the liquid changes, but the
head will not change.

Since any given centrifugal pump can move a lot of different fluids,
with different specific gravities, it is simpler to discuss the pumps
head and forget about the pressure.

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Pumping System Characteristics
Static Head Consists of :
Static suction head (hS): lifting liquid relative to pump center line.
Static discharge head (hD) vertical distance between centerline and
liquid surface in destination tank.

Static Head at certain Pressure:

Pressure (psi) X 2.31


Head (in feet) =
Specific Gravity

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Pump Curves
We know how fluid flows into and out of a pump & How a pump
converts energy to make it move. Pump will perform according to their
pump head-capacity performance curves.
It use and define how operating condition changes affect this curve.

Pump Performance Curve Definition


A pump curve, as it is commonly called, is the basis for identifying
pump operation.

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Single Pump Performance Curve
A Pump head capacity performance curve, or pump curve, is
determined from actual pump performance data in a laboratory. This
curve is a plot of a pumps ability to generate fluid flow (capacity)
against a certain head. Every pump, regardless of the manufacturer
has its own unique curve.
A Pump takes mechanical energy from a motor and transforms it to
velocity energy at the impeller vanes. The pump casing then changes
the velocity energy to a pressure energy at the pump discharge.
This pressure energy dissipates as the fluid moves through a system
(i. e., pressure drop).
The pumps head capacity curve defines how much energy is
available at a given flow rate, impeller diameter and shaft speed for
each pump size.
This pump curve is often called a Single Pump Performance Curve.

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Pumps
The Head and capacity are the main factors, which affect
the horsepower size of the motor to be used.
Head Impeller diameter, number of impellers, size of
impeller eye & shaft speed.
Capacity exit width of the impeller.

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Pump Basics
BEP point of bests eff.

Pump efficiency
Head
m|c /
eff. /
power
power
KW

Pump discharge m3/h


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Pumping System Characteristics
Pump Performance Curve

Relationship between Head and flow:


Flow Increase
Head
System resistance increases
Head increases

Flow decreases to zero


Zero flow rate : risk of pump burnout. Flow
Performance curve for centrifugal

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The Static Head
Static Head is defined as the distance measured vertically above or
below an arbitrarily selected horizontal datum level. In a simple
pumping system the horizontal datum level is usually the pump
centerline (q).
In a pumping system, this head represents the energy required to
raise the liquid from the pump centerline to the point in the pipe that
the liquid needs to be raised.
This energy will vary with specific gravity as the pressure energy
needed to raise the liquid will increase with increasing specific gravity.
Static head consists of two parts: Sustion static head and Discharge
static head. The difference between these two is called total static
head or sometimes just static head.

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Static suction Head (hs)

Suction static head for a suction lift condition

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Static suction Head (hs)

Suction static head for a flooded suction

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Static Discharge Head (hD)

Discharge static head as measured from the centerline of open pipe above the discharge tank

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Static Discharge Head (hD)

Discharge static head as measured to the level of the liquid surface in the discharge tank

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The Static Head

Illustration of static head for a flooded suction

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Static Head

Illustration of static head for a suction lift

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System With Low Static Head

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System With Low Static Head

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Dynamic (Friction) head

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A Simple Pumping System
Pumps are never installed without piping, they are always a part of a
pumping System.
If not properly designed, the system can cause the pump to fail, or at
least , cause it to perform poorly.
A pump operates as part of system, and pumping system as
mechanical Components.

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Pump Basics
Pump Head Discharge or
Head Capacity Curve is
generated from a test on the
Head pump at the pump
manufacturer's shop.

Discharge / Capacity

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Pumping System

A simple pumping system

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Pump Basics
The System curve is
based on the pipes and
fittings in the pump
Head circuit at site.
This is normally
provided by the
Engineering Cont. or
Consulting Engg. At the
project stage.

Discharge / Capacity
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Pump Basics

System Characteristics
Pump
Head
head
mlc System
Curve

Flow / Discharge cu.m / h


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Pumping System Characteristics

Pump Operation Point


Duty point: rate of flow at certain
head.
Pump operating point: intersection
of pump curve and system curve.

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AFFINITY LAWS
AFFINITY LAWS CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
If the speed or impeller diameter of a pump change, we can calculate the
resulting performance change using:
Affinity laws:
1. The flow changes in proportion to speed.
ie: double the speed / double the flow
2. The pressure chnages by the square of the difference.
ie: double the speed / multiply the pressure by 4
3. The Power changes by the cube of the difference.
ie: double the speed / multiply the power by 8
Notes:
1. These laws apply to operating points at the same efficiency.
2. Variations in impeller diameter greater than 10% are hard to predict
due to the change in relationship between the impeller and the
casing.
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Net Positive Suction Head
Net Positive suction head is the term that is usually used to describe the absolute
pressure of a fluid at the inlet to a pump minus the vapor pressure of the liquid.
The resultant value is known as the Net Positive Suction Head available.

The term is normally shortened to the acronym NPSHa, the a denotes available
A similar term is used by pump manufacturers to describe the energy losses that
occur within many pumps as the fluid volume is allowed to expand within the pump
body.
This energy loss is expressed as a head of fluid and is described as NPSHr (Net
Positive Head Suction Head requirement) the r suffix is used to denote the value is
a requirement.

Different pumps will have different NPSH requirements dependant on the impellor
design, impellor diameter, inlet type, flow rate, pump speed and other factors.
A pump performance curve will usually include a NPSH requirement graph
expressed in metres or feet head so that the NPSHr for the operating condition can
be established.
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NPSH
Pressure at the pump inlet
The fluid pressure at pump inlet will be determined by pressure on the fluid surface, the
frictional losses in the suction pipework and any rises or falls within the suction pipe
system.

NPSHa calculation

The element used to calculate NPSHa are all expressed in absolute head units.
The NPSHa is calculated from:
Fluid surface pressure + positive head pipework friction loss-fluid vapour pressure
Or
Fluid surface pressure + negative head pipework friction loss-fluid vapour pressure

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Net Positive Suction Head
Net Positive Suction Head NPSH

The difference between the actual pressure of the fluid at the pump
inlet and the vapour pressure of that fluid.

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Net Positive Suction Head
Vapor Pressure

The Pressure exerted by the vapor within a liquid

If the ambient pressure is greater than the vapor pressure then the vapor is
contained within the liquid

If the ambient pressure is less than the vapor pressure, then the vapor is
released the liquid boils.

Increasing the liquid temperature increases the vapor pressure.

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Net Positive Suction Head
saturated vapor pressure of water

100

50

(oC)

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Net Positive Suction Head

Static
Head

Net Positive Suction Head =


Ambient Pressure Head Static Head Friction Head Vapour Presure
NPSH = Hp Hs Hf Hvp

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NPSH
Net Positive Suction Head
Available (NPSHA)

Net Positive Suction Head Available (NPSHA) is the difference between


the total suction system head and the fluid vapor pressure at the suction
flange in absolute terms. NPSHA depends on the system layout and
must always be greater than NPSHR to ensure proper pump operation
and eliminate cavitation.

Knowing the liquid vapor pressure at the pumping temperature, we can


calculate NPSHA from the following equations.

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Net Positive Suction Head
Net Positive Suction Head Required (NPSHR)

As liquid enters the pump, there is a reduction of pressure and subsequent


head. This head reduction is a function of the specific pump and is
determined by laboratory testing to be stated by the pump manufacturer on a
pump curve.
Net Positive Suction Head Required (NPSHR) is the measurement of this
head reduction to determine the minimum suction head condition required to
prevent the liquid from vaporizing in the pump.

As shown below, the pressure drops to a minimum level at the impeller eye
before the liquid is acted upon by the impeller vanes. It is the minimum value
that is determined by testing and given the name Net Positive Suction Head
Required (NPSHR).

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Net Positive Suction Head

The pump has a NPSH requirement in order to prevent cavitation damage


occurring and causing severe damage.

The NPSHr increases with flow due to pump internal losses friction,
impeller losses etc.

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Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH)
Net Positive Suction Head

There are two components that must be considered:

Net Positive Suction Head Required (NPSHR)


Net Positive Suction Head Available (NPSHA)

If the NPSHA < NPSHR the pump will cavitate:

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Centrifugal Pump Characteristics

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Pumping System Characteristics

Pump Suction Performance (NPSH)


Cavitation or vaporization: bubbles inside pump
If vapor bubbles collapse
Erosion of vane surfaces
Increased noise and vibration
Chocking of impeller passages

Net Positive Suction Head


NPSH Available: how much pump suction exceeds liquid vapor pressure
NPSH Required: pump suction needed to avoid cavitation

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Net Positive Suction Head

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Section 5

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Cavitation
Gas Bubbles within the fluid (cavitation)

The Vapor pressure of a fluid is the pressure at which the fluid will boil
at ambient temperature. If the pressure within a fluid falls below the
vapor pressure of the fluid, gas bubbles will form within the fluid (local
boiling of the fluid will occur).

If a fluid which contains gas bubbles is allowed to move through a


pump, it is likely that the pump will increase the pressure within the fluid
so that the gas bubbles collapse. This will occur within the pump and
reduce the flow of delivered fluid. The collapse of the gas bubbles may
cause vibrations which could result in damage to the pipe work system
or the pump. This effect is known as cavitation.

To avoid cavitation the pressure within the fluid must be higher than the
fluid vapor pressure at all times.

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Cavitation in Centrifugal Pump
Classic Cavitation
Cavitation means many things to many people. It is also can come in a variety of forms.
The most common type is Vaporization Cavitation or Classic Cavitation.
This lesson will discribe the causes of Classic Cavitation and how it can be reduced or
eliminated
The effect of classic or Vaporization Cavitation on Pump Mechanical
Operation
Vaporization cavitation will also affect pump mechanical operation. The result of this
cavitation is sometimes severe mechanical damage. This damage usually occurs on the
impeller, but it is sometimes found on the volute. The extent of this damage depends on
the severity of the cavitation and the hardness of the impeller and volute materials.
When bubbles of vapor implode on a metal surface they do so in such a way a s to form a
toroidal shape as shown in Figure 1. This shape creates pressures in excess of 150,000
psi (10,000 bar). No known materials can withstand this type of punishment. The damage
will begin near the impeller eye and continue along the trailing edge of the impeller vanes
as shown in Figure-2.
The collapse of these bubbles creates extreme noise and vibration. This vibration can, and
often does, cause other mechanical damage to the bearings or mechanical seal. Reduced
pump reliability is the ultimate result.

