Sie sind auf Seite 1von 33

1 of 33 Boardworks Ltd 2009

2 of 33 Boardworks Ltd 2009


Types of crystal
The physical properties of a material depend on its structure.
Materials in which the atoms or molecules have a regular
arrangement (lattice) are called crystals.
There are four basic types of crystal:
ionic a lattice formed by positively and
negatively-charged ions.
metallic a regular lattice of positively-charged metal
ions surrounded by a sea of delocalized electrons.
macromolecular (giant covalent) a regular lattice of
atoms held together by covalent bonds.
molecular (simple covalent) a regular lattice of
covalently-bonded molecules held together by
intermolecular forces.
3 of 33 Boardworks Ltd 2009
Properties of ionic substances

4 of 33 Boardworks Ltd 2009


Properties of sodium chloride

5 of 33 Boardworks Ltd 2009


Properties of metallic substances

6 of 33 Boardworks Ltd 2009


Properties of metallic and ionic crystals

7 of 33 Boardworks Ltd 2009


Properties of metallic and ionic crystals

8 of 33 Boardworks Ltd 2009


9 of 33 Boardworks Ltd 2009
The structure of diamond
Allotropes are different
forms of the same element.

Diamond is an allotrope of
carbon, and is an example of
a macromolecular crystal.

Each carbon atom is bonded


by covalent bonds to four
other carbon atoms, creating
a rigid, very strong 3D
structure.

10 of 33 Boardworks Ltd 2009


Properties of diamond

11 of 33 Boardworks Ltd 2009


The structure of graphite
Graphite is another allotrope of carbon. Like diamond, it is
a macromolecular crystal. However, it has very different
physical properties because the carbon atoms are
arranged in a different way.

Each carbon atom is


covalently bonded to three
others in the same 2D
plane, forming layers.

These layers are held weakly


together by van der Waals
forces, not covalent bonds.

12 of 33 Boardworks Ltd 2009


Properties of graphite

13 of 33 Boardworks Ltd 2009


Allotropes of carbon

14 of 33 Boardworks Ltd 2009


Other allotropes of carbon
Another class of carbon compounds are the fullerenes.

Buckminsterfullerene is one type


of fullerene. It contains 60 carbon
atoms, each of which is bonded to
three others by two single bonds
and one double bond.

Carbon nanotubes are another


type of fullerene. They are
cylindrical carbon molecules. They
have many potential applications,
such as transporting drugs around
the body and as components in
electrical transistors.
15 of 33 Boardworks Ltd 2009
The structure of iodine
Solid iodine has a molecular structure consisting of a
regular arrangement of iodine molecules (I2) held in place
by van der Waals forces.

The melting point of iodine


is low (387 K) compared to
that of diamond, because
less energy is required to
break van der Waals forces
than covalent bonds.

16 of 33 Boardworks Ltd 2009


The structure of ice
In ice, water molecules form
four hydrogen bonds with
neighbouring water molecules,
creating a repeating tetrahedral
structure.

Usually a solid is more dense


than the same material in its
liquid phase. However, cold water
(around 4 C) is denser than ice. hydrogen
bond
This is because not all the water molecules are hydrogen
bonded, and the mean distance between molecules is less
than the hydrogen bond length.

17 of 33 Boardworks Ltd 2009


Covalent crystals: true or false?

18 of 33 Boardworks Ltd 2009


Covalent structures

19 of 33 Boardworks Ltd 2009


20 of 33 Boardworks Ltd 2009
Bonding and lone pairs
A pair of electrons in a
covalent bond are called a
bonding pair. Pairs of
electrons that are not
involved in bonding are
called lone pairs. bonding
lone pair
pair

Electron pairs are clouds of negative charge, so there is


mutual repulsion between them, forcing them as far apart
as possible.

This means the number of electron pairs around the central


atom(s) determines the basic shape of the molecule.

21 of 33 Boardworks Ltd 2009


Describing shapes of molecules
The shape of a molecule can be described in terms of its
bond lengths and bond angles.

Bond length is the distance


between the nuclei of two bond
bonded atoms. angle

Bond angle is the angle


between two covalent bonds. bond
length
Counting electrons enables the basic shape of the molecule
and its approximate bond angles to be predicted.

22 of 33 Boardworks Ltd 2009


Shapes of molecules

23 of 33 Boardworks Ltd 2009


Effect of lone pairs on shape
The number of lone pairs in a molecule is calculated by
subtracting the number of bonding pairs from the total
number of electron pairs in the outer principal energy level.
The shape of a molecule with lone pairs is based on the
basic shape for the total number of outer electron pairs,
but with a lone pair replacing one of the bonds.

tetrahedral pyramidal V-shaped

replacing one replacing another


bonding pair bonding pair with
with a lone pair a lone pair
24 of 33 Boardworks Ltd 2009
Working out basic shapes of molecules

25 of 33 Boardworks Ltd 2009


Molecular shape calculations

26 of 33 Boardworks Ltd 2009


Effect of lone pairs on bond angles

27 of 33 Boardworks Ltd 2009


Effect of lone pairs on bond angles

28 of 33 Boardworks Ltd 2009


Shapes of molecules activity

29 of 33 Boardworks Ltd 2009


30 of 33 Boardworks Ltd 2009
Glossary

31 of 33 Boardworks Ltd 2009


Whats the keyword?

32 of 33 Boardworks Ltd 2009


Multiple-choice quiz

33 of 33 Boardworks Ltd 2009