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CDRB PRESENTATION

Final Year Project


Crisis At Hand

Solid waste management system is in


crisis in Pakistan

We are openly dumping most of our waste,


which is a health hazard.
Its contaminating Air and water

Least Desirable

Most Desirable

2
Crisis At Hand

Pakistan faces severe energy shortages.

Industrial area is devastated


Regular Load shedding

Power Production

A Short Fall

3
Possible Solutions

Improve existing Setup new power Setup new waste


Infrastructure plants disposal systems

4
What If, We Can

FILL TWO NEEDS


WITH ONE DEED

5
Development Of MSW Power Plants Will Achieve:

Growing waste disposal requirements

Sustainable Energy goals

Local Employment

6
Our Project

Design And Optimization Of


Municipal Solid Waste Energy
System For A Conventional Power
Plant

7
Our Team
Organization

Lt Cdr Dr. M. Mobin Dr. Tahir Ratlamwala


Siddiqui PN

Supervisor and Advisor Advisor

Abdullah Riaz Syed Muhammad Hamza Syed Irtiza Ali S/Lt Usman Mehmood

Lead Design Research Management

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Todays Agenda
Presentation Scheme

1 Project Introduction
4 Concept Design Evaluation

2 MSW and WtE


5 Risk Assessment

3 Our Study
In Field Of Sustainable Energy, Energy Production From
MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) Conventional Is Most
Rational Idea For Large Cities, As Waste Is An
Undesirable Output That Adds To Land, Water & Air
Pollution

10
MSW PLANT
A needed expense to invest in the Future

11
Project Scope

What We Are Going to Do


Assessment of Municipal Solid Waste is essential. Although
the MSW plant involves pre and post processing of the waste
our scope will be limited to the actual Energy recovery from the
plant through incineration.

1. SAMPLE AND ANALYZE WASTE SAMPLES

2. DESIGN MSW POWER PLANT

3. OPTIMIZATION OF MSW PLANT

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Project Scope
IN SCOPE OUT OF SCOPE
SAMPLING
COLLECTION AND ASSESSMENT AND ASSESSMENT
OF MSW SAMPLES PRE-PROCESSING PRE-PROCESSING TO INCREASE
INFERIOR CALORIFIC VALUE

DESIGNING OF AN MSW PLANT DESIGNING

POST-PROCESSING POST TREATMENT OF FLUE GAS


AND RESIDUAL ASH

FEASIBILTY
FEASIBILITY ASSESSMENT

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Gantt Chart
S/Lt Usman
Mehmood PN

MSW Generation

What is WTE

Types of WTE
MSW Generation
Municipal Solid waste

MSW
Municipal Solid waste is generated by human activities
Being the 6th most populous country of the world, Pakistan Generation rate depends on
produces a lot of waste following parameters:

Time

Place
COMMERCIAL

AGRICULTURE

HOUSEHOLD
INDUSTRIAL

Population

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MSW Generation
Municipal Solid waste

Change of generation rate


Growing development around the globe with time
increasing the rate of generation

Generation Place

Place is a common variable which differentiate


generation rate of urban area from rural area

Population Effect
Growth in population highly effect the rate of
waste generation

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SWM System
MSW Management organization

2
Waste management system is
therefore formed to manage this large
amount of MSW
In Pakistan MSW collected from waste bins,
1
small heaps and transfer for treatment or to
disposal sites
3
1. Collection and transportation is
backbone of waste management
system
2. After collection and transportation
waste is usually dump at landfill sites

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What is WTE ?
Waste to Energy Background

solid waste are materials and by-


products that potentially have a
negative value for the owner

As part of poor waste management,


waste is burnt at local heaps for disposal

+ 12 Comp
The composition of MSW play
major role in MSW analysis

MSW usually consists of plastic,


paper, fabric, food, metal and bio
materials

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What is WTE ?
Waste to Energy System