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Cavitation in Centrifugal Pump

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Cavitation
Comparison of NPSHa AND NPSHr
All calculated values must be in the same units either m hd or ft hd.
If the NPSHa is greater that the NPSHr cavitation should no occur.
If the NPSHr is lower that the NPSHr then gas bubbles will form in the fluid and
cavitation will occur.
Increasing the NPSH available
Many system suffer from initial design consideration.
To increase the NPSHa consider the following:

a. Increase the suction pipe work size to give a fluid velocity of about 1
m/sec or 3 ft/sec.
b. Redesign the suction pipe work to eliminate bends, valves and
fittings where possible
c. Raise the height of the fluid container.
d. Pressurise the fluid container, but ensure thet the pressure in the
container is maintained as the fluid level is lowered.

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Result of Cavitation
Noise
Vibration
Damage to pump and piping
Reduced Flow.

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NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD TROUBLES
AND
HOW TO AVOID THEM

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(P-P v) X 2.31
Npsha = - Ha z
spgr

P = Pressure at liquid surface, psaia (atmospheric pressure in open tanks


Pv = Vapor pressure of liquid at pumping temperature
spgr = sum of all dynamic losses in the suction system, ft. These include
pipe friction and entrance loss.
Z = Static elevation difference, ft. Between liquid level and center line of
horizontal pumps or first-stage-impeller eye of vertical pumps.

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How can npsh get you into trouble?

Well assume your pump was properly applied when you originally brought
it. But now there are subtle signs of cavitation: the pump sounds as if
its pumping marbles; the impeller seems to have had a bad case of small
pox. What has happened? There are four major possibilities; lets look at
them one by one.

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Cavitations in centrifugal pumps
How to avoid cavitations
As cavitations relates only to the suction side of the pump all presentation
measures should be directed at this area.
Suction lifts that are too high will only encourage cavitations. As a
general rule, centrifugal pumps located less than 4 meters above the water
level should not experience cavitations.
The following guidelines should be applied to avoid the problem:
- minimize the number of valves and bends in the suction line.
- use eccentric reducers, not concentric.
- ensure the straight side of the eccentric reducer is installed along the top of
the suction line.
- Suction length should be as short as possible.
- Suction pipe should be at least the same diameter as the pump inlet
connection.
- use long radius bends.
- increase the size of valves and pipe work.
- do not allow air into the suction line.
- ensure adequate submergence over the foot valve. The submergence
should be at least 5.3 times the suction diameter.

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Concentric Eccentric

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Cavitation
The purpose of an eccentric reducer is to transition the
pipe sizes from a larger incoming supply to a smaller
suction inlet on the pump. Eccentric reducers are easily
identified by the fact that one side appears to be flat,
while the other side is tapered toward the suction inlet.
When the pump is fed from below or the side from an
underground water main, the eccentric reducer must be
installed with the flat side on the top, parallel to the
floor. This arrangement prevents air being trapped in
the upper portion of the fitting. Air entering the suction
side of the pump can cause dangerous cavitations.
In those configurations where the fire pump supply
comes from above, such as is the lower elevations of a
basement or from an elevated tank, the eccentric
reducer may be installed with flat side down, parallel
to the floor. When the water supply is delivered from
above, any trapped air can be bled off at the top of the
pump casing while the system is filled with water. In
todays illustration, the water supply is on the right-hand
side of the picture, and is entering the pump from
above. Therefore, it is described as a top-feed
installation and the reducer may be installed as it is
shown.

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(Flow coming from below)

(Flow coming from the Top)

Figure 1 Eccentric at the pump suction (source: the pump handbook published by McGraw-Hill)

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Principles of Operation
Centrifugal force
Based on the principle that a rapidly revolving
impeller hurls the water from the impeller eye
outward.
The faster the impeller is turned, the farther the
water us thrown increasing the velocity.

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Influencing Factors
Amount of water being discharged
Speed at which the impeller is turning
- Doubling the speed results in four times the
pressure.
Pressure of water when it enters the pump from a
pressurizes source.

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Operation
Starting the Pump
Ensure that the pump is correctly installed:
If the pump has a flush seal option, start the flow of flush water
(recommended rate is approximately 5 US gallons per hour) before operating
the pump.
Before starting the pump, prime the pump by flooding the pump casing with
liquid to avoid damaging the pump parts. Depending on the installation, refer
to either:
- Priming the Pump with the Feed Source above Pump Level.
- Priming the Pump with the Feed Source Below Pump level.
Start the pump motor.
Check the pump to ensure that the liquid is flowing and that all piping
connections and seals are leak-free.
Make sure that the pump is not operating against a closed discharge.
Continued operation against a closed discharge will heat the liquid in the
casing to boiling and lead to pump damage.
Slowly open the discharge valve until the desired flow is obtained. Observe
the pressure gauges. If pressure is not attained quickly, stop the pump and
prime it again.

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Operation
Priming the Pump
Priming the Pump with the Feed
Source above Pump Level:
Fill the supply tank with liquid
and open the supply line
(suction) valve (see the Figure,
item B).
Open the discharge valve to
vent any air trapped in the
supply line or casing (see the
Figure, Item A).
Resume the Starting the
Pump.

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Operation
Priming the Pump
Priming the Pump with the Feed
Source above Pump Level:
The pump will not self-prime if the liquid
supply is below the pump level. If the
liquid supply is below the pump level,
provide an outside source for priming.
Close the discharge valve (see the
Figure, item C) and open the air vents.
Open the valve in the outside supply line
(see the Figure, item A) until liquid fows
from the vent valves.
Close the vent valves.
Close the outside supply line.
Note: use a type of check valve system
(see the Figure Item B) to keep the
supply line and pump casing flooded with
liquid otherwise the pump must be
primed before each operation.
Resume the Starting the Pump.

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Operation
Stopping the Pump
To Stop the pump, shut off power to the pump motor.

Note: Liquid in the system can flow freely through the pump; the pump
does not act as a shutoff valve.

Shut off supply and discharge lines.

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How to operate Centrifugal pump,
working principle and type
Standard operating procedure to operate centrifugal pump is:
Suction Valve of the pump to be opened which cause fluid flow to the impeller
and fill the volute of the centrifugal pump.
Open the vent valve which is on the discharge line before the discharge valve
of the centrifugal pump which cause all air to move out of the casing and filled
with pumping fluid only.
When some quantity of the fluid comes out from the vent valve close the
valve.
Now open the bypass valve of the discharge valve which is near or side of the
discharge valve on discharge line.
Now start the pump and let it attain its capacity in the pressure gauge on the
discharge line.
When the pressure gauge is stable it is time to open that discharge valve of
the centrifugal pump.
These steps are considered as standard operating procedure for most of the
centrifugal pumps in chemical industries.
Note: Check periodical maintenance log book to confirm about cleaning of the
strainer in the suction line and fitted back, to protect the impeller from
damage.

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Operation

Before First Startup Clean pump and Piping:


Disassemble the pump and clean all product contact parts and
seal parts prior to first operation. Thoroughly clean the pump
of any materials that could have accumulated during
installation.
Cleaning Safety
Procedures Manual Cleaning
DO not use toxic and / or flammable solvents.
Warning: to prevent an accidental Lock out electrical power and shut off all air prior to cleaning
start-up, lock out the power
source using your lock and key the equipment.
Keep electrical panel covers closed and power off when
washing the equipment.
Clean up spills as soon as possible.
Never attempt to clean the equipment while it is operating.
Wear proper protective clothing.

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Operation
Cleaning-In-Place (CIP)
Make Certain that all connections in the cleaning circuit are properly applied
and tightened to avoid contact with hot water or cleaning solutions.
When the cleaning cycle is controlled from a remote or automated cleaning
center, establish safe procedures to avoid automatic start-up while servicing
equipment in the circuit.

Preliminary test Run


Test the system using a preliminary run with the materials that will be
pumped. DO NOT run the pump to produce final product at this time.

Check for possible Motor Overload Condition


Certain combinations will overload the motor when operated with open
unrestricted discharge, resulting in an unacceptably high flow rate. Additional
discharge restriction may be required to lower the flow rate and lower
horsepower requirement. Do NOT add any restriction to the supply line. If the
pump was incorrectly selected, a smaller impeller or a higher motor
horsepower may be required. If you are uncertain about pump selection and
application, temporarily install an ammeter in the electrical service.

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Pump Basics
Pump Operation:
Single pump
pumps running in parallel
pumps running in series

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SERIES AND PARALLEL OPERATION
OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
A centrifugal pump will pump fluid at the point where the system curve
intersects the pump curve.

If you need more flexibility you can install another pump and operate
it in either series or parallel with the first pump.

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SERIES OPERATION
Centrifugal pumps are connected in series if the discharge of one
pump is connected to the suction side of a second pump. Two similar
pumps, in series, operate in the same manner as a two-stage
centrifugal pump.
Each of the pumps is putting energy into the pumping fluid, so the
resultant head is the sum of the individual heads.
Some things to consider when you connect pumps in series:
Both pumps must have the same width impeller or the difference in
capacities (GPM or Cubic meters/hour.) Could cause a cavitations
problem if the first pump cannot supply enough liquid to the second
pump.
Both pumps must run at the same speed ( same reason).
Be sure the casing of the second pump is strong enough to resist the
higher pressure. Higher strength material, ribbing, or extra bolting may
be required.

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SERIES OPERATION
The stuffing box of the second pump will see the discharge pressure
of the first pump. You may need a high- pressure mechanical seal.
Be sure both pumps are filled with liquid during start up and
operation.
Start the second pump after the first pump is running.

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The basics of Parallel & Series
Operation of Pump
Parallel & Series Operation
The use of two or more pumps to increase flowrate is called Parallel pumping. The
use of two or more pumps to increase head(pressure) is called Series pumping.
Operation of pumps under these circumstances may appear simple, but these are
more complex issues to consider, ie:

In series applications: consider the pressure rating of pump, shaft


seal, pipework and fittings. Placement is critical to ensure both
pumps are operating within their recommended range and will
have a constant supply of water.

Drawing a curve for 2 or more pumps is simple, draw 1st curve


then draw 2nd curve, adding the head each pump produces at the
same flow. More curves can be added in the same way.

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The basics of Parallel & Series
Operation of Pump (Pressure)

Pressure (Series) Setting

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Parallel Operation
Pumps are operated in parallel when two or more pumps
are connected to a common discharge line, and share the
same suction conditions.
Some things to consider when pumps are operated in
parallel:
Both pumps must produce the same head this usually
means they must be running at the same speed, with the
same diameter impeller.
API 610, states that when pumps are run in parallel, the
head shall rise at least 10% of the head at rated capacity.
(this is called a stable curve because there is a
continuous rise to shutoff).

