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Environment Management

Learning Objective

To examine the internal strategies adopted by business to improve its performance and to reduce its
environmental risk and to describe and analyze evolving drivers of corporate environmental strategy
To be conversant with environmental best practices and regulatory aspects

The course on environment management (EM), deals with a range of approaches to EM drawing on examples
from India and elsewhere in the world.

In particular, how business can best respond to the pressures of regulation, markets, financial institutions,
.
consumers and NGOs.
Scope
The role of business and society in engendering various environmental issues.
Legacy of environmental issues and coping mechanism role of MOEFCC, Central and State Pollution Control
Boards
Corporate environmental challenges aspects to be looked into assessing the impact & plan of action
Role of ISO 14000 in Environmental Management
Environmental Regulations The Water Act, Air Act, Environment Protection Act and rules, Municipal Solid
Waste, Biomedical waste, E-Waste rules,
Environmental Impact Assessment , Environmental clearance, Environmental Audit
Green Ratings , The National Green Tribunal
Climate change issues Policy framework, UNFCCC, Kyoto Protocol, IPCC, NAPCC

The topics will be covered through a combination of course readings, class discussions, case studies, videos and
assignments
Evaluation Criteria:
Case discussions 10 marks
Class participation 05 marks
Group presentations 15 marks
Trimester-end Examination 20 marks
50 marks
Total
How do activities of society and business impact environment ?
What are the current environmental issues ?
Environmental Issues

1. Large scale pollution of Water, Air and Soil


2. Climate Change
3. Global warming
4. Ozone layer depletion
5. Damage to Terrestrial Ecosystems
6. Deforestation / Desertification
7. Ocean Acidification
8. Damage to Marine ecosystems
9. Loss of biodiversity
10.Waste generation and disposal
11.Acid Rain
Large scale pollution of Water, Air and Soil
Increased industrialization has led to large scale water pollution. Mostly the water bodies get polluted with
municipal, industrial and agricultural waste and their unplanned leaking, run off, dumping and disposal. Chemical
waste from factories is sometimes dumped into rivers , lakes and oceans, or directly into the ground. Pesticides
applied to farmland enter surface water and groundwater, often in large quantities. Water pollution is most often
caused directly due to inappropriateness in treatment and disposal of waste. All have a different adverse effect
on the water body.

The pollutants in excess of permissible limits adversely impact the water quality and its ecosystems.

Waste water containing heavy metals from industrial processes discharged into a water body degrade the
water quality , are toxic to aquatic life and can affect the entire food chain.

When pesticides run off , they quickly become absorbed into aquatic food webs. Once in the food webs, these
pesticides can cause mutations, as well as diseases, which can be harmful to humans as well as the entire food
web.
Most of the air pollution results from inappropriately treated emissions from factories, burning of fossil fuels, such as
coal, oil, natural gas to produce electricity and power our vehicles. Air pollution is responsible for major harmful effects
on human health, animal lives etc. It is also responsible for climate change due to the enhanced greenhouse effect, acid
rain, and the depletion of the ozone layer that constitute important global environmental problems.

Soil pollution, refers to degradation of soil, is caused by industrial activity, agricultural chemicals, or improper disposal
of waste. Pesticides and other farming chemicals , landfills, illegal dumping , mining activities , accidental spills etc. end
up contaminating soils. These adversely impact the soil quality , agricultural yields , ecosystems, human health etc.
#12: Ensure
sustainable
consumption
and
production
patterns
Achieving economic growth and sustainable development requires that we urgently reduce
our ecological footprint by changing the way we produce and consume goods and
resources. Agriculture is the biggest user of water worldwide, and irrigation now claims close
to 70 percent of all freshwater for human use.

The efficient management of our shared natural resources, and the way we dispose of toxic
waste and pollutants, are important targets to achieve this goal. Encouraging industries,
businesses and consumers to recycle and reduce waste is equally important, as is supporting
developing countries to move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption by 2030.

Organization are targeting zero discharge of waste water.

ITC has been reducing specific energy consumption and is water positive over years
( Pages 87, 95,97 )
Global Warming & Climate Change
Global Warming and Climate Change

Almost 100% of the observed temperature increase over the last 60 years has been due to the increase in the
atmosphere of greenhouse gas concentrations like water vapour, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane , HFCs etc..
Greenhouse gases are those gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect . The largest contributing source of
greenhouse gas is the burning of fossil fuels leading to the emission of carbon dioxide.

When sunlight reaches Earth's surface some is absorbed and warms the earth and most of the rest is radiated back
to the atmosphere . Some of it is absorbed by greenhouse gases in the atmosphere before they are lost to space.
The absorption of this energy warms the atmosphere.

Increasing global temperatures are causing a broad range of changes. Sea levels are rising due to thermal expansion
of the ocean, in addition to melting of land ice. Amounts and patterns of precipitation are changing. The total
annual power of hurricanes has already increased markedly since 1975 because their average intensity and average
duration have increased. Changes in temperature and precipitation patterns increase the frequency, duration, and
intensity of other extreme weather events, such as floods, droughts, heat waves, and tornadoes. Other effects of
global warming include higher or lower agricultural yields, further glacial retreat, reduced summer stream flows,
species extinctions.
#13: Take
urgent action to
combat climate
change and its
impacts*
There is no country in the world that is not experiencing first-hand the drastic effects
of climate change. Greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, and are now more
than 50 percent higher than their 1990 level. Further, global warming is causing long-
lasting changes to our climate system, which threatens irreversible consequences if
we do not take action now.

The annual average losses from earthquakes, tsunamis, tropical cyclones and
flooding amount to hundreds of billions of dollars, requiring an investment of US$6
billion annually in disaster risk management alone. The goal aims to mobilize $100
billion annually by 2020 to address the needs of developing countries and help
mitigate climate-related disasters.

Helping more vulnerable regions, such as land locked countries and island states,
adapt to climate change must go hand in hand with efforts to integrate disaster risk
measures into national strategies. It is still possible, with the political will and a wide
array of technological measures, to limit the increase in global mean temperature to
two degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels. This requires urgent collective
action.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was set up by the World Meteorological
Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) to provide an objective
source of scientific information. The UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) released
its Fifth Assessment Report which looked at the science of climate change. It is categorical in its
conclusion: climate change is real and human activities are the main cause.

Organizations are working to reduce carbon footprint , also incentivized through carbon trading . This
allows countries that have emission units to spare - emissions permitted them but not "used" - to sell this
excess capacity to countries that are over their targets.

ITC has been carbon positive over the years ( Page 87,91 )
Ozone Layer Depletion
Ozone layer Depletion
The ozone layer forms a thick layer in stratosphere, encircling the earth, that has large amount of
ozone in it. The ozone layer protects life on earth from strong ultraviolet radiation that comes
from the sun. Ultraviolet rays are harmful rays that can drive up the risk of deadly disorders like skin
cancer, cataracts and damage the immune system. Ultraviolet rays are also capable of destroying
single cell organism, terrestrial plant life and aquatic ecosystems.
The emission of ODS account for roughly 90% of total depletion of ozone layer in stratosphere.
Ozone-depleting substances include chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), carbon tetrachloride,
hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) , methyl chloroform etc. These are widely used in refrigerators, air
conditioners, as solvents for cleaning etc. They reach the stratosphere and deplete the ozone via a
profound series of chemical reactions. The results of this research study prompted the signing of
a global treaty known as the Montreal Protocol . The Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete
the Ozone layer is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the
production of numerous substances that are responsible for ozone depletion. It was agreed in 1987 and
has undergone several revisions.

ITC plan for ODS phasing out ( Page 95)


Damage to Marine Ecosystem
Damage to Marine Ecosystem

Marine ecosystems are among the largest of Earth's aquatic ecosystems. Damage to marine ecosystems through ocean
acidification, chemical dumps , spills etc.

Oceans play an important role in the Earths carbon cycle; they act as one of the major carbon reservoirs and readily
exchange carbon dioxide with the atmosphere. Holding all other things constant, Henrys Law states that the solubility of a
gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas over the liquid. This indicates that the concentration
of carbon dioxide in the oceans positively correlates to the atmospheric level of carbon dioxide. In other words, rises in
atmospheric carbon dioxide levels increase the concentration of carbon dioxide dissolved in the oceans. This results in a
phenomenon known as ocean acidification . The European Science Foundation reports that oceans have become 30% more
acidic since the industrial revolution adversely impacting marine ecosystems such as coral reef , planktonic ecosystems etc.
A small change in the pH of seawater can have harmful effects on marine life, impacting chemical communication,
reproduction, and growth. Ocean acidification will affect humans too! It will affect the food we eat since most of our
shellfish requires calcium carbonate to form or to fortify their shells. The presence of healthy coral reefs is imperative to our
survival because we rely on them for food, coastal protection, medicines and tourism.
#14:
Conserve
and
sustainably
use the
oceans,
seas and
marine
resources
The SDG aims to sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems from pollution, as well as
address the impacts of ocean acidification. Enhancing conservation and the sustainable use of ocean-based
resources through international law will also help mitigate some of the challenges facing our oceans.
Damage to Terrestrial Ecosystem
Damage to Terrestrial Ecosystem

Terrestrial ecosystems include forests, wetlands, drylands and mountains . Damaging these also is resulting in loss of
biodiversity and natural habitats.

