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Bahan Kuliah IV

JARINGAN TELEKOMUNIKASI
S1-TE
P L M N

Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi Telkom


Bandung
2005
PLMN
Konsep Dasar, Elemen & Struktur Jaringan PLMN:
Cell, Base Station (BTS), BSC, MSC, GMSC
Multipple Access
Radio Channel : Traffic Channel, Control Channel
Attachement, Detahhement, Registration
Roaming, Registration & Paging
Location Area, Location Updating, Paging
Roaming

Radio Channel

Proses Komunikasi (panggilan)

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D.1.1.1 Mobility
Mobility in a public telecommunications network is no unequivocal concept. (See
Volume 1, Chapter 6, Subsection 6.2.4.) We differentiate between portability,
movability and (complete) mobility.
Portability represents the simple case in which only the terminal is moved and
then connected again at another point in the network. Movability implies that the
subscriber moves his personal access; for example, when logging onto a data
network from different network positions. Mobility refers to the state of complete
ambulatory capability in which both the terminal and subscriber access can be
moved, while the network automatically keeps track of all movement. In other
words, this means both terminal and service mobility.
Mobility requires radio access via base (or radio base) stations. The physical
access in a mobile network is arranged to enable a terminal to connect itself
anywhere in the network and move about while a call is in progress. (Of course,
the subscriber's subscription must be available at all access points.) This
movability presupposes specially designed access ("cells" instead of connection
points). It also requires that the terminal be able to maintain continuous radio
contact with the network.

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D.1.1.1 Mobility
Portability : terminal is moved.
Movability : moves his personal access.
Mobility : terminal and subscriber access can be
moved.

Mobility requires radio access via base (or radio base) stations.

The physical access in a mobile network is arranged to enable a terminal


to connect itself anywhere in the network and move about while a call is in
progress.

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D.1.1.2 Primary PLMN functions - Main network elements
It is necessary to be somewhat familiar with the specialised terminology to
understand mobile networks and their functions. Examples of basic concepts
include location updating, roaming, handover and paging. To elucidate these
concepts and the handling of mobile traffic, we should have used animated
illustrations. For practical reasons, we must leave the animation to the reader's
imagination when we refer to Figure D.1.1, which illustrates the salient elements
of a fixed network and of a PLMN.
Mobile networks require functions for network intelligence, even when handling
"ordinary" calls. Figure D.1.1 shows two of these functions: the home location
register (HLR) and the visitor location register (VLR). The figure also makes clear
that access to the PLMN is significantly different from access to fixed networks.
Each base station controller (BSC) includes a switching function allowing it to
switch to another base station as the terminal moves (roaming). In the figure,
imagine the terminal having moved from location area 1 (LA1), through LA2, to
LA3, where it has been called via the associated BSC. The next destination is
LA4. Such movement also involves a number of mobile switching centres
(MSCs).

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D.1.1.2 Primary PLMN functions - Main network
elements
Basic concept function of PLMN (Figure D.1.1):
Location updating
Roaming
Handover and paging.

Elements of PLMN :
MSC (Mobile Switching Center)
HLR (Home Location Register)
VLR (Visitor Location Register)
BSC (Base Station Controller)
LA1, LA2 (Location Area 1, 2, .)

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Figure D.1.1 Comparison of a fixed network and a PLMN having cells grouped in location areas (LA)
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D.1.1.3 An orientation - Common concepts
The following concepts are described in this section :
Cells and base stations - Multiple access
Radio channels between base stations and mobiles -
Control channels and traffic channels
Attachment and detachment
Roaming
Registration and paging - Location area
Locating and handover

The various network elements - MSC, BTS, HLR, VLR - are


clarified in more detail in Chapter 2, Section 2.3.