All the above mention components of


MSW have some calorific values
This open burning can be usefully converted
into an energy source as a fuel System used
Calorific Value
for conversion is called Waste to Energy
system Hence waste is completely utilized as a fuel
before dumping to site

WTE is a helpful solution to


growing deficiencies of landfills
in country as it reduces the
volume of waste

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Types of WTE
Waste to Energy Systems

Incineration is a process of burning


and compressing to reduce volume
Mostly waste management incinerate the FACT:
MSW prior landfilling. Which later enhance the Pyrolysis result into products
fertility of land and bi-products as well

PRODUCT 18 %

BI-PRODUCT 82 %

Pyrolysis is a thermochemical decomposition


of organic material at elevated temperatures in
the absence of oxygen
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Types of WTE
Waste to Energy Systems

Hence we have two types of waste to energy systems based on two different
mechanism:

Incinerator Pyrolysis
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Why Incinerator

Advantages Disadvantages
As this is the most simple way Commercially
of replacing commercial fuel in available plant
boiler and burner mechanism
Corrosion of boiler tubes at
Corrosion of boiler high steam temperatures due to
moisture content and chemical
fatigue
High volume-reduction of High volume-reduction
refuse which help in savior of
space during landfilling
Very high initial and running
Very high initial costs costs for electricity generation

60% Suitable 40 % unfavorable


Advantages are Disadvantages
creative and resembles with
renewable most thermal
systems

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Why Pyrolysis

Advantages Disadvantages

Incompatibility
Medium heating-value gas
Fuel gas not compatible with
Produces low- to medium natural gas without additional
heating-value gas that has processing/expenditure
greater calorific value

High efficiency Potential Plugging of Slag


Slag is chemically decomposed
Fairly high overall system
and meshed critically that is
efficiency due to better fuel
potentially hazardous during
quality
evacuation

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Syed Irtiza Ali

MSW Plant Basics

MSW Benefits and Emissions

Our Study
MSW Plant Basics

A typical MSW plant is divided into three parts.


Each of the three parts have their own function.

1 WASTE PRETREATMENT

2 ENERGY RECOVERY

3 AIR POLLUTION CONTROL

MSW Plant Schematic


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MSW Plant Basics

Waste Pretreatment

Drying

Waste
Treatment Sorting

Homogenization
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MSW Plant Basics

Energy Recovery
Energy Boiler
Recovery
Steam in

Turbine
Steam out

Electricity
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MSW Plant Basics
Air
Pollution
Control Air Pollution Control

Mechanical
Cyclone Collector

Fabric Filters
Collectors
Fabric Filters
Electrostatic
Precipitators
Electrostatic Precipitator
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Benefits of a MSW Plant

Promotes Recycling Electricity Generation

Reduces GHGs Saves Land

30
Benefits of a MSW Plant

Promotes Recycling
WTE promotes
recycling as waste has
to be sorted, and
segregated before
sending for
incineration.

Source: BioCycle and the Earth Engineering Centre


of Columbia University
31
Benefits of a MSW Plant
Energy Source kWh x 109 % of renewable
generated energy
Geothermal 13.52 28.0 Electricity Generation
Waste-to- 13.50 28.0 Generates Electricity as
Energy a Sustainable form of
energy. 1 metric tons of
Landfill gas 6.65 13.8
MSW in USA generates
Wood/biomass 8.37 17.4 about 600kWh of
electricity. This equates
Solar thermal 0.87 1.8 to the same energy
Solar 0.01 0.0 created by 1/4th
amount of high quality
photovoltaic
coal.
Wind 5.30 11.0
Total 48.22 100.0

Generation of renewable energy in the USA in


2002, excluding hydropower (Energy Information
Administration, 2002)
Note: 77 out of 84 WTE plants in USA are MSW
incineration plants.
Benefits of a MSW Plant