Deforestation is the destruction of forests for various uses. An estimated 18 million acres (7.3 million hectares) of forest,
which is roughly the size of the country of Panama,
Deforestation is theare lost eachdestruction
permanent year, according to theinUnited
of forests order Nations' Food and
Agriculture Organization (FAO). Common
to make methods of deforestation
the land available are
for other burning
uses. trees and18
An estimated clear cutting. These tactics leave
the land completely barren and are controversial
million acres (7.3practices.
million hectares) of forest, which is roughly
the size of the country of Panama, are lost each year, according
There are many causes of deforestation. The WWF
to the United reports
Nations' that
Food andhalf of the trees
Agriculture illegally removed
Organization (FAO). from forests are used as
fuel. Some other common reasons are to make more land available for housing and urbanization, harvest timber to create
commercial items such as paper, furniture and homes , create ingredients that are highly prized consumer items, such as
the oil from palm trees, create room for cattle ranching etc.
Deforestation is considered to be one of the contributing factors to global climate change as it impacts the global
carbon cycle. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most prevalent greenhouse gas. Trees can help by storing carbon.
The deforestation of trees not only lessens the amount of carbon stored, it also releases carbon dioxide into the air.
This is because when trees die, they release the stored carbon. Deforestation is the second largest anthropogenic
(human-caused) source of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Other effects of deforestation include loss of species , soil
erosion etc.

Halting deforestation is also vital to mitigating the impact of climate change. Deforestation leads to higher local
temperature( as affects localized energy exchange systems) , so convection currents build up which result in changes
in micro climate hence flooding or drought .
#15: Sustainably
manage forests, combat
desertification, halt and
reverse land
degradation,
halt biodiversity loss
The SDGs aim to conserve and restore the use of terrestrial ecosystems such as forests, wetlands, drylands and
mountains by 2020. Halting deforestation is also vital to mitigating the impact of climate change. Urgent action must be
taken to reduce the loss of natural habitats and biodiversity which are part of our common heritage.

ITC strategy to manage climate change includes afforestation ( Page 87,91 )


Waste Generation & Disposal
Waste Generation & Disposal
Large amount of industrial ,hospital , household , commercial, etc. waste being generated.
Waste generation is increasing, while a sizeable portion of it is disposed improperly , resulting in adverse impacts on
environment , health and safety .

Electronic waste
Toxic/ Hazardous waste
Nuclear waste
Bio Medical waste
Municipal waste
Plastic waste

Electronic waste is perhaps the fastest-growing component in many developed countries or e-waste,
which includes discarded computers , televisions, telephones, and a variety of other electronic devices.
Concern over this type of waste is escalating. Lead, mercury, and cadmium are among the materials of concern in electronic
devices, and legislations are in place for their recycling and disposal. Legislations are in place also with respect to management
of other waste such as hazardous waste, plastic waste , bio medical waste etc.
The objective of Waste Management is to implement integrated waste management in ways that are protective to
human health and the environment.

Waste management or Waste disposal is all the activities and actions required to manage waste from its
inception to its final disposal. This includes amongst other things, collection, transport, treatment and disposal
of waste together with monitoring and regulation. It also encompasses the legal and regulatory framework that
relates to waste management encompassing guidance on recycling etc.

Integrated approach to waste management comprises :

- Reducing the amount and toxicity of material entering the waste flow (minimization);
- Reusing as much material as practicable;
- Recycling the waste that cannot be used and recovery of resources;
- Residue disposed of in an environmentally sound way.

Focus on Reduce, Reuse and Recycle to reduce waste generation.

While waste transport within a given country falls under national regulations, trans-boundary movement of waste is
often subject to international treaties. A major concern to many countries in the world has been hazardous waste. The
Basel Convention deprecates movement of hazardous waste from developed to less developed countries.
Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal was adopted on 22
March 1989 by the Conference of Plenipotentiaries in Basel, Switzerland, in response to a public outcry following the
discovery, in the 1980s, in Africa and other parts of the developing world of deposits of toxic wastes imported from abroad.
Awakening environmental awareness and corresponding tightening of environmental regulations in the industrialized world
in the 1970s and 1980s had led to increasing public resistance to the disposal of hazardous wastes in accordance with what
became known as the NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) syndrome and to an escalation of disposal costs. This in turn led some
operators to seek cheap disposal options for hazardous wastes in Eastern Europe and the developing world, where
environmental awareness was much less developed and regulations and enforcement mechanisms were lacking. It was
against this background that the Basel Convention was negotiated and its thrust at the time of its adoption was to combat
the toxic trade, as it was termed. The Convention entered into force in 1992.

Objective
The overarching objective of the Basel Convention is to protect human health and the environment against the adverse
effects of hazardous wastes. Its scope of application covers a wide range of wastes defined as hazardous wastes based on
their origin and/or composition and their characteristics, as well as two types of wastes defined as other wastes - household
waste and incinerator ash.

Aims and provisions


The provisions of the Convention center around the following principal aims:
the reduction of hazardous waste generation and the promotion of environmentally sound management of hazardous
wastes, wherever the place of disposal;
the restriction of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes except where it is perceived to be in accordance with the
principles of environmentally sound management; and
a regulatory system applying to cases where transboundary movements are permissible.
#12: Ensure
sustainable
consumption
and
production
patterns
Achieving economic growth and sustainable development requires that we urgently reduce
our ecological footprint by changing the way we produce and consume goods and resources.
Agriculture is the biggest user of water worldwide, and irrigation now claims close to 70
percent of all freshwater for human use.

The efficient management of our shared natural resources, and the way we dispose of toxic
waste and pollutants, are important targets to achieve this goal. Encouraging industries,
businesses and consumers to recycle and reduce waste is equally important, as is supporting
developing countries to move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption by 2030.

ITC has been solid waste recycle positive over years ( Pages 16-108, 113)
Acid Rain
Acid Rain
Acid rain is caused by emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide, which react with the water molecules in the
atmosphere to produce acids. The principal cause of acid rain is sulphur and nitrogen compounds from human sources,
such as electricity generation, factories, and motor vehicles. Acid rain has been shown to have adverse impacts on forests,
freshwaters and soils, killing aquatic life-forms as well as causing damage to buildings and having impacts on human
health.

Acid rain destroyed the Black Forest in Europe in 1970s due to rapid industrialization at that point of time.
Group Project Guidelines
Group Project: Comprises Presentation and Project report. Acknowledge all data/information in the report. The report
must not exceed 12 pages of written material.
In all projects emphasis should be on identifying the managerial aspects and each project must provide decisions for
environmental conflicts or problems specific to the topic.
Introduction

Description of the issue/concern specific to the topic

Challenges /concerns in India

Current status in India

Best practices

Benefits

Strategy ( country /corporate ) to address the environmental issue /concern while also meeting the socio-economic needs

References

Report submission- 30st October ,2017

Presentations/ Q & A : Groups 1-4 : 4th November ,2017

Groups 5- 8 : 11th November,2017


Environmental strategy can be understood as the extent to which environmental issues are integrated
with a firms strategic plans . on starting new businesses, developing new products, the choice of technology,
selecting partners / value chain , Plant locations, and research and development investments

Drivers for organizations to develop environmental strategies :

1. Regulation (Legislative bodies such as MoEFCC, PCBs requirements/standards /guidelines /rules)


/ International Frameworks/Agreements such as INDC(Intended Nationally Determined Contribution)
/UNFCC/SDGs
2. Stakeholder expectations / concerns
3. Expected competitive advantage
4. Top management commitment

Apart from overall strategy , there could be strategies at the functional level within different business
functions such as Production ( to ensure responsible consumption and production) , Purchasing , Logistics ,
Personnel which related to training employees and building their awareness about environmental issues,
which enables managers to increase employees involvement in activities related to environmental
management systems . There could be specific strategies to manage critical environmental aspects like GHG
emissions , solid waste etc.
Environmental Impact of Reservoirs
Hydrological Issues ( Environmental Impact of Dams )

The environmental impact of reservoirs comes under ever-increasing scrutiny as the global demand for water and
energy increases and the number and size of reservoirs increases.