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The basics of Parallel & Series
Operation of Pump
In parallel applications: confirm suitability of pumps by drawing a system curve (often
2 pumps will only deliver slightly more than one pump due to excessive friction loss.
also you can confirm that pump operation will be with in its recommended range.).
Non return values are required especially if one pump operates alone at times.
Dissimilar pumps or pumps placed at different heights requires special investigation.

Drawing a curve for 2 or more pumps is simple, draw


1st pump curve then draw 2nd curve, adding the flows
each pump delivers at the same head. More curves can
be added in the same way.
Once the curve for the two pumps has peen drawn ,add
the system curve, the point where the system curve
crosses the curve for two pumps, indicates the total
flow from two pumps. Draw a horizontal line from this
point back to the head axis. Where this horizontal line
crosses the curves for a single pump indicates the
amount of flow contributed by that pump to the total
flow.
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The basics of Parallel & Series
Operation of Pump (Volume)

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Pump Basics
Pump op point /
Head parallel operation

Pump op point /
single bump running

Discharge

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Parallel & Series Operation

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Section 6

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Trouble Shooting

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Pump trouble shooting centrifugal
pumps

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Trouble Shooting

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PUMP OPERATION PROBLEM
SOLVING
General

Pump Problems can be either caused by :


Mechanical Problem with Pump
Or
Pump System Problem

Truth
The Great Majority of Pump Problems are with the Pump System.
The Majority of Pump System Problems are on the Suction Side.
Pump Problems are usually associated with Noisy Operation.

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Insufficient Pressure

Speed too slow (check voltage)


Impeller trimmed incorrectly
Impeller loose
Impeller plugged
Wear rings worm
Entrained air in pump
Leaking joints or bowl casings
Wrong rotation
Incorrect impeller adjustment

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No Liquid Delivered
Pump suction broken (water level bellow inlet)
Suction valve closed
Impeller plugged
Strainer clogged
Wrong rotation
Shaft broken or unscrewed
Impeller loose
Barallel or discharge not vented
Driver incorporate

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Vibration
Motor imbalance electrical
Motor bearing not properly seated or worn
Motor drive coupling out of the balance or alignment
Misalignment of pump, casings, discharge head column, or bowies.
Discharge head misaligned by improper mounting or pipe strain
Bent shafting
Worn pump bearings
Clogged impeller or foreign material in pump
Improper impeller adjustment
Vertex problems in sump
Resonance system frequency at or near pump speed
Cavitation
Impeller out of balance

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Insufficient Capacity
Speed to slow
Impeller trimmed incorrectly
Impeller loose
Impeller or bowl partially plugged
Leaking joints
Strainer or suction pipe clogged
Suction valve throttle
Low water level
Wrong rotation
Insufficient submergence
Insufficient N.P.S.H.
Incorrect impeller adjustment
Worm pump
System pressure higher than design

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Abnormal Nose
Motor noise

Pump bearing running dry

Broken column bearing retainers

Broken shaft or shaft enclosing tube

Impellers dragging on bowl case

Cavitation due to low submergence or operation, beyond maximum


capacity rating.

Foreign material in pump

Excessive fluid velocity in pipe system.

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Problem Solving Components
SHAFT & COUPLING
Trouble Source Probable Cause Remedy
Bent Shaft Mishading in transits or assembly. Check straightness.
Correct to 0.0005ft total rubnover
or replace

Shaft Coupling unscrewed Pump started in reserve rotation Shaft may be bent check shafts &
couplings.
Correct rotation

Shaft coupling Motor started while pump running in Look for faulty check valve.
elongated (necked reverse. Could also be momentary
down) Corrosion power failure or improper
Pipe wrench fatigue on reused starting
couplings timers.
Power being applied to shafts that are Replace couplings
not butted in coupling. Check for galling on shaft ends.

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Problem Solving Components
SHAFT & COUPLING
Trouble Source Probable Cause Remedy
Broken shaft or Can be caused by same reasons Same as above
coupling listed for coupling elongation. Same as above for bearing
Can also be caused by bearings seizure
seized due to lack of fabrication Add strainers or screens
Foreign material locking impellers Check alignment of pump
or galling wear rings. components to eliminate
Material locking impellers or vibration
galling wear rings. Metal fatigue See sections on impeller
due to vibrations. adjustment and upthrusting.
Improper impeller adjustment or
continuous upthrust conditions,
causing impeller to drag.

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Problem Solving Components
BOWLS
Trouble Source Probable Cause Remedy
Wear and bowel vanes Abrasive Cost Bowls, upgrade material
or rubber line
Bell suction vanes. Cavitation Correct condition or upgrade
Wear on suction bell vanes material to extend life

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Problem Solving Components
STUFFING BOX
Trouble Source Probable Cause Remedy

Excessive leakage Improper packing procedures Repack correctly. See suction on packing.
Incorrect type of detective packing Repack with correct grade for service.

Worn shaft or sleeve Re-machine or replace scored parts

Stuffing box overheating Improper packing products Repack correctly. See suction on packing.
Packing too tight Released gland pressure.

Insufficient lubrication Repack correctly.

Incorrect type of packing Repack with correct grade for service.

Packing wear promptly Improper packing procedures Repack correctly. See suction on packing.
Insufficient lubrication Repack correctly.

Shaft or sleeve scored Re-machine or replace scored parts

Incorrect type of detective packing Repack with correct grade for service.

Abrasive in liquid Remove source of abrasives or inject

clean liquid into stuffing box at 10psi


above stuffing box pressure.

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Problem Solving Components
INNER COLUMN
Trouble Source Probable Cause Remedy
Water in inner column Bypass parts plugged Remove causes
Badly worn bypass seal or Replace worn parts

bearings Ensure tubing joint face in

Tubing joint leakage clean and burried


Cracker or hole in tubing accurately
Replace section affected.

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Problem Solving Components
IMPELLERS
Trouble Source Probable Cause Remedy
Wear and bowel vanes Abrasive action Replace impeller if excessive.
Consider coating or
upgrading materials
Pitting on entrance vanes Cavitation Correct condition or upgrade
of impeller material to oxidized life.
See section on Cavitation.
Pitting on impellers and Corrosion / Errosion Investigate cost of different materials
bowl casting vs frequency of replacements.
See section on corrosion.

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Problem Solving Components

IMPELLERS
Trouble Source Probable Cause Remedy
Wear on impeller skirts Abrasive action wear Install new bearings and wear rings.
and/or bowl sealing areas allowing impeller skirts to Upgrade material if abrasive action
function as bearing journal. Re-ring & adjust impellers correctly.
Impellers set too high

Impeller and seal wear Improper impeller djustment. Install L shaped bowl wear rings.
Impeller running on bottom Adjust impeller setting per
manufacturer recommendation.

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Problem Solving Components
IMPELLERS
Trouble Source Probable Cause Remedy

Impeller loose on shaft Repeated shock load by surge Re-fit impellers. If collect
(extremely loose on in suction or discharge line (can mounted, consider changing to
shaft, extremely rare loosen first or last stage key mounting.
occurance) impellers) Remove cause of jamming.
Foreign material jamming If collect mounted, consider
impeller (may break shaft or trip changing to key mounted. Avoid
overloads before impeller sudden thermal shock.
becomes loose) Correct parts if necessary and
Differential expansion due to re-fit.
temperature Add key way to collect
Parts improperly machined mounting.
and/or assembled.
Torsion loading on submersible
pumps.

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Problem Solving Components
BEARINGS
Trouble Source Probable Cause Remedy

Premature bearing wear Abrasive action Consider conversion to fresh water


flushing on all bearings or pressure
grease or oillubrication.
Bearing seized or galling Running dry without Check lubrication, look for plugged
on shaft lubrication suction or evidence of flashing.

Bearing failure or High temperature failure Check pump manufacturer for bearing
bearing seized temperature limits. General
temperature limits shown on page.
Excessive shaft wear Rubber bearings will swell Change bearing material
under rubber bearings in hydrocarbon. H2S & HI
temperature

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Problem Solving Components
BEARINGS
Trouble Source Probable Cause Remedy

Uneven wear on Pump non rotating parts Check mounting & discharge pipe
bearing, uniform wear on misaligned connection, dirt between column
shaft joints.
Correct misalignment, replace
bearings & repair or replace shaft.
Uniform wear on Abrasive action Replace parts, consider changing
bearing and shaft materials or means of lubrication.

Uniform wear on Shaft run out caused by Straighten shaft or replace, clean &
bearings, uneven wear bent shafts, shafts not assemble correctly.
on shaft butted in couplings, dirt or Face parallel and concentric
grease between shafts.
Shaft ends not properly
faced.

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Bearing Failure
Bearing Failure
Bearing Failure is on the most common pump
failures found in industry. Assuming the bearing is
properly sized and installed, the most common
cause of bearing failure is lubrication
contamination. This lesson will identify ways to
reduce lubrication contamination using various
methods of bearing protection.

The function of Bearing Protection


Bearing Protection functions to keep oil (lubricants)
in the oil sump area and contaminants out.
Contaminants include: Water, dirt, and any other
abrasive material that can damage the bearings.
Bearing protection is located on each end of the
power end. The three typical forms of bearing
protection are lip seals, labyrinth seals, and gear
box seals.
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The limitations of Labyrinth Seals
The limitations of Labyrinth Seals

Labyrinth seals are becoming more popular to use


as a form of bearing protection. There are several
manufacturers of labyrinth seals.
Labyrinth seals are two-piece, non-contacting seals
that are installed in the bearing bore of the pump
power end on each side.
Labyrinth seals do not contact the pump shaft at the
sealing point so they do not fret the pump shaft like
lip seals. Labyrinth seals form a tortuous path that
makes it difficult for lubricants to exit or contaminants
to enter the pump power end. Since labyrinth seals
do not wear out, they will virtually last a lifetime.

One limitation to labyrith seals is the fact that they


are not positive sealing devices. This means that
pressure on either side of the seal can, if pushed
through the tortuous path, result in lubricants exiting
and / or contaminants entering the pump power end.
They also cannot be used in vertical applications, as
oil would drain out.

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Lip Seals

Lip seals are positive contact rubbing seals Another limitation with lip seals is that they fret
that are located on the pump power end. Lip or groove the shaft over time. This fretting
seals contact the rotating pump shaft. damages the shaft. When worn lip seals are
These seals are designed to allow a very replaced with new seals, they will not seal
small amount of leakage. The leakage acts properly on a damaged shaft.
as a lubricant for the lip seal contact area. The shaft often has to be repaired or replaced.
The illustration below shows a shaft damaged
Lip seals have some very limiting by a lift seal.
drawbacks. The majority of these seals
have a small finite life span. This averages
out to be 2 4 months on most pumps.
Another problem with lip seals is that they
fret or groove the shaft over time. This
fretting allows oil leakage out and
contaminants into the pump, not to mention
the damage it does to the shaft.

