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Workshop on PCB & Circuit

Designing
Organized by: EC & EE Department
Course Overview
Introduction to PCB
Types of PCB
Introduction to PCB Design Software
Getting circuit on the Board
Designing the Schematic
Designing layout
PCB Drawing
Basic concepts
Editing and Manual editing
Routing
PCB Fabrication Tools
PCB Fabrication Steps
Let us start with the basics

Introduction to PCB
Basic Idea about PCB
Acronym for Printed Circuit Board.
In general printed circuit board, or PCB,
is used to mechanically support and
electrically connect electronic components
Using conductive pathways, or traces,
etched from copper sheets laminated onto a
non-conductive substrate.
A PCB is used primarily to create a
connection between components, such as
resistors,integrated circuits, and connectors.
What is PCB?
In short a PCB is a flat board made from a
copper clad sheet whose:
Front side Components side, which contains
slots for placing of variety of electronic
components.
Back side -Track side , printed with electrically
conductive pathways connecting the
components.
Structure of PCB
Insulating material such as the bakelite, the
epoxy with the copper foil make the structure
of the PCB.

What a designer should know?


A designer needs to know the circuit
diagram , knowledge of components and
knowledge of PCB designing tools.
Advantages of PCB
Higher load
Better dissipation
Better surface/cross section ratio
Automatic assembly & control
Reliability-Defective PCB can be replaced & can
easily repairable in Off line mode.
Repeatability and Consistency-Many boards of
the same circuits can be made with the same
quality.
Compactness
Simplifies the construction of electronic circuits.
Low cost
Application Of PCB

Television sets
Computers
In every electronic device
Electronics industry. Because they produce
a more reliable result more quickly.
TYPES OF PCB
The majority of boards produced in the
world are graphically produced. There are
three alternative types:

1. Single-sided boards
2. Double-sided boards
3. Multilayer boards
Single-Sided Boards (SSB s)
Single-sided boards (SSBs) have circuitry
on only one side of the board and are
often referred to as print-and-etch boards
because the etch resist is usually printed
on by screen-printing techniques and the
conductor pattern is them formed by
chemically etching the exposed, and
unwanted, copper foil.
Single Sided PCB Board
Double Sided PCB Board

Top layer has been patterned in alignment with bottom


layer

Holes are drilled through board and then copper is


electrodeposited to interconnect top and bottom layers
Multilayer Boards
Multilayer Boards
On multilayer boards, the individual, copper patterned
laminates are stacked on top and bottom of each other.
Insulating layers between the conductors can also be added.

Often begin with double sided board in middle and work


outwards

Again alignment marks are used to position each layer on


top of the next.

Laminates then pressed, heated and bonded in a similar


process to before.

Holes then drilled in appropriate places for subsequent


electrodeposition of copper to interconnect layers.
The copper tracks make the electrical
connections between the components.
The holes drilled through the pads for the
leads of the components are shown .
The leads are inserted from the opposite
(component) side and are soldered to the
copper pads..
we are preferring for single side PCB.
A printed circuit board consists of a thin
insulating board with the components on one
side and with copper tracks on the other side
Printed Circuit Board functions:

It holds the components in position and it


uses thin strips of copper, known as tracks,
To make the electrical connections between
the components.
PCB Designing
Introduction to Express PCB
Software
How to install the Express PCB
Software And How to work with it
How to work with Express PCB.
How to save a project
Component & Library
Double-click on the Libraries entry. The library branch
opens, and you can see the available libraries.
How to find a Component?
Making Project with Express
PCB
Creating New Schematic
&
Drawing its Layout
Basic Process of Making PCB
Step-1-Making the Schematic

In first step we need a PCB designing


software, to convert the circuit
schematic diagram into PCB layout.
There are lot of paid and free softwares
available for this purpose, some open
source software are Cadsoft Eagle,
Fritzing, PCBWizard ,Express PCB.
Schematic diagram
Step-2-Making the PCB layout

After making layout we need to take


the printout of mirror image of the
PCB layout. Print should be taken on
Glossy paper/Photo Paper using the
Laser Printer.
PCB LAYOUT
PCB Fabrication Tools
Tools and materials required
Mylar sheet &Tape(1.5mm.)/Black permanent Marker
Knife
Lithium Film,
Gloves
A(sodium carbonate)
B(butane)
Tray
Water
A G(Silver nitrate) Fixer(10 ml. each)
Liquid Photo-Resist(LPR),LPR Developer , LPR dye
Ferric Chloride (Etching solution)
Copper clad board ,steel wool
Shearing Machine(cutting machine)
Coil winding machine
Drilling machine
Soldering Iron & Solder wire
Oven
DIP COAT Machine(LPR)
UV EXPOSURE Machine
DYE & DEVLOPER Machine
ETCHING Machine
Film maker Machine
Red lamp
Components
PCB Fabrication Steps
Step-1-Make the positive layout
of circuit using Mylar tape.
Step-2- Negative Film Maker
Photo cure machine
Lithium film is used to make Negative in
Photo cure machine.
Step-3-DIP the Copper Clad in
Solution
A(sodium carbonate + water) Solution
B(butane + water) Solution
Water
Develop image using AG(Silver nitrate)
Fixer(10 ml. each)
Cleaning and Cutting(Shearing)
of Copper clad
Now rub it by using sand paper or steel
wool. It will remove the oxide layer from
the board as well as makes the board
rough so that paper can stick properly.
we need to cut the copper clad in required
size, according to our PCB layout design
Shearing/Cutting and Cleaning
the Clad