Dams / reservoirs are used to supply drinking water, generate hydroelectric power, increase the water supply for
irrigation, provide recreational opportunities, and flood control. However, adverse environmental and sociological
impacts have been identified during and after many reservoir constructions. Whether reservoir projects are ultimately
beneficial or detrimental to either the environment or surrounding human populations has been debated since the
1960s and likely before then, as well. There is an impact on ecosystems , agriculture , human settlements etc.
The Kuntipuzha is a major river that flows 15 km southwest from Silent Valley. It takes its origin in the lush green forests of
Silent Valley. In 1928 the location at Sairandhri on the Kunthipuzha River was identified as an ideal site for electricity
generation. In 1970 Kerala State Electricity Board(KSEB) proposed a hydroelectric dam across the Kunthipuzha River that
runs through Silent Valley, that will submerge 8.3 sq km of untouched moist evergreen forest. In February 1973, the
Planning Commission approves the project at a cost of about Rs 25 crores.

After the announcement of imminent dam construction the valley became the focal point of Save Silent Valley, India's
fiercest environmental debate of the decade. Because of concern about the endangered lion-tailed macaque, the issue
was brought to public attention. Romulus Whitaker, founder of the Madras Snake Park and the Madras Crocodile Bank, was
probably the first person to draw public attention to the small and remote area. In 1977 the Kerala Forest Research
Institute carried out an ecological impact study of the Silent Valley area and proposed that the area be declared a
biosphere reserve.

Save Silent Valley was a social movement aimed at the protection of Silent Valley, an evergreen tropical forest in the
Palakkad district of Kerala, India. It was started in 1973 to save the Silent Valley Reserve Forest from being flooded by a
hydroelectric project. The valley was declared as Silent Valley National Park in 1984. Nonetheless there is still controversy
surrounding the valley.
Carrying Capacity: the population that can be supported indefinitely by its supporting systems.

In ecological terms, the carrying capacity of an ecosystem is the size of the population that can be supported indefinitely
upon the available resources and services of that ecosystem. Living within the limits of an ecosystem depends on three
factors: the amount of resources available in the ecosystem, the size of the population, and the amount of resources
each individual is consuming.

A simple example of carrying capacity is the number of people who could survive in a lifeboat after a shipwreck. Their
survival depends on how much food and water they have, how much each person eats and drinks each day, and how many
days they are afloat. If the lifeboat made it to an island, how long the people survived would depend upon the food and
water supply on the island and how wisely they used it. A small desert island will support far fewer people than a large
continent with abundant water and good soil for growing crops.

In this example, food and water are the natural capital of the island. Living within the carrying capacity means using those
supplies no faster than they are replenished: using the 'interest' income of the natural capital. A community that is living off
the interest of its community capital is living within the carrying capacity. A community that is degrading or destroying the
ecosystem on which it depends is using up its community capital and is living unsustainably.
As human populations and per capita consumption grow, so do the resource demands imposed on
ecosystems and the impacts of the human ecological footprint. Natural resources are not invulnerable
and infinitely available. The environmental impacts of anthropogenic actions, which are processes or
materials derived from human activities, are becoming more apparentair and water quality are
increasingly compromised, oceans are being overfished, pests and diseases are extending beyond
their historical boundaries, and deforestation is exacerbating flooding downstream.

It has been reported that approximately 4050% of Earth's ice-free land surface has been heavily
transformed or degraded by anthropogenic activities, 66% of marine fisheries are either overexploited
or at their limit, atmospheric CO2 has increased more than 30% since the advent of industrialization, and
nearly 25% of Earth's bird species have gone extinct in the last two thousand years. There is increasing
awareness and urgency to act as ecosystem services are not only limited, but also that they are
threatened by human activities eventually threatening the very survival of life on planet.
Video- Seconds from Disaster
What are your observations ?
Colossal Environmental Irresponsibility

Methyl Isocyanate leakage Union Carbide ( 1984)


On the night of Dec. 2nd and 3rd, 1984, a Union Carbide plant in Bhopal, India,
began leaking 27 tons of the deadly gas methyl isocyanate. None of the six safety
systems designed to contain leakage were operational, allowing
the gas to spread throughout the city of Bhopal.

Half a million people were exposed to the gas and several thousands have died to
date as a result of their exposure. Lakhs of people still suffer from ailments
caused by the accident and the subsequent pollution at the plant site.
These ailments include blindness, extreme difficulty in breathing, gynecological
disorders etc.

47
The site has never been properly cleaned up and it continues to poison the residents of Bhopal.

In 1999, local groundwater and well water testing near the site of the accident revealed mercury at
levels between 20,000 and 6 million times those expected. Cancer and brain-damage and birth-defect-
causing chemicals were found in the water; trichloroethene, a chemical that has been shown to impair
foetal development, was found at levels 50 times higher than EPA safety limits.

-Testing published in a 2002 report revealed poisons such as 1,3,5 trichlorobenzene,


dichloromethane, chloroform, lead and mercury in the milk of nursing women.

Groundwater sampling in 2009 showed the highest chloroform and carbon tetrachloride concentrations of 259 g/L
and 3790 g/L,. Furthermore, both 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene (17 g/L) and dichloromethane (19 g/L) were present in
the water sample. Chloroform concentrations exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drinking
water guideline values 2 to 3.5 times, while carbon tetrachloride exceeded its World Health Organization
(WHO) guideline value 900 to 2400 times.

In 2001, Michigan-based chemical corporation Dow Chemical purchased Union Carbide, thereby
acquiring its assets and liabilities. However Dow Chemical has steadfastly refused to clean up the site.

48
Union Carbide's systematic neglect of community and employee health and safety in the interest of profitability paved the
way for catastrophe. Against the advice of some of its own executives, Carbide decided to store large amounts of deadly
methyl isocyanate (MIC) at its Bhopal plant because it was more "efficient" than storing it in smaller but safer quantities.
Safety systems were under-designed and able to handle only small, routine leaks. And, shortly before disaster struck, even
these systems were shut down to cut operating costs.

The name of the chemical released was also not disclosed for long so proper treatment was not possible for the affected
persons. Suffering still continues in next generations.

Legal proceedings involving UCC, the United States and Indian governments, local Bhopal authorities, and the disaster
victims started immediately after the catastrophe. Throughout 1990, the Indian Supreme Court heard appeals against the
settlement. In October 1991, the Supreme Court upheld the original $470 million, dismissing any other outstanding petitions
that challenged the original decision. The Court ordered the Indian government "to purchase, out of settlement fund, a
group medical insurance policy to cover 100,000 persons who may later develop symptoms" and cover any shortfall in the
settlement fund. It also requested UCC and its subsidiary UCIL "voluntarily" fund a hospital in Bhopal, at an estimated $17
million, to specifically treat victims of the Bhopal disaster. The company agreed to this

Such can be the environmental and human impact if organizations act in an irresponsible/unethical manner .

There is a need for organizations to systematically/ responsibly identify environmental risks and put
procedures/systems/internal controls in place to effectively manage those risks/ mitigate impact with the legislative
controls ensuring compliance.
Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill
Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill

The Gulf of Mexico oil spill is recognized as the worst oil spill in U.S. history. Within days of the April 20, 2010 explosion and
sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico that killed 11 people, underwater cameras revealed the BP pipe
was leaking oil and gas on the ocean floor about 42 miles off the coast of Louisiana. By the time the well was capped on July
15, 2010 (87 days later), an estimated 3 million barrels of oil had leaked into the Gulf.

The well was located over 5,000 feet beneath the waters surface in the vast frontier of the deep seaa permanently dark
environment, marked by constantly cold temperatures just above freezing and extremely high pressures. Immediately after
the explosion, workers from BP and Transocean (owner of the Deepwater Horizon rig), and many government agencies tried
to control the spread of the oil to beaches and other coastal ecosystems using floating booms to contain surface oil and
chemical oil dispersants to break it down underwater. Additionally, numerous scientists and researchers descended upon the
Gulf region to gather data to understand the spill and its impact on marine life, the Gulf coast, and human communities.
Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill

Over the course of 87 days, the damaged Macondo wellhead, located around 5,000 feet beneath the ocean's surface, leaked
an estimated 3 million barrels of oil into the Gulf of Mexicomaking the spill the largest accidental ocean spill in history.