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Lip Seals

Typical Lip Seal

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CENTRIFUGAL PUMP CLINIC
Visual examination of pumps.
Net positive suction head troubles- and how to avoid them.
Trouble shooting of centrifugal pumps.

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VIBRATION
Excessive vibration can lead to sudden and catastrophic failure in a
pump
when a sufficient number of vibration cycles occur, exceeding a given
components material fatigue level.
Vibration levels should be carefully monitored during pump operation.
Levels
which are outside of the pump manufacturers limits should be
investigated as
soon as possible. General causes of excessive vibration are rotating
element
imbalance, and worn or loose parts or misalignment.

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PUMP NOISE
Pump noise is not a destructive in itself, but it can be an indication of
operation away from the design point, an intake flow disturbance or
cavitation.
Cavitation noise occurs when a system pressure adjacent to a flow
bounday is
reduced below the vapor pressure of the liquid. The net result is that
voids
are formed in the fluid which can travel with the flow and collapses as
they
encounter higher pressure areas.

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CAVITATION
The cavitation process in a liquid can be described as a gas or gasvapor
filled bubble which collapses or implodes when the vapors condense and
the gas goes into solution. Cavitation begins with the bubble formation
and extends through the cavity collapse. This collapse produces enough
energy to erode even the most durable metals used in a pump.
Cavitation pitting typically occurs on or near the pump impeller. Severe
Cavitation may exhibit itself as small holes in the metal. These holes
create additional under pressure areas and the Cavitation damage may
continue at an accelerating rate in areas of large material loss.

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Cavitation can be manifested by one or more of the following
signs:
Noise and Vibration

Drop in Head-Capacity and Efficiency Curves


Impeller Vane Pitting
Fatigue Failure of Metals

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Factors which affect the suction requirements of the pump are
Impeller eye diameter
Suction area of impeller

Shape and number of vanes


Area between vanes
Shape of suction passage
Impeller suction specific speed

Friction loss of inlet piping


Uniform flow approach velocity to the pump suction
Intake design

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TO GUARD AGAINST
CENTRIFUGAL-PUMP FAILURES,
KNOW
THEIR PRIMARY CAUSES

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Section 7

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Basic maintenance

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Pump Maintenance
The efficiency of pump units relates directly to dollars. Either dollars into
your pocket or out of it. The Correct selection, operation and
maintenance of pump units is essential if maximum efficiency and
operational life is to be achieved. Pump units not operated on their most
efficient points suffer from extra mechanical damage through additional
stress being applied and in some cases cavitations damage to impellers
and pump parts. The cost per kilolitre of water pumped is increased and
correct coverage or application rates from sprinklers may not be
achieved resulting in crop loss. The efficiency of pump units can be
maintained and in some cases increased by employing modern overhaul
methods, the use of mechanical seals and internal glazing.

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Pump Maintenance
Why perform Maintenance?
Maintenance of mechanical and electrical plant is essential if equipment is to
remain in a safe and reliable condition and perform the duty it was designed
to do and in a cost effective manner.
We maintain equipment to ensure:
Reliability
Efficiency
Extend the assets service life.
Maintenance levels vary depending on the complexity of equipment and the
consequence of failure. We must ensure our pumps and motors are
maintained in a safe and reliable condition. The level of maintenance and
expenditure can be evaluated by considering the cost of failure.
Evaluate the risk to personal safety and environment damage.
Crop loss
Cost of emergency arrangements
Cost of emergency repairs
Total cost of asset

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Pump Maintenance
What type of maintenance is applicable for a block pump?
Maintenance can be performed by having procedures based on :
Reactive Maintenance:
Maintenance is performed only when it has failed and you are required to
act immediately.
This form of maintenance can be supported by spare or in some cases a
spare pump so that down time is kept to a minimum.
Reactive Maintenance is not a good method.
Preventative Maintenance:
This form of maintenance required you to act just prior to failure.
Deciding on what has to be performed and when is it a major problem.
Predictive Maintenance:
By recording selected readings, not operational conditions you can try to
predict when the unit may fail and of course act prior to this point being
reached.
Predictive maintenance is the best method.

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Important Safety Precautions
Pump parts, tools, and rigging equipment used in installing pumps are heavy and may easily
cause personal injury if dropped or carelessly handled. The normal precautions and safety rules
associated with the erection of heavy machinery, use of power equipment, manual lifting, and
handling of tools must be observed in the installation of this pump.
Do not work under a heavy suspended object unless there is a positive support under it to stop
its fall in event of sling or hoist failure. Disregard of this warning could result in grave injury.
Before opening the conduit box of an electric motor, be certain that the current to the motor is
shut off and the breakers are locked out. An electrical shock from contact with live motor leads
can be fatal.
The motor canopy (cover) must be in place when the pump is in operation. If exposed, rotating
parts below this cover could cause grave personal injury.
Petroleum-based cleaning solvents are flammable. Smoking by personal in the vicinity of these
solvents is extremely hazardous and must not be permitted. Also, in many areas, the use of
these contaminating and hazardous solvents is illegal. Consult the local EPA/Air Quality officials
for instructions.
The pumps described in this manual should not be installed in any
manner except as specified herein, and must not be operated at
speeds, capacities, pressures, or temperatures other than those
specified on this order.
These pumps must not be used to pump any fluid other than those
specified for the order.
Violation of this warning will void the manufacturers warranty and
may result in serious property damage or grave personal injury.

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Pump Maintenance
There are other preventative maintenance programs such as
Continuous Diagnostic Maintenance which takes constant readings
and notes any significant change in the readings. Machine history is
also a good tool to predict the life of a pump. It is based upon like
operation in that it relies upon the history of the previous unit relating
to the present unit. Since the taking of readings and observations
form a vital part of most maintenance programs what should be
looked for?
Heat in bearings and glands.
Pressure pump discharge pressure.
Noise Cavitations, bearings.
Flow a drop off in Flow.
Leakage glands piping oil or grease.
Power consumption
Vibration an increase could indicate problems.

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Important Safety Precautions
Making your Pump Last
The Following check list may aid you in keeping your pumps in top condition.
Check the following points on a monthly basis:
Priming speed
Capacity
Noise in pump casing
Gaskets and O-rings.
Shaft seal leakage of air and water.
Hose, hose washers and suction strainer.
Crankcase oil level (engine).
Spark plug condition (engine).
Air cleaner (engine).
Unusual engine noise.
Proper RPM (engine).
Carburetor adjustment (engine).

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Important Safety Precautions
The Following check list may aid you in keeping your pumps in top
condition.
Check the following points every 6 months:
Impeller wear
clearance between impeller face and the volute (refer to
manufacturers recommendations)
Shaft seal wear.
Shaft sleeve wear.
Clean the casing and volute passages.

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Two Types of Maintenance

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Maintenance Strategies

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Maintenance Strategies

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Maintenance Strategies

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Maintenance Strategies

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VIBRATION MONITORING AND
ANALYSIS

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Vibration Measurements
Bearing vibration
Shaft vibration
Relative shaft vibration

The vibration measurement parameters are


Displacement
Velocity
Acceleration

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Overview
Before starting measurements technique there are
many points to be explained to have a clear
understood and the meaning of each term.

Properties of Vibration
Frequency
Amplitude
Phase

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Vibration Frequency

Vibration frequency is the measure of the number of


complete cycles that occurs in a specified period of time.
Frequency of vibration is expressed in cycles per second
(CPS) or Hertz (Hz), and it may be expresses in multiplies
of rotative speed of the machine, it is useful to consider
frequency in terms of one times RPM, ____ of RPM, where
is the rotative speed of the machine.

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Amplitude

The amplitude is the amount of vibration motion, or the distance that the
system will vibrate or move from its equilibrium position which is termed
as vibration displacement. The change of distance with respect to time, is
the second term of amplitude and called as vibration velocity. The
change of velocity with respect to Lime is the third measure and termed
as vibration acceleration.

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The amplitude of vibration is expressed as follows:

Amplitude Units Measurements


Displacement Miles or micrometers peak to peak
Velocity In/sec or cm/sec 0-to-peak

Acceleration In/sec2 or cm/sec2 or gs 0-to-peak


The possible damage caused by vibration is increasing by speed.

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Vibration Phase

It is defined as the position of a vibrating part at a given instance with


reference to a fixed point or another vibration part. IL is a convenient
way to compare one vibration motion with another.

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Measurement Positions and Directions

Vibration measurement are often applied at the bearings of the


machine. As the vibrations transfers through bearings therefore the
vibration, pick-up should be placed on or very near to the machine
bearings. The directions of measurement are radial and axial, the
radial direction is the horizontal and vertical directions. To measure
the radial direction to the transducer tip direction should be at right
angle with the axis of the rotating shaft.

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Velocity Pick-ups
Velocity pick-ups are the most widely used for vibration measurement
in general cases, and analysis. It is light and hand held. It is
constructed. As from theories the movement of a coil in a magnetic
field produces certain voltage depends in its value on velocity of
movement. The velocity pick-ups measure vibration frequencies
higher than the natural frequency off the spring-mass system of the
pick-up. This self generating, and not required any outside excitation.
It is called seismic transducers.

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Velocity pick=up range

The frequency range is 10 Hz to 1000 Hz (60-60000 RPM) The


measuring unit is mm/sec or in/sec a peak.

The measuring of machinery vibrations is a method to detect the


changes in vibration levels which is an indication for trouble of reliable

operation.

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Acceleration Transducers

Accelerometers are operating at high frequency levels acceleration


measuring unit are in terms of (gs) where g is the earth gravity 9.81
m/sec2 or = 32.18 fb/sec2. The construction of the transducer and the
theory of operations is simply depend on the mechanical stress on the
disks which in term produces pressure on the crystal which produces
certain output volt.

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Non Contact Pick-ups

This type is used for high speed machines to measure relative shaft
vibration. This is applied in case of high speed centrifugal pumps,
compressors and turbo generators. Non contact proximity can indicate
the case of each hearing, the gap measurement, and the shaftrun out.

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Axial Position Measurement

Machines as compressors, pumps and turbines have small axial and


radial clearance between the rotating element (rater) and casing
(housing). The axial probes are fixed to prevent touching or rubbing
between the rotating and stationary elements in the machine, it
measures the change of the gap between the probe tip and the thrust
bearing collar or the end of the shaft. In some cases two axial probes
are fitted one for bearing and one for shaft.

