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Transmission media

Twisted pair cable


Coaxial cable
Fibre optic cable
Radio waves
Microwaves
Infrared

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Factors relating to comparisons
Cost
Bandwidth
Attenuation at high frequency
Interference
Need for repeaters
Directional focusing capability (wireless)
Penetration through a wall (wireless)

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The Internet
Is an internetwork not a WAN
Internet Service Provider (ISP)
Public switched telephone network (PSTN)
Geostationary Earth orbit satellites
Medium-Earth-orbit satellites
Low-Earth-orbit satellites
World Wide Web (WWW) is an application

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Internet-supporting hardware
Router
Gateway
A web server
An application server
A domain name server
A file server
A proxy server
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Client-server
First used as a technology to compete with a
mainframe computer and connected terminals
PCs were connected to a network which had a
minicomputer attached as the server
In the modern version the server is a web
server installed as software
The client is browser software installed on a
PC
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Bit streaming
Streaming media are multimedia
Traditionally multimedia was downloaded
before being run locally
Streaming can be on demand or live
For live streaming delivery is from a large
number of content provider servers
At the receiver end a media player uses a
buffer to ensure suitable delivery
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IP addressing
The original and still most widely used version
is IPv4
An address has 32 bits (four bytes)
Hierarchical addressing defines a netID and a
hostID
As first implemented addresses were assigned
on the basis of classes of networks
Class A, B, C addresses start 0, 10, 110
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Variations introduced
The original scheme became too restrictive so
various alternatives or modifications appeared
Classless inter-domain routing (CIDR)
Sub-netting
Network address translation (NAT)
NAT allows the creation of private networks
with addresses that are not used on the
Internet
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The future for IP addressing
IPv4 is still almost universally used in one of
the alternative approaches described
IPv6 has been defined for quite some time but
implementation is limited
The transition to universal IPv6 use must
ensure continuing operation of the Internet
IPv6 has 128-bit addressing giving so many
addresses to ensure no future problems
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Domain names
The direct use of an IP address is not sensible
The domain name system (DNS) allows use of
a universal resource locator URL instead
The URL includes a domain name
The domain name system is hierarchical
Domain name servers support the system
A domain name server can provide a domain
name when an IP address is supplied
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Scripting
A web application containing web pages can
be created by a developer using HTML
Within the HTML there can be client-side
scripting written in JavaScript
There can also be server-side scripting written
in PHP
The appropriate use of scripting eliminates
unnecessary network traffic
Cambridge University Press 2016