Once the oil left the well, it spread throughout the water column. Some floated to the ocean's surface to form oil slicks,
which can spread more quickly by being pushed by winds. Some remained suspended in the midwater after rising from the
wellhead like a chimney and forming several layers of oil, dispersant and seawater mixtures drifting down current; during the
spill a 22-mile long oil plume was reported. This plume formed because chemical dispersants, released into the water to
break up the oil so it could wash away, allowed the oil to mix with seawater and stay suspended below the surface. And
some oil sunk to the seafloor by gluing together falling particles in the water such as bacteria and phytoplankton to form
marine snow. As much as 20 percent of the spilled oil may have ended up in the seafloor, damaging deep sea corals and
potentially damaging other ecosystems there.
Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill

There were some immediate impacts to the animals of the Gulf of Mexico that could be seen with the naked eye: pelicans
black with oil, fish belly bloated in brown sludge, smothered turtles washed up on beaches.

Strandings of both dolphins and sea turtles increased significantly in the years following the spill. "From 2002 to 2009, the
Gulf averaged 63 dolphin deaths a year. That rose to 125 in the seven months after the spill in 2010 and 335 in all of 2011,
averaging more than 200 a year since April 2010," reported Reuters in 2015. Since then, dolphin deaths have declined, and
long-term impacts on the population are not yet known. Kemp's ridley sea turtle nests have gone down in the years since the
spill, and long-term effects are not yet known.

Seabirds were initially harmed by crude surface oileven a small bit of oil on their feathers impeded their ability to fly, swim
and find food by diving. Seabird losses may have numbered in the hundreds of thousands.

Invertebrates in the Gulf were hard hit by the Deepwater Horizon spillboth in coastal areas and in the deep. Shrimp
fisheries were closed for much of the year following the spill, but these commercially-important species now seem to have
recovered.Found as deep as 4,000 feet below the surface, corals near the blowout showed signs of tissue damage and were
covered by an unknown brown substance, later identified as oil from the spill. Laboratory studies conducted with coral
species showed that baby coral exposed to oil and dispersant had lower survival rates and difficulty settling on a hard surface to
grow.
There were some reports of deformed wildlife after the spill. For years following the spill there were reports of fish with lesions
and deformities, and some reports of eyeless and deformed shrimp after the spill.
Such was the scale on impact on the environment due to the oil spill. Strongly calls for systematic measures for managing the
risks /mitigate impact including handling such emergencies with strict legal legislation ensuring compliance.
Nevertheless, over the years, there has been progressive pressure on the
environment and the natural resources, the alarming consequences of which are
becoming evident in increasing proportions. These consequences detract from the
gains of development and worsen the standard of living of the poor who are directly
dependent on natural resources. It is in this context that we need to give a new thrust
towards conservation and sustainable development

There is a need to weave environmental considerations into the fabric of our development process to
ensure sustainable development.

So the need for reorienting national policies/business strategies to ensure decision making/actions in
unison with the environmental perspective.
Role of ISO 14000 in Environment Management
What is Environmental Management?

Environmental management is the planning and implementation of practices aimed to manage the human impact upon the
environment

The survival and well-being of a nation depend on sustainable development. It is a process of social and economic betterment
that satisfies the needs of all interest groups without foreclosing future options.

To this end, we must ensure that the demand on the environment from which we derive our sustenance, does not exceed its
carrying capacity for the present as well as future generations.

The Indian Constitution has laid a new important trail in the Section on Directive Principles of State Policy by assigning the
duties for the State and all citizens through article 48 A and article 51 A(g) which state that the "State shall endeavour "to
protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes and rivers and wildlife, and to have compassion for the
living creatures".
The ISO 14000 family , most notably the ISO 14001 standard, is used by organizations for designing and implementing
an effective Environmental Management System (EMS).

It enables organizations adopt a systematic approach to environmental management with the aim of
contributing to the environmental pillar of sustainability

ISO 14001 sets out the criteria for an Environmental Management System . It does not state requirements for
environmental performance, but maps out a framework that a company or organization can follow to set up an
effective EMS.

It can be used by any organization that wants to improve resource efficiency, reduce waste, and drive down costs. Using
ISO 14001 can provide assurance to company management and employees as well as external stakeholders that
environmental impact is being measured and managed .
The 14000 series
Environmental management systems (ISO 14001)
General guidelines on principles, systems and support
techniques (ISO 14004)
Life cycle assessment (ISO 14040 series)
Design for environment (ISO 14062)
Environmental performance evaluation (ISO 14030 series)
Environmental labelling (ISO 14020 series)
Environmental communication (ISO 14063)
Greenhouse gas emissions (ISO 14066)
Guidelines for auditing management systems (ISO 19011)
Development of ISO 14001

ISO 14001 developed by ISO Tech Committee 207 over 5 yrs.


Considered BS7750 model
Published in September 1996; Updated 2004 and now restructured and
revised in 2015
The basis for the approach underlying an environmental management system is founded on the concept of Plan-Do-
Check-Act (PDCA).

The PDCA model provides an iterative process used by organizations to achieve continual improvement.

It can be applied to an environmental management system and to each of its individual elements. It can be briefly
described as follows.

Plan: establish environmental objectives and processes necessary to deliver results in accordance with the
organizations environmental policy.

Do: implement the processes as planned.

Check: monitor and measure processes against the environmental policy, including its commitments, environmental
objectives and operating criteria, and report the results.

Act: take actions to continually improve.


The Improvement Cycle
system

A P Act Plan
Mgt Review Policy &
C D Planning

Check Do
Checking Implement
& Operate

time
Structure of ISO 14001:2015
Introduction
1. Scope
2. Normative References (none)
3. Terms and definitions
4. Context of the Organization
5. Leadership
Leadership and Commitment
Environmental Policy
Organizational roles, responsibilities and authorities
6. Planning
7. Support Resources, Competence , Awareness , Communication , Documentation
8. Operations
9. Performance Evaluation
10. Improvement
Purpose of EMS
A systematic approach to environmental management can provide top management with information to
build success over the long term and create options for contributing to sustainable development by:

protecting the environment by preventing or mitigating adverse environmental impacts;


mitigating the potential adverse effect of environmental conditions on the organization;
assisting the organization in the fulfilment of compliance obligations;
enhancing environmental performance;
controlling or influencing the way the organizations products and services are designed,
manufactured, distributed, consumed and disposed by using a life cycle perspective that can prevent
environmental impacts from being unintentionally shifted elsewhere within the life cycle;
achieving financial and operational benefits that can result from implementing environmentally sound
alternatives that strengthen the organizations market position;

Also helps with respect to following :


communicating environmental information to relevant interested parties
-Satisfying investors and access to capital
-Enhancing image and market share
- Improving cost control
- Conserving materials and energy
- Facilitating the attainment of permits/authorisations/licence etc.
Definitions
Environment
Surroundings in which an organization operates, including air, water, land, natural resources, flora, fauna,
humans and their interrelationships

Environmental Management System


Part of the management system used to manage environmental aspects , fulfil compliance
obligations (3.2.9), and address risks and opportunities

Environmental Aspect
Element of an organizations activities or products or services that interacts or can interact with the environment
Environmental Aspect
element of an organization's activities or products or services that can
interact with the environment
Understanding
ISO 14001 requires organizations to identify the environmental aspects
of their activities, products or services and to evaluate the resulting
impacts on the environment. An organization should identify the
environmental aspects within the scope of its environmental management
system, taking into account the inputs and outputs (both intended and
unintended) associated with its current and relevant-past activities, products
and services, planned or new developments, or new or modified activities,
products and services. Some examples are such as emissions to air,
release to water, land, natural resource use, energy use, waste and by
product. Most important is to remember that the aspects which a
organisation can control or influence need identification.
Environmental Impact
any change to the environment, whether adverse or beneficial, wholly or
partially resulting from an organization's environmental aspects
Understanding
Environmental Impacts are changes to the environment, either adverse or
beneficial, that result wholly or partially from environmental aspects. The
relationship between environmental aspects and impacts is one of
cause and effect. In some locations cultural heritage, Bio-reserve, national
parks, wild life sanctuary can be an important element of the surroundings in
which an organization operates, and therefore should be taken into account
in the understanding of its environmental impacts. Sometime the
Environmental aspects may be local but same time contributing to global
impacts.
Definitions

Environmental policy

Are the intentions and direction of an organization related to environmental performance , as formally expressed
by its top management

Environmental objective
It needs to be set by the organization consistent with its environmental policy
Ex. ITC has set objectives to be carbon positives, water positive, solid waste recycle positive .