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D.1.1.3 An orientation - Common concepts
Some concepts in PLMN :
Cells
Base Stations
Multiple access
Radio channels
Control channels and traffic channels
Attachment and detachment
Roaming
Registration and paging
Location area
Locating and handover

The various network elements - MSC, BTS, HLR, VLR - are clarified in
more detail in Chapter 2, Section 2.3.
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Cells and base stations - Multiple access
Radio access offers subscribers a number of radio channels for communication.
However, radio channels are in short supply. To effectively utilise the frequency
spectrum allocated for use by mobile subscribers, every radio channel should be
reusable, which requires well-defined and separate geographical areas that have
access to a range of frequencies. Such areas of service are referred to as cells.
The nomenclature has given rise to the term cellular system that we find in a
system name such as personal digital cellular (PDC).
The number of radio channels in a cell is significantly less than the number of
mobiles, since - in the normal case - only a minority of the mobiles are active at the
same time. The technique used to assign idle traffic channels to calling or called
mobiles is referred to as multiple access. (See also Volume 1, Chapter 5, Section
5.10.) Three variants of multiple access are described in Chapter 4, Subsections
4.3.5 - 4.3.7, of this Part.
Base stations use either omnidirectional or directional antennas. The antenna of an
omnidirectional cell radiates (more or less) an equally strong signal in all horizontal
directions, thereby covering a circular area. A mobile station located in this area will
normally experience good radio contact with the base station. The circle's radius
can be modified by changing the output power of the base station, which in most
cases is done in connection with cell planning (see Chapter 10, Section 10.5). As a
rule, maximum cell size is determined by the mobile's available output power.
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Cells : the coverage of a radio channel (s) transmitted by
an (omni/sectoral) antenna of a base station
Multiple Access : the technique used to assign idle traffic
channels to calling or called mobiles (there are three
variants of MA)
Base Stations : TRx + antenna
Base stations use either omnidirectional or directional antennas.
The antenna of an omnidirectional cell radiates (more or less) an equally strong
signal in all horizontal directions, thereby covering a circular area.
The circle's radius can be modified by changing the output power of the base
station, which in most cases is done in connection with cell planning
As a rule, maximum cell size is determined by the mobile's available output
power.

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Figure D.1.2 Hexagonal patterns are easy to work with

Figure D.1.2 shows a system made up of omnidirectional cells. The figure


also demonstrates the origination of the well-known hexagonal pattern.
Hexagonal patterns are easy to work with: graphically, geometrically and
logically. However, since the hexagonal model provides an idealised
representation of coverage one must always complement this model with
actual coverage measurements.
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Omnidirectional cell & Hexagonal patterns

Figure D.1.2 Omnidirectional cells

Hexagonal model provides an idealised representation of


coverage.
Hexagonal patterns are easy to work with: graphically,
geometrically and logically.
However, since the one must always complement this
model with actual coverage measurements.
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A base station that uses three directional antennas, where each antenna
covers an angle of 120, has three sector cells around it. Figure D.1.3
illustrates the appearance of the corresponding cell pattern.
It is not always necessary to have three sector cells together.
Occasionally, one sector cell will suffice; for example, when covering a
section of a road or highway.
The transmitters of each of the cells have their own frequencies. Cell
pattern planning is closely related to the use and reuse of frequencies.
(See Chapter 5, Subsection 5.2.1.)

Figure D.1.3 Three sector cells

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Sectoral cell (directional antenna)
A BS can have three directional antenna covers an angel of
120o
To cover a road or highway, one sector is sufficient
Each cell has its own frequencies
Cell pattern planning related to frequency reuse attern

Figure D.1.3 Three sector cells

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Radio channels between base stations and mobiles
The mobile telephony service is assigned special operating frequency
ranges (which vary depending on the country and the standards
employed). These frequency ranges are in turn subdivided into radio
channels, commonly 25-30 kHz wide (channel separation). Duplex
mode is employed for traffic over radio access, meaning that the base
stations and the mobiles must be capable of simultaneous transmission
and reception, requiring two frequency ranges sufficiently separated
from one another. The separation between them is referred to as the
duplex separation; its size, determined by technical factors, varies as a
function of the frequency range being used. The combination of two
frequencies (or portions of frequencies) constitutes a duplex radio
channel. As an example, Figure D.1.4 shows frequency assignment and
utilisation for the NMT 450 mobile telephone system.
The channels of a mobile network are divided into two primary groups:
control channels and traffic channels.