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SHAFT ALIGNMENT

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ALIGNMENT
The purpose of shaft alignment is to position the driving machine
shaft accurately in relation to the driven machine shaft. Misalignment
causes sever stresses to both driver and driver machine parts. The
meaning of alignment is that the center line of driver machine such as
on electrical motor, steam turbine, or gas turbine must be concentric
with the center line of the driven machine such as a pump, compressor
or electrical generator.

Proper alignment should provide accurate concentricity and minimum


offset of the shaft axes.

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Results of misalignment are briefly as follow:

Overloading and burning of Bearings (both radial and thrust Bearings).


Shaft bending or breakage
Rubbing of sealing components
Freezing (locking) of geared couplings
Couplings failure
Causes vibration
Fretting of shafts under coupling hubs or thrust collars
High consumption and waste of power
As a result, alignment is of the utmost importance to rotating machinery

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Thermal Expansion

As the rotating equipment comes up to speed, the operating


temperatures of the equipment are increased by the compressor and
combustion heat of the turbine in addition to heat generated by friction.
These temperatures produce elevated heat which effect the mechanical
parts and cause them too expand

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The amount and direction of this growth of heat can be accurately taken,
into consideration for smooth and efficient operation of the equipment
thermal expansion becomes a critical problem. The designer must
attempt to represent the thermal growth in vertical and horizontal planes.
Fig shows the effect of thermal expansion on the centre lines of rotating
equipment.

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Misalignment Types

The terms most commonly used to describe the types of misalignment


encountered between two rotating machines are:-

Parallel Misalignment
Angular Misalignment
Combination Misalignment (Parallel and Angular)

figure shows the three different types of misalignment

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Misalignment
Misalignment exists when there is a sliding motion between the
floating members of a coupling. The degree of misalignment of a
coupling can be tolerated during operation without having an adverse
effect on the coupled machines. This is known as the allowable
alignment tolerance. The misalignment we are concerned with is a
degree of misalignment between the floating members of the coupling.
The basic objective in coupling alignment is to eliminate or control the
amount of movement between the floating members of the coupling as
well as to reduce the shaft misalignment to an acceptable level, be
within alignment tolerances.

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Parallel and angular misalignment are in two planes

Vertical movement (up and down)


Lateral movement (ring and left)

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Alignment Procedure
Using Straight edge and feeler gauge:

Alignment adjustment using straight edge and feeler gauge is done at


two views:

a. Side View
Readings are taken at 12 oclock (Top) and 6 oclock (Bottom). In this
view adding shims or removing shims under the movable machine.

b. Top View
Readings are taken from the pump at 3 oclock (Right) and 9 oclock
(left). In this view moving the movable machine.

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Loosen the mounting bolts enough to move the motor must be equally
from the near and the rear foot or from the middle between the near
and far foot and using a hard rubber hammer or brass hammer with
flexible handle.

Repeat the procedure to the final check

Tight the mounting bolts and check from side view and top view.

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Note:

Bore adjustment is the correction of the parallel misalignment both


vertical (at 12 oclock and 6 oclock) and lateral (at 3 oclock and 9
oclock).

Vertical bore adjustment is adding or removing shims from under the


four feet.

In lateral adjustment move the motor equally from near and rear foot
from right (3 oclock) to left (9 oclock) or vice versa.

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Note that:
If the largest gap is at 12 oclock shims must be put under far foot of the
motor.

If the largest gap is at 6 oclock shims must be put under the near foot or
the Motor.

The difference between gaps =

The largest gap is at = ( ) 12 oclock, ( ) 6 oclock

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Section 8

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Fuel Unloading Pumps

Unloading Pumps

Pump Motor

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Fuel Unloading / Forwarding / Transfer

There are a wide range of fuels that a plant


can burn and they arrive into a power plant
through
various means rail car, ship, tank truck, etc.
Unloading pumps feed directly into storage
tank often
times without a control valve/system and are
found on the vehicle or may be part of the
tank storage
System.

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Fuel Unloading / Forwarding / Transfer

Our experience shows that when fuel is allowed to sit in a rail car, tank truck,
etc. the viscosity of the fluid can increase. This change results increased
input torque requirements and potentially the delivered. In positive
displacement pumps, the delivered flow will increase and in centrifugal
pumps the amount will be decrease. It is important when sizing your pump to
consider the properties of the fluid, pressure, supply and operational
objectives.

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Unloading Pumps

Unloading pump can transfer medium


that is flow low viscosity to high viscosity,
or with larger particles of impurities.

It can be widely used in environmental


protection, chemicals, petroleum, mining,
construction, shipping.

Flow range can cover 10m3/h


200m3/h
Efficiency is higher, upto 80%

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Unloading Pumps

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Fuel Unloading Pumps

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Fuel Unloading Pumps
Etachrom NC 040-160 SP
Standardpump acc. EN 733
Operating Data
Requested flow rate 50.00m3/h Actual flow rate 50.03m3/h
Requested developed head 30.00 m Actual developed head 30.04 m
Pumped medium Fuel, kerosene Efficiency 73.7%
Kerosene JP4 Power absorbed 4.28kw
Materials are not affected by Pump speed of rotation 2929rpm
chemical and mech. substances NPSH required 3.15m
Fluid temperature 20.00C Permissible operating pressure 12.00bar.g
Fluid density 770 kg/m3 Discharge press. 2.27 bar.g
Fluid viscosity 0.50 mm2/s

Motor Connections
Motor manufacturer KSB Suction nominal size DN1 DN 65 / EN 1092-2
Motor size 132S Discharge nominal size DN2 DN 40 / EN 1092-2
Motor power 5.50kw Nominal pressure suct. PN 16
Speed of rotation 2929 rpm Rated pressure disch. PN 16
Position of terminal box 00/3600 (top) Flanges DN65 will be drilled with 4
holes
Baseplate Coupling
Design U-Beam / folded plate Coupling manufacturer Flender
Size 1A Coupling type Eupex N
Material Steel ST Coupling size 80
Leakage drain, baseplate RP1 Without Spaces 0.0 mm

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Fuel Unloading Pumps

Performance curve

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Types of Fire Pumps

Centrifugal Pumps.
Can not pump Air
Capable of 100% slippage.
The main fire pump used on modern fire apparatus.
Classified as a nonpositive displacement pump.
Imparts velocity on water and coverts it to pressure.
Single or multiple stage.

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Fire Pumps

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Horizontal Split case Design
Impeller Double Suction Type

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Overhung End Suction API
Standard Process Pump

Operating Parameters:
Flows to 1100 m3/h (4800 gpm)
Heads to 230m (755ft)
Temperatures to 350 c (660 f)
Working pressures to 60 bar ( 870 psi)
Suction pressures to 50 bar ( 725 psi)

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Reddy Buffaloes Pumps
(Used for Electrical and Diesel fire pumps)
Fire Pumps Overview
Horizontal Split Case Fire Pumps

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Reddy Buffaloes Pumps

A fire pump is a part of a fire sprinkler systems water supply and can be
powered by electric, diesel or stream. The pump intake is either connected to
the public underground water supply piping, or a static water source (e.g., tank,
reservoir, lake).
The pump provides water flow at a higher pressure to the sprinkler system
risers and hose standpipes. A fire pump is tested and listed for its use
specifically for fire service by a third-party testing and listing agency, such as UL
or FM Global. The main code that governs fire pump installations in North
America is the National Fire Protection Associations NFPA 20 Standard for the
Installation of Stationery Fire Pumps for Fire Protection.

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Reddy Buffaloes Pumps

Operation
The pump starts when the pressure in the fire sprinkler system drops a
threshold. The sprinkler system pressure drops significantly when one or
more fire sprinklers are exposed to heat above their design temperature, and
opens, releasing water. Alternatively, other fire hoses reels or other
firefighting connections are opened, causing a pressure drop in the fire
fighting main.

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Reddy Buffaloes Pumps

General
Horizontal Split Case pumps have
been specifically designed for fire
pump requirements, utilizing the latest
hydraulic techniques available. All the
fire pumps are manufactured to high
standards of quality in the material,
construction, and workmanship of
each unit.
Casing
The casing are of high quality cast
iron, with a minimum tensile strength
of 40,000 PSI. The casing is a split-
case design simplifying inspection
and disassembly.

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Reddy Buffaloes Pumps

Shaft
The shafts are alloy steel, machined and ground to close tolerances. They are
sized to transmit the torque and handle the imposed hydraulic loads, all while
maintaining a minimum amount of deflection under any flow condition.

Impeller
The double-suction impellers are bronze, enclosed design, keyed to the shaft, and
secured by adjustable shaft sleeves. All impellers are dynamically balanced to
ensure smooth operation. The double suction feature balances out hydraulic
thrust loads. Impeller wear rings are an available option.

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Reddy Buffaloes Pumps
Shaft Sleeves
To protect the shaft against wear and corrosion, bronze shaft sleeves are
provided. The shaft sleeves are threaded to the position and hold the impeller in
place. The sleeves are double set screwed and key locked to prevent their rotation
in either direction. They extend from the impeller to slightly beyond the seal box
area.

Casing Wear Rings


Bronze wear rings provide the sealing between the suction and discharge areas of
the casing. The rings are staked by stainless steel pins to prevent their rotation.

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Fire Fighting Sets

As a main pump of the fire fighting sets


different types of pumps are used.
According to the required capacity and
head values most suitable pumps are
selected and delivered to the user as
installed on base frame coupled with
electric motors and / or diesel engines.

Fire fighting pumps complying with


NFPA 20 and TS EN 12845
Horizontal end suction pumps
Horizontal split casing pumps
Horizontal multi stage pumps
Jockey pumps (Vertical)

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Fire Pumps
Standard Sizes
NFPA20 standard Fire Pump Capacities (GPM)
20 50 100 150 200 250 300 400 450 500 750 1000 1250 1500 2000 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000

The National Fire Protection Associations, Technical committee on Fire Pumps is


made up of representatives of Underwriters Laboratories (UL), of both the United
States of Canada, Insurance Service Offices (ISO), Factory Mutual (FM),
Industrial Risk Insurers (IRI), national trade associations, state government and
fire protection equipment manufacturers. This committee is responsible for the
preparation of the standard known as N.F.P.A pamphlet#20.

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Fire Pumps
N.F.P.A # 20 deals with the selection
and installation of pumps supplying
water for private fire protection. This
standard covers the application, test,
operation and maintenance of the fire
pump system. N.F.P.A # 20 is the basic
standard for centrifugal fire pumps and
is recognized by both stock and mutual
insurance organizations. Each of these
maintains their own standards, testing
facilities and approving organizations.
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Fire Pumps
LABELED FIRE PUMPS
All labeled fire pumps must be specifically approved and/or listed for fire pump
service. The capacity ratings are established by N.F.P.A#20 and are
recognized by both UL. and FM. The selection tables in the following Section
1510 cover the permissible operating ranges for electric motor and diesel
engine driven fire pumps. They have unique performance criteria which must
be met in order to be labeled. The following defines the performance
requirements of the Horizontal Fire Pumps.