Continual improvement is a recurring activity to enhance performance. Enhancing performance relates to the use of the
environmental management system to enhance environmental performance consistent with the organizations
environmental policy

Life cycle
Consecutive and interlinked stages of a product (or service) system, from raw material acquisition or generation
from natural resources to final disposal
The life cycle stages include acquisition of raw materials, design, production, transportation/delivery, use,
Environment Performance
measurable results of an organization's management of its environmental aspects

Understanding
In the context of environmental management
systems, results can be measured against the
organizations environmental policy,
environmental objectives, environmental
targets and other environmental performance
requirements. An organization should have a
systematic approach for quantitative and qualitative
measuring and monitoring its environmental
performance on a regular basis.
Environmental performance of an organization relates to the performance of policy
commitments, achieving objectives and targets; performance on emissions and discharges
to not only meet applicable legal requirements but to exceed the compliance level;
performance on consumption of natural resource such as water, energy or raw
materials and performance on operational controls. Environmental Performance monitoring
shall provide the data and information which will help the organisation to analyze and
evaluate the compliance and conformance to EMS requirements.
ITC Report Pg 89, 94, 98, 99 , 100, 104
Prevention of Pollution
Use of processes, practices, techniques, materials, products, services or
energy to avoid, reduce or control the creation, emission or discharge of
any type of pollutant or waste, in order to reduce adverse environmental
impacts
Understanding
ISO 14001, Clause 5.2 Environmental policy The Standard requires that top management
shall define the organizations environmental policy and ensure that it includes a
commitment to prevention of pollution. Example: A paint company manufacturing epoxy
paints and wall enamel paints. It is expected to consider the environmental aspects of all
processes and/or materials, existing and new, and to apply best available technology, where
appropriate, to demonstrate organisation commitment for prevention of pollution.
International laws are moving towards encouraging prevention of environmental problems
rather than abatement mechanisms. A more holistic approach is becoming prevalent for
sustainable preventive measures. To summarize needs to ensure that,
All the appropriate preventative measures are taken against pollution; No significant
pollution is caused; Waste generation is reduced or prevented. When waste is generated, it
is controlled. Where this is technically and economically impossible, it shall be disposed of
safely and shall ensure no impact on the environment; Energy is used efficiently; The
necessary measures are taken to prevent environmental accidents and if they happen, then
limit their consequences; The necessary measures are taken to avoid any pollution risk
once the activities on the site are shutdown
Waste
Substances or objects which is required to be disposed off

Understanding

In general Waste is considered as unwanted materials for an organisation. This term is often
subjective because a waste for one organisation may not necessarily a waste to another
organisation and sometimes objectively inaccurate as some waste instead of treatment and
disposal it requires to be reduced first. There are various categories of waste which an
organisation may generate. Example: Hazardous Waste, Non-Hazardous solid waste, waste
water, Biomedical waste, gaseous waste, waste chemicals etc.
The organisation shall have an approach to
REDUCE Prevent and/or reduce waste generation and
REUSE improving the quality of waste generated by
RECYCLE reduction of hazard, and encouraging
RECOVER prevention, reduction at source, re-use,
TREAT recycling and recovery. In many countries there
DISPOSE are regulatory requirements which focus on
controlling the limits of generation, segregation,
collection, transportation, treatment and final
disposal
Effluent
Liquid waste may be trade or domestic, treated or untreated discharged into
a water body or Land
Understanding

Most of the Industries generates liquid waste, although an approach now is developed to minimize
such production or recycle such liquid waste within the production process or reuse the same
appropriate treatment. It is important than an organisation must treat a generated effluent
before its further reuse or disposal to environment. In many countries there are applicable
regulatory norms under which the organisation shall dispose such waste in compliance. These
norms are prescribed based on important Quantitative and Qualitative characteristics of
effluent such as daily discharge quantum, COD, BOD, DO, pH, TDS, TSS, TOC, Heavy Metals
etc. The effluent quality and quantity may vary from an organisation to other as the effluent
generation is dependent on the nature of processes, intake of raw material including natural resource
and output product.
ISO 14001 Requirements ( Refer Standard )
MSIL Environment Management Approach

Maruti Suzuki strives to consistently improve the environmental performance of its manufacturing operations, products and
supply chain.

The Company identifies environmental impact and develops strategies to mitigate impacts in each of these areas.
Maruti Suzuki's efforts in the environment sphere are guided by its environment policy. The policy conveys the company's
commitment towards reducing the pressure on the environment, due to business activities and products, working
collaboratively with customers, suppliers, and the surrounding community, and focusses on continual reduction in the use of
natural resources. The policy also gives importance to training and communication.

As a strategy, Maruti Suzuki has adopted the ISO 14001 standard. The Environment Management System in the company helps
in continuously improving its environmental performance. Going beyond its boundaries and compliances, it's also promoting
ISO 14001 among its Tier-I suppliers.
MSIL Environment Management Approach - Environment Policy
In order to pass on to the next generation a clean environment and a bountiful society, we realize that the actions of
each and every one of us have a great effect on our earth's future, so we must make every effort to preserve our
environment and as such Maruti Suzuki India Limited, manufacturer of passenger cars and utility vehicles at its plants
in Gurgaon & Manesar and R & D Centre in Rohtak is committed to:

Protection of environment including prevention of pollution, sustainable use of natural resources and climate
change mitigation from our activities, products and services.
Maintain and continually improve Environmental Management System to enhance environmental performance.
Strictly observe environmental laws and also follow our own standards.
Working collaboratively with our customers, suppliers and the surrounding community for environmental issues.

We will work to achieve these commitments by:

Continual improvement of the environmental performance of activities, services and products to prevent pollution.
Continual reduction in the use of raw materials, consumables and water by practicing 3R to ensure sustainable use
of natural resources.
Continual reduction in the use of energy to mitigate climate change.
Promote environmental communication, awareness and specific environmental training where ever appropriate to all
persons working under MSIL control.

This Policy shall be regularly reviewed and made available to interested parties.
The company reviews existing processes, systems and equipment from the point of view of their impact on the
environment and health and safety of people. Accordingly, mitigation plans are prepared and implemented. Company
makes concerted efforts to identify environmental impacts of its business operations such as Aspect-Impact Analysis,
Environmental Impact Assessments etc. Stakeholders and their environment-related suggestions and concerns are also
taken into consideration to bring about further improvement in the company's environmental performance.

Maruti Suzuki has an elaborate organizational structure to deal with all aspects of environmental performance. The
management reviews parameters related to environment every month in the Business Review Meeting. The management
approach promotes continuous improvement, striving to set industry standards and continuous learning. Horizontal
deployment of good practices across Maruti Suzuki facilities and sharing with suppliers is also promoted.

The Company sets environmental targets each year. The responsibility of achieving the targets is distributed to relevant
departments and individuals. Progress is monitored periodically. The whole process is guided by the PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-
Act) cycle. The approach is reviewed periodically and improvements are made to achieve better results. The performances
against the set targets are evaluated and further actions are taken.
The company has identified and prioritized material aspects in environment after considering the significance and scale
of their impacts. For each relevant aspect, it undertakes following necessary actions:

It uses a large volume of raw materials and energy in vehicle manufacturing. A consequence of the manufacturing
operations is natural resource depletion and the hazardous waste generation. This makes raw materials, energy, waste and
emission material aspects for the company.
As compared to other manufacturing industries such as textiles, food processing, the company's operations are not water
intensive. However, the Company sees its responsibility towards conserving water and considers it to be a material aspect.
The company sources a large number of components from its suppliers for manufacturing its cars. Their environmental
footprint and transportation are important aspects for the company.
The usage of vehicles for mobility causes fuel consumption and emissions. Therefore, it is important improve fuel
efficiency of vehicles, and develop alternate fuel vehicles.
Environmental Regulations : Environmental Acts , Rules ,Standards ,Environmental Impact
Assessment & Clearance : Role of MoEFCC, Central and State Pollution Control Boards
Environment Acts, Rules & Standards

Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1974 & Amendment 1988

Water Cess Act, 1978, Amendment, 2003

Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1981 & Amendment 1987

The Environment (Protection) Act & Rules 1986

Rules - Municipal Solid Waste Management rules , Biomedical Waste Management , E-Waste
Management rules, Plastic Waste Management rules, Manufacture, Storage and Import of
Hazardous Chemical Rules etc.

Standards Thermal Power Plants , Sugar Industry, Cement Plants, Petrochemical Industry,
Integrated Iron and Steel Plants, Ambient Air Quality , Pharmaceutical Industry, Pesticide
Industry , Soda Ash Industry, Dyes and Dye Intermediate Industry etc.
Role of MoEFCC, Central and State Pollution Control Boards
The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC)

The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) is the nodal agency in the administrative structure of
the Central Government for the planning, promotion, co-ordination and overseeing the implementation of India's
environmental and forestry policies and programmes.