Land used for landfilling cannot


be used for anything else

WTE plant can be


decommissioned and
reinstalled on the same land

Landfilling limits city expansion

Saves Land
When waste is
incinerated, on average
its volume is reduced
by 90% and its mass is
reduced by 75%.
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Benefits of a MSW Plant

WTE reduces greenhouse gas


emissions by an estimated 1 ton of
carbon dioxide, per ton of trash
combusted rather than landfilled.
(Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change,
www.ipcc.ch)

Reduces GHGs
Methane has a
greenhouse gas (GHG)
potential of 21 times than
same volume of carbon
dioxide. MSW is used to
generate electricity,
avoiding methane
emissions
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PM10 and Dioxins

PM 10
PM10 refer to all particles Dioxins Emissions in Flanders PM10 Emissions in Germany
whose size is less than 10
microns. These particles are
inhalable. PM10 is a mixture
of materials that can include
smoke, soot, dust, salt,
acids, and metals.
Dioxins
Dioxins are harmful organic
chemical compounds that
have been known to damage
human organs. Dioxins travel
through the food chain and
are found in higher
concentrations at the higher
levels of the food chains.

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Comparing Emissions

FUEL CARBON SULFUR NITROGEN


Carbon dioxide
DIOXIDE DIOXIDE OXIDES emissions are lowest in
Pounds per Megawatt-Hour MSW

MSW 837 0.8 5.4 Sulfur Dioxide lower


than coal and oil in
COAL 2,249 13 6 MSW

Nitrogen Oxides
OIL 1,672 12 4 comparable to coal in
MSW
NATURAL 1,135 0.1 1.7
GAS
Emissions in pounds per MWh in USA

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MAP SABZI MANDI

JAM CHAKRO
GOND PASS

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Landfill Visits

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Analytical Models Used

Model
Technique 1
1 Model 2

Calorific values of waste calculated Ash, moisture and combustible


contents compared with the
( Hinf = Hawf * C 2445 * W ) in requirements in Tanner Diagram
kJ/kg
Determines if fuel self-burns after
Calculated values of waste were ignition
Project Two Here
compared with the threshold of
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Survey Report
1673 kcal/kg MINIMUM CRITERIA

JAM CHAKRO
GOND PASS 4620 kcal/kg
4068 kcal/kg
SABZI MANDI
760 kcal/kg

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Survey Report

Jam Chakro
15.14% Ash Content 2.89% Moisture
Content 81.97% Combustible Content

Gond Pass
28.94% Ash Content 4.8% Moisture
Content 66.25% Combustible Content

Sabzi Mandi
8.63% Ash Content 66.17% Moisture
Content 25.19% Combustible Content

41
Syed Muhammad
Hamza

Thermodynamic Cycles

Component Design

Design Selection Criteria


Thermodynamic Cycle

What is a thermodynamic Cycle?

Consists of thermodynamic processes.


1

Involve transfer of heat and work


2

3 Variables- Temperature, Pressure, Enthalpy

4 Examples- Carnot, Rankine, Otto

5 Relevant for Power Plant


Carnot Cycle
Rankine Cycle
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Carnot & Rankine Cycle

Isentropic Compression 1 Isothermal Heat Addition


Fluid is pressurized by the pump. Heat is added to the boiler from
Incinerator.
4

Isothermal Heat Rejection 2 Isentropic Expansion


Heat is rejected to the Work is done on the turbine by
surrounding through condenser. the fluid.
3

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Why Rankine?

Practical

Higher Power output.

Longer Service life of pumps and turbines.

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Four Components

Incinerator & Boiler Turbine


Heat generated in Incinerator is absorbed
Steam works on the turbine to produce
by the boiler.
rotational movement.

Pump Condenser
Heat is rejected to the surrounding.
Increases the pressure of the water.

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Incinerator

What is an Incinerator?

Disintegrates waste through controlled


combustion.
Hot combustion gases transfer heat to the
boiler.
Heat transferred through convection and
radiation.
Automatic and Manual Incinerators.