All UL. Listed pumps will have All FM. approved fire pumps will All ULC listed fire pumps will
the above identification mark have the above identification have the above identification
on pump nameplate. mark on pump nameplate mark on pump nameplate

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Fire Pumps Standard

NFPA 20 (National Fire Protection Association) is standard


which defines fire pump groups and installations for fire
protection. Pumps used in Turbosan fire fighting sets complies
with NFPA 20 but not listed.
Q/H curve fire fighting pumps must be flat as much as possible. Thanks to this
flatness when need for higher capacity increases pressure drop will be
minimum and pressure require at sprinkler will be stable for larger flow rates.
On the performance curve Qmax value should not be less than 150% of
operating capacity. Closed valve pressure Hmax value should not be less than
40% of operation point Hm value.

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Fire Pumps Standard

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Fire Pumps Standard

Pumps Group
Pumps Group used for building fire fighting sets. They get combined in
different installations according to the operation conditions.

1) Fire fighting set with one pump or multiple pumps with electric motor
2) Fire fighting set one electric motor driven and one diesel engine driven
pump.
3) Fire fighting set with one electric motor driven and one diesel engine driven
and one jockey Pump.

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Fire Pumps Standard
The main goal of the use of multiple pumps is to have standby pump or in
case of capacity increase it is needed to change the fire fighting set. Pumps
in fire fighting set with 2 or 3 pumps must be fully complying with each other.
The goal of Jockey pump use is to sustain pressure value in the piping
installation in case of pressure leaks, without operating the main pumps.
Vertical multi stage pump used as jockey pumps.
Capacity (Q) of the jockey pumps must be 1% of main pumps capacity and
discharge head of the jockey pump must be 10m more than that of main
pump.
Example: If discharge capacity head of the main pump is
170m3/h and discharge head of the main pump is 60m,
discharge capacity of the jockey pump must be 1,7 m3h
and discharge head of the jockey pump must be
60+10=70m

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Fire Pumps Protection Systems
Most modern fire protection systems are designed to operate automatically (as
opposed to manual start). The starting sequence is initiated by a pressure
drop caused by activation of an automatic sprinkler or a deluge valve. In order
to keep the system filled and pressurized without activating the main fire pump
(s), a jockey or pressure maintenance pump is used.

The jockey pump is small, so that it can restore small system pressure losses
but cannot fulfill the large flow / pressure demands caused by activation of the
fire protection system. Any pump which is suitable for the application may used
for jockey pump service; jockey pumps are not covered by UL listing nor FM
approval requirements.

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Fire Protection Systems

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Fire Pumps

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Fire Pump Fittings
Horizontal Fire Pumps
Electric motor or Diesel Engine
Driven

Fire Pump Fittings


Ordering Information
-Continued-

Item No Description Item No Description


1 Eccentric suction Reducer* 10 Angle Hose Valve
2 Concentric Discharge Reducer* 12 Hose Valve Cap & Chain
4 Commercial Discharge Tee* 15 Automatic Air Release Valve
4A Relief Valve Elbow (included with 17 Splash Partition
Item 4)
18A Guage Protector (300 psi MWP Units
5 Direct Acting Relief Valve only)
6 Pilot Operated Relief Valve 20 Concentric Reducer (required is some
Tee assemblies)*
7 Overflow Cone*
9 Hose Valve Head*

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Fire Pump Fittings
In-Line Pumps
Capacity to 1500 GPM
(5,678 L/min)
Pressures to 165 PSI (116m)
Working Pressures to 150 PSI
Space saving design
No foundation or pads required.
Suction and discharge flanges are on a
common centerline, 1800 apart for inline
mounting in piping.
Top pullout design allows for fast and easy
servicing. The rotating element is easily
removed without disturbing suction and
discharge piping.
Self-venting design eliminates the need for
and automatic air release valve.
Bronze impeller is dynamically balanced
and keyed direct to the motor shaft.
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Fire Pump Fittings
End Suction Pumps
Capacity to 500 GPM
(1,892 L/min)
Pressures to 150 PSI (106m)
Working Pressures to 250 PSI
Top centerline discharge with foot supported
casing.
Easing of installation.
Simplifies piping layout
Reduces problems associated with piping strain.
Self-venting designs eliminates the need for automatic air
release valve.
Rear pullout design supplied as standard with spacer coupling.
Ease of maintenance, eliminates disturbing driver or piping
when removing rotating element.
Hydraulically balanced impeller extends bearing life and assures
smoother operation.
Available in electric motor or diesel engine driven configuration.
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Fire Pump Fittings
Vertical Turbine Pumps
Capacity to 5000 GPM
(18,925 L/min)
Pressures to 350 PSI (247m)
Working Pressures
-upto 200PSI with 125 lb. A.S.A flanges
-upto 550PSI with 250 lb. A.S.A flanges
Required by NFPA when operating under a static suction
lift condition.
Dynamically balance impellers secured to the shaft with
steel locking collects to assure proper problem free
operation.
Open lineshaft design provides for product lubrication of
the bearings.
Available in electric motor or diesel engine driven
configuration.
Provided with a bronze suction strainer as standard.
Provided with an oversized air release valve as standard.
Available in special materials of construction for salt water
applications.
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Electric Motor Driven Fire Pump System

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Electric Motor Driven Fire Pump System

Standard Pump Accessories : Accessories furnished with the fire pump


system include : suction and discharge gauges and automatic air release
valve. Other accessories commonly furnished as part of the fire pump
package include: hose valve manifold with hose valves, caps and chains,
flow meter, mail relief valve and enclosed waste cone, ball drip valve,
eccentric suction reducer, concentric discharge increaser.

Standard Engine Accessories : Accessories furnished with the diesel


engine include: engine stating batteries, battery rack, battery cables, engine
exhaust flexible connector and silencer.

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Electric Motor Driven Fire Pump System

Jockey Pump: Jockey pump keeps pressure in the system to prevent the
main fire pump from operating to maintain system pressure. Jockey pumps
are generally a few gallons per minute sized to overcome small system leaks
and typically sized for 10PSI greater than the rated pressure of the main fire
pump. Jockey pumps are not required to be UL Listed or FM Approved.

Jockey Pump Controller : Starts the jockey pump across the line by sensing
pressure via a sensing line from the system side of the check valve. This
sensing line must be independent from the main fire pump controller sensing
line. Controller is sized per the jockey pump motor horsepower and voltage.
Jockey pump controllers are UL Listed specifically for this service.

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Split Case Fire Pumps
8100 Series
Capacity to 3000 GPM
(11,355 L/min)
Pressures to 255 PSI (179m)
Working Pressures
-upto 250 PSI (176m) with 125 lb. A.S.A flanges
-upto 375 PSI (264m) with 250 lb. A.S.A flanges
Space saving design.
Available in horizontal or vertical
configuration.
Suction and discharge flanges are on a
common centerline.
Bearing span is kept to a minimum
Available in electric motor driven or engine
driven configuration.
Available in clockwise or counter-clockwise
rotation to simplify pump room layout.

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Split Case Fire Pumps
8200 Series
Capacity to 1000 GPM
(3785 L/min)
Pressures to 640 PSI (450m)
Working Pressures
-upto 500 PSI (352m) with 250 lb. A.S.A flanges
-upto 800 PSI (563m) with 800 lb. A.S.A flanges
Space saving design.
Suction and discharge flanges are on a common
centerline.
Bearing span is kept to a minimum
Compact pump design.
Dual volute casing balances radial forces on the shaft
and bearings.
Available in eclectic motor driven or engine driven
configuration.
Two stage pump with two impellers threaded together.
Dynamic balanced impellers.
Available in clockwise or counter-clockwise rotation to
simplify pump room layout.
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Split Case Fire Pumps
9100 Series
Capacity to 5000 GPM
(18925 L/min)
Pressures to 208 PSI (146m)
Working Pressures
-upto 175 PSI (123m) with 125 lb. A.S.A flanges
-upto 255 PSI (180m) with 250 lb. A.S.A flanges
Space saving design.
Suction and discharge flanges are on a
common centerline.
Dual volute casing balances radial forces
on the shaft and bearings.
Available in eclectic motor driven or
engine driven configuration.
Available in clockwise or counter-
clockwise rotation to simplify pump room
layout.

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Fire Pump Drivers
Fire Pump Drivers

Drivers include various types of electric motors and labeled diesel engines. The
driver must be selected to provide the maximum horsepower required by the
pump anywhere along its performance curve.

(By way of explanation, spark ignition internal combustion engines and dual
drives a motor and an engine as alternate drivers on the same pump have
not had NFPA approval since 1974 edition of Pamphlet20)

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Electric Motor Driven Fire Pump System
Electric Motors
Electric motors have been matched to the pump
when designed and should meet NFPA70, Article
695, as well as other applicable articles. Electric
motors for fire pumps normally (but not always)
have dedicated electric feeds, which are located
before all other plant disconnecting means. This
means that if all power is shut off to the facility, the
power to the fire pump will continue to operate,
feeding water to the fire protection systems.
Controllers for electric pumps should be located
with in sight of the motors. Since these units are
installed on motors expected to function on an Two vertical turbine fire pumps taking
emergency basis, they are provided with fuses rated suction from reservoir. The pump room
floor is the top of the water reservoir. The
at a much higher capacity than nonemergency rated near unit has an electric motor mounted
motors. They will not shut down on over current vertically on the pump. Behind is a diesel
power conditions as other normal motors and will driven vertical turbine pump with a right-
continue operating under adverse conditions, even angle drive.
to the point of self-destruction.
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Diesel Engine Driven Fire Pump System
Diesel Engines
Diesel engines are also matched to the pump
they will power. They are designed and arranged
for emergency service and will have features not
normally provided on nonemergency equipment.
In the event of unusual operating conditions, it
may run to destruction to continue providing
water to fire protection systems.
Diesel engines have two battery storage units,
which, at 400 F (4.50C), have twice the capacity
sufficient to maintain the cranking speed
recommended by the engine manufacturer. They
must be capable of maintaining a 3-minute
attempt-to-start cycle, which is six consecutive A diesel-driven horizontal split-case fire
pump. The instrument panel is at the top of
cycles of 15 seconds of cranking and 15 seconds
the engine. The cooling line and bypass are
of rest. The attempt-to-start cycle is important to located alongside of the engine. The batteries
ensure that adequate reserve battery capacity are located on the opposite side of the
exists to attempt multiple starts of the unit, if engine so the operator does not stand in
front of, or reach over them, to operate the
needed. pump.
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Section 9

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Electrical Fire Pump

Pump Drawings.