The primary concerns of the Ministry are implementation of policies and programmes relating to conservation of the
country's natural resources including its lakes and rivers, its biodiversity, forests and wildlife, ensuring the welfare of
animals, and the prevention and abatement of pollution. While implementing these policies and programmes, the
Ministry is guided by the principle of sustainable development and enhancement of human well-being.
The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC)

The Ministry is also entrusted with issues relating to multilateral bodies such as the Commission on Sustainable Development
(CSD), Global Environment Facility (GEF) and of regional bodies like Economic and Social Council for Asia and Pacific (ESCAP)
and South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation (SAARC) on matters pertaining to the environment.

The broad objectives of the Ministry are:

Conservation and survey of flora, fauna, forests and wildlife


Prevention and control of pollution
Afforestation and regeneration of degraded areas
Protection of the environment and
Ensuring the welfare of animals

These objectives are well supported by a set of legislative and regulatory measures, aimed at the preservation, conservation
and protection of the environment. Besides the legislative measures, the National Conservation Strategy and Policy
Statement on Environment and Development, 1992; National Forest Policy, 1988; Policy Statement on Abatement of
Pollution, 1992; and the National Environment Policy, 2006 also guide the Ministry's actions.

To achieve the objectives maximum use is made of a mix of instruments in the form of legislation and regulation, fiscal
incentives, voluntary agreements, educational programmes and information campaigns..
The Policy Statement on Abatement of Pollution, adopted in 1992 lays emphasis on pollution prevention in place of the
conventional end-of-the-pipe treatment also identified the adoption of best available and practicable technologies as the key
element for pollution prevention. The focus of the various programmes and schemes of the Ministry and its associated
organizations related to pollution prevention and control is, therefore, on such issues such as promotion of clean and low waste
technologies, waste minimization, reuse or recycling, improvement of water quality, environment audit, natural resource
accounting, development of mass based standards, institutional and human resource development etc. The whole issue of
pollution prevention and control is dealt with by a combination of command and control methods as well as voluntary
regulations, fiscal measures, promotion of awareness etc.

Programmes of the Ministry related to prevention and control of pollution are :

1.Environmental Statement (as part of Environmental Audit)


2.Development and Promotion of Cleaner Technologies
3.Adoption of Cleaner Technologies in Small Scale Industries
4.Waste Minimizing
5.Programme for improvement of Quality of Automotive Fuels (Motor Gasoline and Diesel) for reducing Vehicular Pollution
6.Mission on Control of Vehicular Pollution from On-Road Vehicles
7.Noise Pollution
8.Development of Standards
9.Eco Labelling
The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC)

The Ministry also serves as the nodal agency in the country for the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP),
South Asia Co-operative Environment Programme (SACEP), International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development
(ICIMOD) and for the follow-up of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED).

They also do the following :

- Environmental/Forest approvals: Approval to be sought for forests clearances for diverting forest land for non-forestry
purposes or environment clearances for appraising the impact of the planned project on the environment and minimizing
the same.
- Hazardous waste import and export approvals Example import of lead scrap /used lead acid batteries /waste tyre
scrap for tyre pyrolysis oil

Environmental Rules and Standards


The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC)

Some initiatives in 2014-16

Pollution Control and Prevention Initiatives ( along with Central and State Pollution Control Boards)

Emissions standards upgraded for many industries


24 X 7 real time emission and effluent monitoring installed by 2400 industries
662 closure notices issued
Industrial pollution in Ganga reduced by 35 %
Waste management rules revamped solid waste, e waste, bio medical waste ,
Geo-mapping of 30000 industries which generate hazardous waste
Re-categorization of industries based on pollution load- Red, Orange, Green and White
National Air Quality Index launched
Emphasis on wetland protection
Bengaluru lake development issues addressed and budget granted
STPs of Mula-Mutha river cleaning program approved
MoEFCC
Forest Initiatives
Use of technologies like drones, e surveillance and satellites
GPS tagging for better forest and wildlife management
Funds to states for afforestation
New schemes for urban forest and school nursery
70 % of world tiger population in India

Coastal Initiatives
Mangroves increased by more than 100 sqkm

COP 21 ( Conference of Parties) @ Paris ( UN Climate Change Conference 2015 )


Comprehensive INDCs ( Intended Nationally Determined Contributions) welcomed from all over the world
Target of reducing emission intensity by 35%
Increasing the non fossil fuel energy mix capacity to 45%
Creating carbon sink of 2.5bn tons

Post Paris
National action plan , follow-up with stakeholders , Close monitoring, mitigation and adaptation initiatives
Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1974, Amendment 1988

It represents Indias first real attempt to comprehensively deal with an environmental issue.

It seeks to ensure that the domestic and industrial effluents are not allowed to be discharged into water courses without
adequate treatment.

The Act aims to prevent and control water pollution and to maintain/restore wholesomeness of water by establishing
Central and State Pollution Control Board to monitor and enforce the regulations .

It outlines powers and functions of the Central Pollution Control Board and State Pollution Control Board for prevention
and control of water pollution .
4
Water Cess Act, 1978, Amendment, 2003

Monthly returns on water consumption under different categories


Industrial, Domestic, Cooling, Gardening Returns to be filed before
5th of every month.
Industries to pay cess on water consumed
The cess to fund the prevention & control of water pollution
Provision of Rebate on Cess under specified conditions.
Exemption to some Industries by Government notification
Air Prevention and Control of Pollution Act 1981, Amendment 1987

An Act to provide for the prevention, control and abatement of air pollution, for the establishment, with a view to
carrying out the aforesaid purposes, of Boards, for conferring on and assigning to such Boards powers and functions
relating thereto and for matters connected therewith.

Decisions were taken at the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment held in Stockholm in June, 1972, in
which India participated, to take appropriate steps for the preservation of the natural resources of the earth which,
among other things, include the preservation of the quality of air and control of air pollution.

The Central Pollution Control Board constituted under section 3 of the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act,
1974 (6 of 1974), shall, without prejudice to the exercise and performance of its powers and functions under this Act,
exercise the powers and perform the functions of the Central Board for the Prevention and Control of Air Pollution
under this Act.

State Pollution Control Board shall, without prejudice to the exercise and performance of its powers and functions
under that Act, exercise the powers and perform the functions of the State Board for the Prevention and Control of Air
Pollution under this Act
Role of Central Pollution Control Board
The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), statutory organisation, was constituted in September, 1974 under the Water
(Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974. An act to provide for the prevention and control of water pollution and the
maintaining or restoring of wholesomeness of water, for the establishment, with a view to carrying out the purposes aforesaid,
of Boards for the prevention and control of water pollution, for conferring on and assigning to such Boards powers and
functions relating thereto and for matters connected therewith

It serves as a field formation and also provides technical services to the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change
of the provisions of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.

The mandate of the Central Pollution Control Board is to set environmental standards in India, lay down ambient standards and
coordinate the activities of State Pollution Control Boards.

Principal functions of the CPCB, as spelt out in the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974, and the Air
(Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981, (i) to promote cleanliness of streams and wells in different areas of the States
by prevention, control and abatement of water pollution, and (ii) to improve the quality of air and to prevent, control or
abate air pollution in the country. Also includes safe solids waste disposal .

Air Quality Monitoring is an important part of the air quality management. The National Air Monitoring Programme (NAMP)
has been established with objectives to determine the present air quality status and trends and to control and regulate
pollution from industries and other source to meet the air quality standards. It also provides background air quality data
needed for industrial siting and towns planning.
Central Pollution Control Board is executing a nation-wide programme of ambient air quality monitoring known as National
Air Quality Monitoring Programme (NAMP). The network consists of Six hundred and Eighty Three operating stations
covering Three Hundred cities/towns in various states and Union Territories of the country.

The objectives of the NAMP are to determine status and trends of ambient air quality; to ascertain whether the prescribed
ambient air quality standards are violated; to Identify non-attainment cities; to obtain the knowledge and understanding
necessary for developing preventive and corrective measures and to understand the natural cleansing process undergoing in
the environment through pollution dilution, dispersion, wind based movement, dry deposition, precipitation and chemical
transformation of pollutants generated.
Under NAMP., four air pollutants viz ., Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Oxides of Nitrogen as NO2, Respirable Suspended Particulate
Matter (RSPM / PM10) and Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) have been identified for regular monitoring at all the locations.
The monitoring of meteorological parameters such as wind speed and wind direction, relative humidity (RH) and temperature
were also integrated with the monitoring of air quality.
The monitoring of pollutants is carried out for 24 hours (4-hourly sampling for gaseous pollutants and 8-hourly sampling for
particulate matter) with a frequency of twice a week, to have one hundred and four observations in a year. The monitoring
is being carried out with the help of State Pollution Control Boards; Pollution Control Committees; National Environmental
Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Nagpur. CPCB co-ordinates with these agencies to ensure the uniformity, consistency of
air quality data and provides technical and financial support to them for operating the monitoring stations.
Fresh water is a finite resource essential for use in agriculture, industry, propagation of wildlife & fisheries and for human
existence. India is a riverine country.. Most of the rivers are being fed by monsoon rains, which is limited to only three months
of the year, run dry throughout the rest of the year often carrying wastewater discharges from industries or cities/towns
endangering the quality of our scarce water resources. The parliament of India enacted the Water (Prevention and Control of
Pollution) Act, 1974 with a view to maintaining and restoring wholesomeness of our water bodies. One of the mandates of
CPCB is to collect, collate and disseminate technical and statistical data relating to water pollution. Hence, Water Quality
Monitoring (WQM) and Surveillance are of utmost importance.