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Incinerator Design
Combustion gases
exit
Manual Hand-Fired Grate.
Angle iron rectangular frame.
Steel sheets to cover the frame.
Surface area as short as possible.
Fan to improve combustion and heat transfer.
Insulation material used on the outside walls.

Fresh air
entrance
Fire Door
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Boiler

What is a boiler?

Heat energy from fuel to fluid.


Water converted from saturated liquid to super
heated vapour.
3 parts
Economizer.
Evaporator.
Super-heater.

49
Boiler Types
There are two main types of boilers.

Water tube boiler In fire tube, the flue


has water flowing gases are in the
in tubes and flue tubes while the
gases in the shell. water is in the
shell.

Project One Here Project Two Here


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Water tube VS Fire tube

6 1
Water tube Fire tube
Parameters Water tube Fire tube
Safer
Easy to manufacture

Flexible
Lower start time
More efficient
Higher Steam output

Cheaper
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Babcock & Wilcox Boiler

What is a Babcock and Wilcox


boiler?

Simplest water tube boiler.


Has
1 steam drum.
1 down-comer.
1 riser.
Drum and Pipes made of Steel.

52
Boiler Design

Super heater
Steam drum

Feed water inlet


Super heated
steam exit

Down comer

Riser

Supports

53
Turbine

What is a turbine?

Device converts potential/kinetic energy of fluid to do


work.
Impulse turbine
Consists of a shaft with blades or cups.
Fluids momentum is converted to shafts momentum.
2 types of turbine
Impulse Turbine Pelton wheel turbine
Reaction Turbine Francis turbine, Kaplan turbine

Reaction
turbine 54
Pelton VS Francis

3 3
Francis Pelton

Parameters Francis Pelton


Safer
Easy to manufacture

Flexible
Low flow rate required

More efficient
Cheaper 55
Turbine Design

Francis turbine with nozzle.


Most steam expanded in the nozzle.
Rest expanded by the blades.
A hybrid turbine.
Alloy steel.

56
Pump & Condenser

What is a pump?
What is a condenser?

Device that increases the From these components, the team has decided not
pressure of the water to to incorporate condenser and pumps in the
boiler pressure. fabrication since they add to the cost without adding
substantial benefit to the cycle in terms of output and
efficiency.
A heat exchanger which decreases
the temperature of water mixture
coming out from turbine.

57
Risk Assessment
PERFORMANCE DESIGN
RISK
ASSESSMENT
IS DONE FOR
THE PROJECT
ON
SAFETY
QUALITY DIFFERENT
PERIMETERS
TO ENSURE
I T S T I M E LY
COMPLETION
COST
MANUFACTURABILITY WITH
ENSURED
R E S U LT S
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Design

Incorrect perimeters and


measurement will create
assembly and performance
issues. Design models and
Software's will be used to
assess designs.
Furthermore Advisors will
be consulted for design
approval.
Safety

Safety is the most


p a r a m o u n t . To a v o i d
leakage, pressure vessel
blasts, health problems
special care will be given
to upholding the standard
procedures approved by
International bodies and
taking safety precautions.
Cost

Wrong cost assessment


will create financial issues,
for which market survey is
done. Costs are always
market and final design
dependent so if design
alterations create cost
issues alternatives will be
worked upon
Performance

Errors in calculations and


wrong material selection
will give off bad
performance results, which
can be easily dealt with
simulations and assuming
safety factors
Quality

If the quality of the


materials and fabrication is
not up to the mark, safety
issues and performance
issues will arise. Material,
weld and fluid quality will
be maintained to ensure
required quality standards.
Manufacturability

Wrong manufacturing
estimates will create
fabrication problems. A
market survey will enable
us to get proper estimates
about manufacturing
capabilities and their
costs.
Question & Answers
Waste is not waste,
until wasted.