Pump Curves.

Pump Controller.

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Fire Pump

Fire Protection products, diesel pump sets, electric pump sets


PUMPS (DIESEL/ELECTRIC)
Fire pumps can be considered the most critical piece of fire protection
equipment as they are needed when the public water supply pressure is too
low for sprinkler effectiveness.

Where there is no public water supply, a pump is connected to a private


water supply such as storage tank or river, creating the water pressure
needed for fire fighting efforts.

Most fire pumps are either diesel engine driven or electric motor driven,
depending on the situation. Automatic Fire Protection can advise which
pump type best suits each application.

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Electrical Fire Pump
Horizontal Split Case Fire Pumps

Most stationery fire pumps are driven by electric motors. To justify the use of an
electric motor, a single power station or substation which can guarantee
virtually uninterrupted power is preferred. If the source cannot guarantee
continuous power, the power must be supplied by two or more stations located
and equipped so that an accident or a fire at one will not cause an interruption
of the power supplied by the other.
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Fire Pump Controller
FIRE FIGHTING SET CONTROL SYSTEM:
Separate control panels used for jockey pumps and for main pumps.
Main pumps can operate as standby pump for each other or they can
operate together.
Control panels have available connections terminals for building automation.
Electric motor of main pump has star delta connection.
There are 2 batteries and battery charge system for diesel engine
There is no terminal protection for main pump control panel
Controls on electric motor driven pump on control panel door:
Manual start stop button
Energy signal lamp
Test operation signal lamp

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Fire Pump Controller
Panel equipped with alarm signal buzzer and lamp
Control panel supply voltage is 24 V
Diesel engine control panel has following on panel door:
Diesel engine operating lamp
Excessive speed warning lamp
Diesel engine failure signal lamp
Excessive engine heat signal lamp
Low battery warning signal
Low oil pressure signal lamp
Minimum fuel signal lamp

Panels have IP 54 protection


Panels do not have a protection system which do not allow
the system to operate in case of any failure
In case of electric supply cut diesel engine operates automatically.

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Electric Fire Pump Systems

FIRE PUMP CONTROLLERS

World class manufacturer of Fire Pump Controllers

When theres a call to start a fire pump in an emergency situation, you need a
fire pump controller that you can count on to start every time, without fail
because life safety depends on it. Eatons fire pump controllers are designed
and manufactured in accordance with the strictest fire protection, electrical
and insurance codes in the world, thereby ensuring they meet or exceed all
required standards.

AWI 106 Att. 8 Rev. 3 02 Jan. 2011 390 6th June 2011 / Rev.2
Electric Fire Pump Systems
Diesel Engine Controllers

The DIESEL Plus Fire Pump Controllers are designed


to control and monitor 12 or 24volt, diesel fire pump
engines and are among the most technically advanced
diesel engine controllers available.

Electric Fire Pump Controllers

The LMP Plus series of Electric Fire Pump Controllers


represent the next step in fire protection from Eaton.
These controllers are an enhanced version of the
original microprocessor-based, LMR Series.

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Electric Fire Pump Systems
Electric Fire Pumps

The Basics of Electric Fire Pump Controllers

Fire pump controllers follow rules foreign to other


types of controllers.

When starting and running a fire pump, reliability is


paramount. How do you obtain that reliability with an
electrically driven pump? Lets look at some of the
differences between industrial motor controllers and
electric fire pump controllers.
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Electric Fire Pump Systems

Industrial motor controllers use the philosophy of no start, no run unless


every sensor and interlock is permissive. Standards focus on the safety of
people and equipment. Anomalies like broken wires, shorts, and ground
faults prevent a start or run. Overload relays protect running motors from
overheating and prevent damage from re-starts. Controllers listed to UL508
standards default to a no start, no run mode.

When it comes to fire pump controllers, none of this is true. In the event of
fire, you must start and run that pump. NFPA 20 considers conductors and
some equipment supplying power to the fire pump motor sacrificial in favor
of starting and running. If possible, we expect the fire pump controller to
default to a nuisance start and run; regardless of anomalies. If you work
with fire pump controllers, you need NFPA 20.

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Electric Fire Pump Systems

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Electric Fire Pump Drawing

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Electrical Fire Pump Curves

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Diesel Fire Pump

Pump Drawings.

Pump Curves

Diesel Engine Information.

Controller.

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Diesel Fire Pump
Labeled diesel engines are frequently used to drive stationary fire
pumps. Equipped with battery packs and automatic controls. They rival
electric motors for reliability and eliminate concern over the dependability
of the source of electrical power. However, they do require additional
considerations.

Diesel engines are rated to produce their maximum horse powers at 500
feet altitude above sea level and 850F ambient air temperature. As these
conditions change, the following
deductions apply:
Reduce horse power by 3% for each additional 1,000 feet of
elevation.
Reduce horsepower by 1% for each 100F above 850F ambient air
temperature.

If the listed engine with the required horsepower is not available, the
engine chosen must produce at least 10 horsepower required by the
pump anywhere along its performance curve.

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Diesel Fire Pump

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Diesel Fire Pump
Ideal for both high and low pressure pumping requirements.

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Diesel Fire Pump
The simple, split case design of
these pumps allows for in-line
service without disturbing piping
while ensuring long, efficient
unit life, reduced maintenance
costs and minimal
power consumption.

These pumps are designed to


operate with pressures in
excess of 390 psi (27 bar) and
flows from 150 gpm to 5,000
gpm (568 litres/min to 18,925
litres/min).

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Diesel Engine Information

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D.F. Pump Drawings

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D.F. Pump Curves

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A Vertical Turbine Type Fire Pump with
a Diesel Engine

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Jockey Pump
(Fire Fighting System)

Pump Information

Pump Controller

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What is a Jockey Pump?
A Jockey pump, or a pressure maintenance pump, is a
small apparatus that works in conjunction with a fire
pump as part of a fire protection sprinkler system. A
jockey pump is designed to keep the pressure elevated
in a fire suppression system so that the main fire pump
is prevented from running unless absolutely necessary.
It consists of a motor, a pump, and a controller.
When a fire sprinkler is exposed to heat, the pressure
in the system drops significantly and a valve opens,
releasing water. The main fire pump provides the
pressure to the system that creates water flow from
when this one sprinkler is activated, the pressure drops
so drastically that the fire pump starts working, and the
fire department is alerted. The jockey pump works as
part of the fire pumps control system, riding on top of
the larger pump like a jockey.

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Jockey Pump
A Jockey Pump is a small pump connected to a fire sprinkler system and is intended to
maintain pressure in a fire protection piping system to an artificially high level so that
the operation of a single fire sprinkler will cause a pressure drop which will be senses
by the fire pump automatic controller, causing the fire pump to start. The jockey pump is
essentially a portion of the fire pump s control system.

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Jockey Pump
Two Types of Pumps:

There are two types of pumps


available for jockey pump
applications. The preferable design is
a centrifugal pump. The other type is
a positive displacement regenerative
turbine pump. A turbine pump
appears to be the perfect choice as a
jockey pump because it can generate
high pressures at low flow rates with
low horsepower. This is exactly what
we are looking for in a jockey pump.
However, a turbine pump operates
on very close tolerances. If those
tolerances wear out a few
thousandths of an inch, the ability to
generate enough pressure is lost.

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Jockey Pump Controller
Jockey Pump Controller

When theres a call to start a fire pump in an


emergency situation, you need a fire pump
controller that you can count on to start every
time, without fail because life safety depends on
it.

Jockey Pump with Controller

A jockey pump with controllers is mounted on a


separate skid where control is FM approved or
UL Listed.

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Jockey Pump Controller

Pressure maintenance in fire


pump installations to prevent
unnecessary cycling of the main
fire pump requires incorporating
our Jockey Pump Controllers
with your fire pump systems.

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Jockey Pump Controller
STANDARD EQUIPMENT AND PERFORAMNCE
Automatic start responsive to water pressure with integral
pressure sensing switch.
Independent high (stop) and low (start) adjustments points on
pressure switch.
Standard Pressure Switch Range is 20 290 PSI, 50 450 PSI is
optional.
Manual electric start and stop from Side mounted Hand-Off-Auto
selector switch.
IEC rated magnetic 3-pole motor contactor.
IEC Motor Circuit Protector with Adjustable range over current
Trip protection.

Over current trip range adjustable to accommodate minor variations


in actual motor full load current or service factor, without changing
over load heaters.
Controller Rated for 18K A/C applications.
External operator equipped for padlocking in OFF which also
locks the door closed.
Easy External Pressure Switch Connection.
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Submersible Pumps
General Overview
Zoeller Pumping System Information

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Submersible Pumps
Submersible Pumps :
submersible pumps, also referred to as Electric submersible pumps (ESP), are
mechanisms containing a motor encased in an airtight container which can be set
into liquid in order to help push the liquid to the surface. Unlike a jet pump, which
works by actively pulling water into itself, electric submersible pumps are much
more efficient and cost effective. A submersible pump is designed for a wide range
of uses, including residential, commercial, and industrial purposes, and come in a
wide range of sizes and price points to meet more specific needs.

What Are the Benefits of Submersible Pumps?


One of the primary problems with traditional jet pumps for many applications was
accommodating for the fact that water or other liquid often needed to be transferred
from areas below the level of the pump. The higher the jet pump was from the
surface needing to be drained, the harder the pump had to work to suction the area
clean.

Applications:
Submersible pumps are found in many applications. Single stage pumps are used
for drainage, sewage pumping, general industrial pumping and slurry pumping.
They are also popular with aquarium filters. Multiple stage submersible pumps are
typically lowered down a borehole and used for water abstraction, water wells and in
oil wells.
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Submersible Pumps

Advantages: Submersible pumps are efficient, high in capacity,


require very little maintenance and a re generally very economical for
wells that are 80 feet or more in depth.

Limitations: The tolerances between the impellers and diffusers are


relatively small; therefore, submersible pumps are unsuitable for
pumping water that contains sand or other abrasives. Submersible
pumps are water cooled and water lubricated. They should not be
installed in liquid level control. Submersible pumps are not suitable for
pumping water containing a high concentration of dissolved gases
because the pump may because gas locked.

Most submersible pumps are designed for use in wells with a


minimum 4 inch inside diameter.