CPCB in collaboration with concerned SPCBs/PCCs established a nationwide network of water quality monitoring
comprising 2500 stations in various States and Union Territories. The monitoring is done on monthly or quarterly basis in
surface waters and on half yearly basis in case of ground water. The monitoring network covers 445 Rivers, 154 Lakes, 12
Tanks, 78 Ponds, 41 Creeks/Seawater, 25 Canals, 45 Drains, 10 Water Treatment Plant (Raw Water) and 807 Wells.
Functions of the Central Pollution Control Board at the National Level

Advise the Central Government on any matter concerning prevention and control of water and air pollution and
improvement of the quality of air.
Plan and cause to be executed a nation-wide programme for the prevention, control or abatement of water and air
pollution;
Co-ordinate the activities of the State Board and resolve disputes among them;
Provide technical assistance and guidance to the State Boards, carry out and sponsor investigation and research relating to
problems of water and air pollution, and for their prevention, control or abatement;
Plan and organise training of persons engaged in programme on the prevention, control or abatement of water and air
pollution;
Organise through mass media, a comprehensive mass awareness programme on the prevention, control or abatement of
water and air pollution;
Collect, compile and publish technical and statistical data relating to water and air pollution and the measures devised for
their effective prevention, control or abatement;
Prepare manuals, codes and guidelines relating to treatment and disposal of sewage and trade effluents as well as for
stack gas cleaning devices, stacks and ducts;
Disseminate information in respect of matters relating to water and air pollution and their prevention and control;
Lay down, modify or annul, in consultation with the State Governments concerned, the standards for stream or well, and
lay down standards for the quality of air; and
Perform such other function as may be prescribed by the Government of India.
Functions of the Central Pollution Control Board as State Boards for the Union Territories

Advise the Governments of Union Territories with respect to the suitability of any premises or location for carrying on any
industry which is likely to pollute a stream or well or cause air pollutions;

Lay down standards for treatment of sewage and trade effluents and for emissions from automobiles, industrial plants, and
any other polluting source;

Evolve efficient methods for disposal of sewage and trade effluents on land; develop reliable and economically viable
methods of treatment of sewage, trade effluent and air pollution control equipment;

Identify any area or areas within Union Territories as air pollution control area or areas to be notified under the Air
(Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981;

Assess the quality of ambient water and air, and inspect wastewater treatment installations, air pollution control equipment,
industrial plants or manufacturing process to evaluate their performance and to take steps for the prevention, control and
abatement of air and water pollution
CPCB together with SPCBs ensure compliance of standards issued through a gazette by GoI with respect to Air emissions ,
Waste Water and Solid waste . Some are as follows :

National Ambient Air Quality Standards


Industry Specific Standards
Vehicular Exhaust
Auto fuel quality
Bio- Medical Incinerators
Common HW Incinerators
Generator Sets
Noise Standards
Effluent and Emission Standards for Petroleum Oil Refineries
Emission Standards for Sulphuric Acid Plants
Incinerators of Pesticide Industries
Emission Standards for Petrochemical Plants
PETROLEUM OIL REFINERY EFFLUENT

Concentration not to exceed milligram per litre (except for pH)


1. pH 6.0-8.5
2. Oil & Grease 5.0
3. BOD 15.0
4. COD 125.0
5. Suspended Solids 20.0
6. Phenols 0.35
7. Sulphides 0.5
8. CN 0.20
9. Ammonia as N 15.0
10. P 3.0
Role of State Pollution Control Board
State Pollution Control Boards Role

State Pollution Control Boards implement various environmental legislations in their respective states , mainly including Water
(Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974, Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981, Water (Cess) Act, 1977 and
some of the provisions under Environmental (Protection) Act, 1986 and the rules framed there under like, Biomedical Waste
Rules, 1998, Hazardous Waste Rules, 2000, Municipal Solid Waste Rules, 2000 etc. They function under the administrative contro
of Environment Department of the State Government .

Some of the important functions of SPCBs are:

To plan comprehensive program for the prevention, control or abatement of pollution and secure executions thereof
To collect and disseminate information relating to pollution and the prevention, control or abatement thereof
To inspect sewage or trade effluent treatment and disposal facilities, and air pollution control systems and to review plans,
specification or any other data relating to the treatment plants, disposal systems and air pollution control systems in connection
with the consent granted,
Supporting and encouraging the developments in the fields of pollution control, waste recycle reuse, eco-friendly practices
etc.
To educate and guide the entrepreneurs in improving environment by suggesting appropriate pollution control technologies
and techniques
Creation of public awareness about the clean and healthy environment and attending the public complaints regarding
pollution.
SPCB
Focus Areas :

Air Quality , Water Quality , Noise Pollution, Comprehensive Environmental Pollution Index, Hazardous
Waste management, biomedical waste management , municipal solid waste management , plastic waste
Management, common effluent treatment Plant, compliance & enforcement , consent management

Under the provisions of Water and Air Acts, an entrepreneur running or establishing any industry or process, and
discharging effluent/emitting pollutants into any water resources or on land/air and polluting thereby the
environmental water/air is required to obtain consent, which needs to obtained in two phases;

Consent to Establish: This consent is to be obtained prior to establishing any industry or process.

Consent to Operate: Once the industry or process plant is established along with the required pollution control systems,
the entrepreneur is required to obtain consent to operate the unit. This consent is given for a particular period, which
needs to be renewed regularly.

In order to bring simplification and speedy disposal of consent applications, Board has delegated powers to Board Offices,
Member Secretary and Consent Appraisal Committee. Some industries are excluded from delegation of consent and
authorization management to regional officers, also are excluded those which Consent to establish and consent to first
operate for all projects requiring Environmental Clearances from GOI or GoM.

Water [Prevention
Rule & Control- Of
25 of Act requires Pollution]
Consent Act, 1974,
to establish Amendment,
& Consent to 1988
operate

No person shall, without the previous consent of the


board
Establish
Industry, operation, process
Treatment and disposal system
Extension or addition thereto
Which may discharge sewage or treated effluent
into stream, well, sewer or land
Bring into use any new or altered outlet for
discharge of sewage
Begin to make any new discharge of sewage
Water [Prevention & Control Of Pollution] Act, 1974, Amendment, 1988

State board may grant consents subject to conditions it may


impose
Consent conditions
Nature, composition, temperature
Volume, rate of discharge of effluent from premises
Period of validity
4
Air [Prevention & Control Of Pollution] Act 1981, Amendment 1987

Rule 21 Requires Consent to Establish / Operate any


industrial plant in an air pollution control area
Consent subject to such conditions and for such period as
may be specified in the order
Install and operate
Specified control equipment at all times in
good running condition
Do not alter or replace
Control equipment without previous approval
of the board
Erect chimney, wherever necessary as specified
Such other conditions as the board may specify
The Environment (Protection) Act , 1986
Environment Protection Act, 1986 is an Act of the Parliament of India. It was enacted with the
objective of providing for the protection and improvement of the environment In the wake of the
Bhopal Tragedy, the Government of India enacted the Environment Protection Act of 1986 under Article
253 of the Constitution..It has 26 sections.

Environment" includes water, air and land and the inter- relationship which exists among and between
water, air and land, and human beings, other living creatures, plants, micro-organism and property;

The purpose of the Act is to implement the decisions of the United Nations Conference on the Human
Environments that relate to the protection and improvement of the human environment and the
prevention of hazards to human beings, other living creatures, plants and property. The Act is an
umbrella legislation designed to provide a framework for central government coordination of the
activities of various central and state authorities established under previous laws, such as the Water Act
and the Air Act. .