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Figure D.1.4 Frequency range for NMT 450

Every cell employs at least one channel as a control channel, on which the
base station continuously transmits an identifying signal that is used by the
mobiles to lock into that particular cell. Control channels are also used for
paging calls; if the called mobile is in the cell, it will respond over the same (or
another) channel. The number of control channels in a cell varies as a function
of the access technique employed and the expected call intensity.

After having completed call connection signalling, the mobile is assigned


another channel - a traffic channel - for the call. The number of traffic channels
in a cell varies with the cell's expected traffic intensity.
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Radio channel(s) between BS - MS
Analog cellular (1 G) FDMA/FDD
A mobile telephony service has certain operating frequencies range
(regulated by goverment)
A radio channel commonly need 25-30 kHz of range
Duplex mode is employed to separate a pair of up-link and down-link to
enable simultaneous transmission (full duplex)
An example : NMT 450 has (453-457,5) MHz up-link and (463-467,5) MHz
down-link

Figure D.1.4 Frequency range for NMT 450


Radio channels of a cell consits of traffic channels and control channel(s)
Proportion of each depend of traffic intensity
Radio channel = physical channel, traffic channel / control channel = logical
channel 18
Control channels and traffic channels are also referred to as logical channels.
These logical channels are mapped onto physical channels.
A physical channel can be a radio broadcasting frequency, a pair of frequencies
(including duplex separation) in an analog mobile system or a time slot on a pair
of frequencies in a digital mobile system.
Traffic channels are addressed in greater detail in Chapter 4, Subsection 4.3.5.
Control channels are described in Chapter 7.

Attachment and detachment


As soon as a mobile is turned on, it establishes contact with the network. It thus
has "access" to the network, and the network registers its movements.
A user can turn his mobile off occasionally to conserve battery power. Since it
would not make much sense to attempt to call an idle mobile, the system
includes functionality to keep track of whether the mobile is ON (attachment) or
OFF (detachment).

Roaming
Regardless of its location, a mobile that is turned on must maintain constant
radio contact with the network. Both the network and the mobile include special
functionality for this purpose: the roaming function.

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Note : in digital cellular (GSM for istance) an RF divided into 8 time
slots FDMA/TDMA, FDD

Attachement and detachement


- Attachement = turn on the power of MS MS estabilishes contact
with the network (MS access to the network)
- The network register its movement
- Detachement = turn off the power (occasionally to conserve battery
power)
- The mobile system includes functionality to keep track of of whether
the mobile is ON (attachment) or OFF (detachment)

Roaming
- Roaming = movement of an MS accordingly of its location (an area at
which an MS that turn on is maintain constant radio contact contact
with the network).
- Both the network and the mobile include special functionality for this
purpose : the roaming function.
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Location updating and paging - Location area
A terminal in a fixed network is connected to a fixed access point, which is also
associated with a subscriber number. Information about this association is stored
in the local exchange responsible for the particular access point. If a terminal is
moved, it will normally be assigned a new number depending on which local
exchange it is moved to. This movability places no demands on the network in
terms of routing or connection control.
Fixed access points do not exist in the world of mobile networks. When a mobile is
called, the network must be able to determine its position, and that requires special
intelligence. Registration (or location updating) is the intelligent network function
that keeps track of the mobile's position. Paging is the actual search operation
performed in all or some of the network cells.