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Submersible Pumps

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Submersible Pumps

Dual Seals.
Double protection
Primary seal keeps dirty water in the
pump end and prevents contamination
of the oil cavity. A second fail safe
seal provides extra protection against
the possibility of damage to the motor.

Positive oil lubrication enables the


pump to run dry without seal damage.

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Submersible Pumps
Submersible pump is a pump that is able to be placed
underwater and still carry out its intended purpose. Some
pumps may be designed to work while being fully submerged,
whereas others may be submerged or placed in a dry area. It is
important to understand what type of pump you are dealing with
in order that no damage is incurred when it is being used.

Submersible pump types include sump pumps and sewage


pumps. These are the types with which most residential users
will be most familiar. However, the submersible pump can be
used in a number of other applications as well such as well
pumps, fountain pump and borehole pumps.

Submersible pumps work by protecting their motors from the


liquid being pumped. Usually, the motors are placed in water
tight compartment filled with oil. Most motors used in
submersible pumps are electric, either running on alternating
current or direct current.

The advantages of a submersible pump are numerous. First, it


has the advantage of being self-primed because the substance
it is pumping, usually water, is right there at the pump itself.
Further, the submersible pump may actually have to do less
work than a standard pump simply because it is closer to the
liquid being pumped

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Submersible Pumps

Rugged impeller handles tough


abrasives
Abrasion resistant ductile iron and
manganese bronze impellers stand up
to sand, gravel, concrete powder and
other abrasive construction materials.
The fully shrouded impeller back
reduces seal pressure and helps
prevent foreign material from entering
the seal cavity. Seal life is extended
and operational life of the pump is
increased. Optional impellers of
CD4MCu are available for
corrosive/abrasive applications.

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Submersible Pumps

Corrosion resistant stainless steel


shaft and hardware.
Rotor shaft and all internal nuts and
bolts coming in contact with liquid are
made of stainless steel to resist
corrosion and pitting and extend the
operational life of the pump. For
severely corrosive /abrasive
applications, stainless steel fitted pump
models of CD4MCu are available.

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X71 HAZARDOUS ENVIRONMENT SERIES
CLASS 1, DIVISION 1, GROUPS C & D
GRINDER PUMPS TECHNICAL DATA
3, 5 & 7 BHP

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Submersible Sewage Pumps
A submersible sewage pumps is mounted within the sewage tank itself and is designed to work
when fully surrounded by the sewage it is designed to pump. The motor of a submersible
sewage pump is contained inside an oil filled cavity designed to house to the motor and protect
it from contact with the waste material surrounding it. A lip or a mechanical seal protects the
motor from the liquid. They are designed to pump or grind large solids to smaller sizes.
Watertight splice connection box.
An-1-1/4 PVC Ball valve is Installed at the 1-1/4 Bulk
head discharge fitting to prevent sewage from draining
back into the tank after disconnection.

24 x 60 FIBERGLASS SIMPLEX BASIN


Tank Simplex suitable for out door burial
installation
Outdoor Burial Basins Catalog Page 16b
This 24 x 6 deep Fiberglass simplex basin sis
designed for outdoor installation for a signal sewage
pump or for a grinder pump. The basin has an anti-
floatation ring to prevent the tank from rising due to
ground water. A solid 3/8 thick fiberglass lid covers the
tank, while you 5 grommet seals to install your
incoming and out going pipes, one 1-1/4, one 1-1/2,
two 2, and one 4.
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The Basics of Sewage Pumps
Sewage pumps are designed to allow sewage
materials to be moved efficiently, even the case
that require moment of waste material against
the flow of gravity. Sewage pumps may also
incorporate feature which will take solid waste
material and break it down into smaller partials or
mix it with liquid waste in order to from a slurry, or
thick mud like material. The ultimate goal of a
Sewage pump is to transport waste martial from
it original source to the various industrial and
residential waste water treatment plants.
Because of the intense conditions these sewage
pump are exposed to on a constant basis, they
are often constructed from stainless steel, known
for its strength and durability. There are several
different types of sewage pumps, each designed
to handle specific situation and each functioning
off a specific principle of force or energy to
achieve their task.

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Vertical Sump Pumps

- General Overview.

- Vertiflo Series 800 Pump Information.


- Oily Waste System Pump Curve.
- Waste Water System pump Curve.

- Vertiflo Series 900 Pump Information.


- Oily Waste System Pump Curve.

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VERTICAL SUMP PUMPS
Vertical sump Pumps are designed for general sump dewatering application. These
unit are available in a wide range of configuration in both Simplex and Duplex
designs. These units can be sullied in a board range of materials from Cast Iron to
Alloy 20 and in settings up to 20 Fit. Sump depth. Flows range from 20 GPM to
4000 GPM with heads up to 250 Fit TDH.

Use for a following applications: Industrial Process, Industrial & Commercial Sump
Drainage, Corrosive & Non Corrosive Liquids, Dewatering Service, Pollution
Control, Condensate Return and variety of other services.

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Sump Pump Types
There are two different types of sump pumps. Pedestal sump pumps have
their motor located above thank so that it is easily accessible and can be
services. The other type is a submersible pumps located inside the pit,
which is sealed off with a sump pump cover.
Pedestal: This type is an upright electric sump pump
whose motor is located above the pump as it is not
meant to get wet. It has a float-activated switch that
turns the pump on when the water reaches a certain
level. It is ideal for basements needing frequent water
drainage. They are usually the least expensive but
tend to be noisier than the submersibles.
Submersible: This electric sump pump is installed in
ground and specifically designed to function
underwater. It has the same float activated switch as
the pedestal. Submersibles are more expensive, but
boast a longer life than the pedestal type. Their
sealed, oil-cooled motors are protected from moisture
and dust, making them quieter.

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SUMP PUMP

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Sump Pump

Sump Pumps are volute case type bowl


pumps with vertical immersion and with a semi
open or enclosed impeller designed for wet pit
applications. They are designed to provide
dependable, economical drainage service on
medium capacity installation in commercial
buildings and general industrial applications.

Ruhrpumpen manufactures sump pumps for


clean water applications (VSP), sump pumps
for water solids (VSP Non Clog) and sump
pumps for chemicals and petrochemicals (VSP
Chem).

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Sump Pump

SIP-V
SIP hydraulic design line shaft wet bearings
Bearing Material ; metallic, carbon, ceramic
Thrust bearing at pump heads
Recessed TF Impeller option.

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Sump Pump

Cyclone Separator
For bearing Flush and Tailpipe
mounted on a pump.

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Sump Pump

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Sump Pump
Details of design features:
Impeller and agitation options VS
Four different impeller and two agitation options are available for optimum performance.
Type O The semi-open impeller provides better solids handling than the closed impeller
design and is less sensitive to air blocking on intermittent operation.
Type W Vortex induced Flow impeller for clogless pumping of long fibrous or coarse
solids. It can be fitted into a casing with or without spray holes. Large clearance between
casing and impeller- well suited for pumping fibrous slurries (paper stock, wood chips,
municipal sludge, etc.), aerated or frothy liquids (vortex impeller will not be air blocked) and
any applications where the pump is required to pass the occasional large solids.
Type WFR We have developed a fully recessed induced vortex impeller for the VSHM
pumps. This is specifically designed for carbon transfer in gold leaching processes because
it provides the lowest possible attrition of the pumped active carbon particles.
Type C Closed impeller for higher heads and efficiencies. Can not be combined with type
S, Casings with spray holes.
Type A Semi-open impeller and robust extended shaft with a slurry agitator. This design is
best suited for coarse rapid settling solids and dredging type applications.
Type S Pump casing with spray holes. The spray holes direct some of the slurry towards
the sump bottom, thereby agitating settled solids. Available from VS50 to VS200.

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Sump Pump

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Quality Design Feature Assure Long,
Trouble-Free Service
WIDE RANGE OF APPLICATIONS:
Chemical Slurries
Fragile Food Processing Solids
Paper & Pulpy Solids
Petroleum
Oils
Sewage & Waste Treatment
Textiles

CAPABILITIES:
Capacities to 1600 GPM
Heads to 170 Feet
Temperature to 2500F
Pit Depths to 26 Feet
Construction: Cast Iron, 316 Stainless Steel Fitted, All 316
Stainless Steel, Alloy 20, CD4MCu
Solid Handling upto 4 Diameter Spheres
AWI 106 Att. 8 Rev. 3 02 Jan. 2011 439 6th June 2011 / Rev.2
WIDE RANGE OF APPLICATIONS:

Industrial Process
Pollution Control
Sump Drainage
Flood Control
Hazardous, Toxic & Inflammable Liquids
Clear Liquids
Condensate
Corrosive Liquids
Acids

CAPABILITIES:
Capacities to 3000 GPM
Heads to 230 Feet TDH
Temperature to 3500F
Pit Depths to 26 Feet
Construction: Cast Iron, 316 Stainless Steel Fitted, All
316 Stainless Steel, Alloy 20, Hastelloy, CD4MCu

AWI 106 Att. 8 Rev. 3 02 Jan. 2011 440 6th June 2011 / Rev.2
Installing a sump pump can help protect your
basement from flooding.

People commonly use sump pumps for removing water


from the basements of their homes. What distinguishes
them from other types of pumps, as Sump pump Help.com
points out, is that they use pits, or basins, which collect the
water prior to pumping. If you are thinking of installing a
sump pump, you will need to decide between two main
varieties: submersible and cantilever, both of which have
their advantages and disadvantages.

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Vertical Sump Pumps, Type ET and Type ETT

Close coupled design


For Normal or aggressive fluids
Flow Capacity upto 120 m3/hr
Head up to 55m
Immersion depths from 500mm to 2000mm
Suction tube extension upto to 1.5m
Available in Polypropylene (PP), PVDF and
UHMW-PE for abrasive duties
Sizes from 15-80mm TO 65-250mm

Dry running safe (Type ETT)

Vertical sump pumps depth from 500mm with steps of 250mm up to


2000mm. Pump casing and impeller corresponding to type NM.
The SS-shaft is covered by a corrosion resistant and diffusion-tight
thermoplastic sleeve and guided by slide because of PTFE or
carbon/SIC/SIC, medium-lubricated.
A special pressure drop device prevents flushing of solids into the slide
bearings and extends their service life.
The shaft seal with a liquid filled labyrinth operates against vapor only
and is not flushed by the medium.
Type ETT uses the modular type ET design and provides dry running
capabilities.

The slide bearings of HD-carbon/SIC are normally lubricated and


cooled by the liquid. With ETT-Pumps and if liquid is not available
eg. Up to an empty tank bearings are cooled by an air-stream
through especially designed bearings and support tube.

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Sump Pumps Curves

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