Figure D.1.5 Location area


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Radio resources would be greatly overworked if, for every incoming call, the paging
function were activated to locate the position of the called mobile all over the
network. The solution lies in forcing the mobiles to report their positions, that is, to
register. The question is: How often should a mobile report - upon entering a new
cell or less frequently? The size of the area within which the mobile need not
register becomes a trade-off between location updating and paging. Updating
locations per cell would load the network with too many registrations, while a large
area - for example, an MSC service area - might very well load the network with too
many "paging assignments". The group of cells in which a mobile need not register
is referred to as its location area.The location area can correspond to a BSC service
area (as shown in Figure D.1.5) but can also consist of cells from several different
BSC service areas located in the same MSC service area.
While the use of a traffic channel is related to specific, non-adjacent cells, call
channels are a common resource for a given location area. A location area must not
be made so large as to allow the number of calls in the area to cause call-channel
congestion.
Since the registration and paging functions require network intelligence, they are
also addressed in Chapter 6, Section 6.2.

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Locating and handover
The channel used for a call - or for control - must be capable of being switched
from cell to cell as the mobile traverses the cells. The system must be able to
detect whether or not switching is necessary (normally coinciding with the fact
that signal strength has dropped below a given value or the signal-to-noise
ratio has become unsatisfactory). This function is referred to as locating.The
technical term for actually switching from cell to cell - which preferably occurs
without the user noticing it - is handover.
Handover is addressed in greater detail in Chapter 3 (switching aspects) and
in Chapter 5 (transmission aspects).

D.1.2 Services
D.1.2.1 Telephony
D.1.2.2 Data
D.1.2.3 Telefax
D.1.2.4 Supplementary services
D.1.2.5 Emergency call services
D.1.2.6 Messaging services

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Kayaknya sampai sini deh

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The basic idea of mobile services is to offer the moving subscriber the
same services that are offered to fixed-network subscribers. Subscriber
movement requires sophisticated solutions to maintain service continuity
throughout the network. Information on the individual subscriber's access
to a specific service and on the status of this service must be transmitted
between the exchanges of the mobile network in step with the movement
of the subscriber.

D.1.2.1 Telephony
The most important function of a mobile network is the creation of a good
and dependable telephone service. Under favourable radio transmission
conditions, the quality of the telephone service is comparable with fixed-
network telephony. Digital mobile networks are capable of delivering
telephony of varying quality, depending on the voice-coding method
employed over radio access. The GSM digital mobile system uses the
terms "full-rate coding" (13 kbit/s) and "half-rate coding" (6.5 kbit/s).

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D.1.2.2 Data
The speed normally used by GSM is 9.6 kbit/s, but higher speeds are
being developed (see Chapter 2, Subsection 2.4.4).
The use of modems enables analog systems to offer data services with bit
rates up to 19.2 kbit/s.

D.1.2.3 Telefax
All larger mobile systems support Group 3 telefax.

D.1.2.4 Supplementary services


Mobile network supplementary services are similar to their counterparts in
the fixed network, even if services such as call barring require a greater
number of variations. A subscription for official use can be barred so that
incoming calls are not accepted; for instance, when the mobile is used on
an assignment in another country. This protects the company against the
risk of having to pay the high cost of private calls being made from home
to the mobile.

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D.1.2.5 Emergency call services
Many mobile networks offer an emergency call service. All the user has to
do in an emergency situation is contact an emergency centre - no
knowledge of the telephone numbers of different centres in the area is
required. Even black-listed mobiles and mobiles that are ordinarily unable to
pass authentication can use this service.

D.1.2.6 Messaging services


Messaging services are particularly important in increasing accessibility in a
PLMN, because terminals can be turned off or can be in an area where
buildings or hills create radio shadows. Voice mail, telefax and short
message service (SMS) are examples of messaging services.
SMS allows callers to leave short text messages (GSM allows up to 160
characters). A message that cannot be delivered immediately will be stored
in a short-message service centre until the mobile can be reached.

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D.1.4 Security
Networks that utilise radio communications are especially sensitive to
unauthorised use of terminals and to tapping along the radio path. Mobile
networks therefore require the institution of special security measures.
Both the user and the network operator must be protected against any
unauthorised intrusion by a third party. This protection can either consist of
a supplementary service selected by the user; for example, a smart card
(with a personal code) for systems that use such cards, or of various
network functions such as encryption and authentication.
The following functions have been enhanced to protect the network:

authentication system that protects against unauthorised use of the


network's services;
encryption to protect against unauthorised tapping of radio access;
terminal identification that protects against the use of stolen mobiles;
and
temporary telephone numbers that protect against unauthorised
access to a mobile's identity.
Security is addressed in greater detail in Chapter 6, Section 6.4.
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D.1.5 Terminals

Figure D.1.6 The most important key functions on a mobile telephone


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The development of the mobile telephone has been characterised by two
dominant trends: size reduction and increased intelligence. Both trends
have the same origins, namely the endeavour to make components ever
smaller and more advanced and the constant development and
refinement of the design. Also, the mobile telephone has already passed
three initial phases: the car-mounted model, the portable model and the
current pocket model.
In digital networks, the mobile assists in the handover process by
continuously measuring base station signal strength and then reporting
the measured values to the network. The mobile's ability to control the
handover process (mobile-controlled handover) will mark the next step in
its development (see Chapter 5, Section 5.4).
A pocket telephone has a number of facilities. The most common are:
alphanumeric display;
memory for many abbreviated numbers;
signal strength indicator;
battery indicator; and
electronic lock.
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The mobile office is a concept that has developed in step with the increase
in teleworking. In addition to the mobile telephone, an important tool is the
laptop PC which can be equipped with a modem card. The laptop can then
be connected directly to a mobile telephone's modem port. The portable
fax is another terminal that can be used over a PLMN.
The development towards more advanced terminals as described in
Section 1.3.1 is illustrated in Figure D.1.7.

Figure D.1.7 The development of PLMN terminals from simple mobile telephones into
intelligent mobile terminals

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D.2.2.2 GSM voice coding
The following is a brief description of the voice coding employed by the
mobiles of a GSM system. A number of electronic filters are used to
simulate the operation of the human organs of speech and to extract the
vocal cords' original frequencies, called excitation sequences.

Figure D.2.2 GSM voice coding


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Information about the filter characteristics and the excitation sequences is
sent to the receiver, where it is used to reproduce the original signal. Figure
D.2.2 and Figure D.2.3 illustrate the principle.

The first step of the analysis is performed through linear predictive


coding (LPC). The LPC analysis unit is designed as the inverse of the
speech organs' filtering model. When a 20 ms voice block from the
segmentation unit is allowed to pass through the filter for LPC analysis,
this filter will deliver the excitation sequence for the sample.
Since two consecutive blocks have similar excitation sequences, the
difference between them is calculated with the long-term prediction
(LTP) methods.
The resulting excitation difference passes through a low-pass filter and
is then input to the residual pulse excitation (RPE) grid selection unit,
which is a waveform coder (similar to the one used in PCM). The filtered
excitation difference is sampled and every third sample is coded. The
resulting bit stream is 9.4 kbit/s.
The RPE bit stream and the LPC and LTP parameter values are
transferred to the receiver, where the original speech is reproduced
through a reverse process. 33
The LPC and LTP parameter values generate 3.6 kbit/s, making the total
bit stream from the voice coder 13 kbit/s (260 bits per 20 ms sample).

Figure D.2.3 The original frequencies (excitation sequences) of the vocal


cords are extracted using LPC/LTP analysis

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D.2.3 Network elements
D.2.3.1 Network elements for (user) traffic
D.2.3.2 Network elements as databases
D.2.3.3 Network elements for additional network intelligence
D.2.3.4 Network elements for operation and maintenance
D.2.3.5 Network elements for signalling
D.2.3.6 Network elements for transport and transmission

For the most part, the same types of network element are found in all
mobile networks, even if they are named differently in different standards.
In Figure D.2.4,we use GSM as an example.

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Figure D.2.4 GSM network elements
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