It empowers the Central Government to establish authorities [under section 3(3)] charged with the
mandate of preventing environmental pollution in all its forms and to tackle specific environmental
problems that are peculiar to different parts of the country. The Act was last amended in 1991.
The Environment (Protection) Act , 1986

Central Government, shall have the power to take all such measures as it deems necessary or expedient for the
purpose of protecting and improving the quality of the environment and preventing, controlling and abating
environmental pollution. Some mentioned below :

1) Planning and execution of a nation-wide programme for the prevention, control and abatement of environmental
pollution;
2) Laying down standards for the quality of environment in its various aspects;
3) Laying down standards for emission or discharge of environmental pollutants from various sources whatsoever
4) Restriction of areas in which any industries, operations or processes or class of industries, operations or
processes shall not be carried out or shall be carried out subject to certain safeguards;
5)Laying down procedures and safeguards for the prevention of accidents which may cause environmental
pollution and remedial measures for such accidents
6) Laying down procedures and safeguards for the handling of hazardous substances;
7) Inspection of any premises, plant, equipment, machinery, manufacturing or other processes, materials or
substances and giving, by order, of such directions to such authorities, officers or persons as it may consider
necessary to take steps for the prevention, control and abatement of environmental pollution;
8) Power to issue directions under EP act includes the power to direct the closure, prohibition
or regulation of any industry and stoppage of supply of electricity or water or any other
service
9. Submission of environmental statement every year for environmental performance for preceding
financial year.
Powers of Central Government to take measures to protect and improve environment

RULES TO REGULATE ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION


The Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, make rules in respect of all or any of the
matters referred to in section 3.
In particular, and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such rules may provide for all or
any of the following matters, namely:--
(a) the standards of quality of air, water or soil for various areas and purposes;
(b) the maximum allowable limits of concentration of various environmental pollutants (including
noise) for different areas;
(c) the procedures and safeguards for the handling of hazardous substances;5
(d) the prohibition and restrictions on the handling of hazardous substances in different areas;6
(e) the prohibition and restriction on the location of industries and the carrying on process and
operations in different areas;7
(f) the procedures and safeguards for the prevention of accidents which may cause environmental
pollution and for providing for remedial measures for such accidents
Environment Rules & Standards

Environment Protection Rules for carrying out the purposes of Environment Protection Act 1986.

Standards Thermal Power Plants , Sugar Industry, Cement Plants, Petrochemical Industry, Integrated
Iron and Steel Plants, Ambient Air Quality , Pharmaceutical Industry, Pesticide Industry , Soda Ash Industry,
Dyes and Dye Intermediate Industry

Rules - Municipal Solid Waste Management rules , Biomedical Waste Management E-Waste
Management rules, Plastic Waste Management rules, Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous
Chemical Rules, Hazardous Waste [Management, Handling & Transboundary Movement] Rules, Noise
Pollution ( Regulation and Control ) Rules etc.
4 Noise Pollution [Regulation and Control] Rules

Objective is to prevent deleterious effects on human health and psychological


well being of people
DAY NIGHT [NIGHT IS 10 PM TO 6AM]

INDUSTRIAL AREA 75 70

COMMERCIAL 65 55

RESIDENTIAL 55 45

SILENCE 50 40

Recent amendments in Jan 2010 addresses various noise


generating Equipment, definition of public place etc.
Bio Medical Waste [Management & Handling] Rules 1998

Bio-medical waste means means any waste, which is generated


during the diagnosis, treatment or immunization of human
beings or animals or in research activities pertaining thereto or
in the production or testing of biologicals
Occupier, providing treatment/service to more than 1000 (one
thousand) patients per month, to make an application in form I for
authorisation.
Submission of annual report in form 11 by 31st January.
Schedule I defines 10 different categories of biomedical wastes
Bio-medical waste shall be segregated in containers/bags as per
schedule II
The containers shall be labelled as per schedule III
Whenever the container is transported outside, it shall carry
information as per schedule IV
Bio Medical Waste [Management & Handling] Rules 1998

In case of accident at the facility or during transport, the authorised


person shall report the accident in Form III to the authority
Bio-medical waste shall be transported only in vehicles as authorised
by the competent authority
No untreated bio-medical waste shall be stored beyond a period of 48
hours
Schedule V describes standards for treatment and disposal of
biomedical wastes.
Municipal Solid Waste Management Rules

Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemical Rules


4 Batteries [Management and Handling] Rules, 2001

Responsibility of manufacturer, importer, assembler, re-conditioner to


ensure
Half yearly returns of sales and buy back in Form I
Set-up collection centres for collection of used batteries.
Return of used batteries only to the authorised dealers.
Creating public awareness about hazards related to Lead.
Use international sign for recycling on the batteries.
Buy recycled lead from registered recyclers only.
Responsibility of Recycler
Annual Returns to Board in form VII.
Responsibility of Consumer / Bulk Consumer
Dispose-off used batteries to authorised parties.
Filing half yearly return to board in form VIII. ( Only Bulk Consumer)
Environmental Standards Thermal Power Plants , Caustic Soda Industry , Cement Plants, Petroleum
Oil Refinery , Integrated Iron and Steel Plants, Ambient Air Quality , Pharmaceutical Industry, Pesticide
Industry , Soda Ash Industry, Dyes and Dye Intermediate Industry etc.
Environmental Clearance

As per Environment (Protection) Act, 1986, and Environment (Protection) Rules, 1986 Central Government has
directed that required construction of new projects or activities or the expansion or modernization of
existing projects or activities listed in the Schedule to the notification of September 2006 entailing
capacity addition with change in process and or technology shall be undertaken in any part of India only
after the prior environmental clearance from the Central Government or as the case may be, by the State
Level Environment Impact Assessment Authority, duly constituted by the Central Government.

Categorization of Projects

All projects and activities are broadly categorized in to two categories - Category A and Category B, based on the spatial
extent of potential impacts on human health and natural and man made resources ( Pg 10)

All projects or activities included as Category A in the Schedule , including expansion and modernization of existing
projects or activities and change in product mix, shall require prior environmental clearance from the Central
Government in the Ministry of Environment , Forests and Climate Change (MoEFCC) on the recommendations of an
Expert Appraisal Committee (EAC) to be constituted by the Central Government. ( Page 3, 4 EIA notification )
All projects or activities included as Category B in the Schedule, including expansion and modernization of
existing projects or change in product mix will require prior environmental clearance from the State/Union
territory Environment Impact Assessment Authority (SEIAA).

Stages of EC :

Screening -.
Scoping -
Public Consultation
Appraisal

EIA Document To be prepared where the adverse environmental impact is significant else Form 1/1 A
information may suffice for appraisal by the committee.

Environment Management Plan


The Environment Management Plan would consist of all mitigation measures for each item wise activity to be undertaken
during the construction, operation and the entire life cycle to minimize adverse environmental impacts as a result of the
activities of the project. It would also delineate the environmental monitoring plan for compliance of various
environmental regulations. It will state the steps to be taken in case of emergency such as accidents at the site including
fire.
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a systematic process to identify and evaluate the likely and probable
impacts of a proposed project on the environment and, thereby, to work out remedial action plans to avoid or minimize
adverse impact on the environment.

It is used to predict the environmental consequences of any developmental project. EIA ensures that potential
problems are foreseen and addressed at an early stage in the projects planning and design.

The purpose of EIA is as follows :

Support for environmental protection and sustainable development

Integrate environmental protection and economic decisions at early stages of planning and activity

Provide for involvement of public, concerned departments of government and government agencies in review of
proposed activities .

To predict environmental , social and economic consequences of a proposed activity and assess plans to mitigate any
adverse impacts resulting from the activity,
The environmental impact assessment ( Appendix III Pg 33 , format) involves identifying and assessing in an
appropriate manner, in the light of each individual case, the direct and indirect significant effects of a project on
the following factors:

a) Identifying and determining impact on People, their health , source of livelihood including Impact on
the occupation of the neighboring low -income , middle income and high income groups
b) Identifying Ecological layout/land use such as farming, residential ,forests and impact
c) Biodiversity including flora and fauna , with particular attention to protected species and habitats
d) land, soil, water, air and climate;
e) Existing pollutant levels in ambient air along with seasonal changes
f) Developing mathematical models of expected emissions and their impact in the surrounding areas,
including humans, flora and fauna. They must also be able to predict impact depending on different
atmospheric conditions viz seasons
g) Similarly for water bodies in the area and the species/flora / ecosystem /temperature etc. therein
along with the impact in different seasons such as monsoon , summer etc.
h) material assets, cultural heritage and the landscape;

The Ministry has issued the Environmental Impact Assessment Notification, 2006, which makes Environmental Clearance
mandatory for the development activities listed in its schedule. (Pg. 10)
National Green Tribunal

National Green Tribunal has been established on 18.10.2010 under the National Green Tribunal
Act 2010 for effective and expeditious disposal of cases relating to environmental
protection and conservation of forests and other natural resources including enforcement of
any legal right relating to environment and giving relief and compensation for damages to
persons and property and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

It is a specialized body equipped with the necessary expertise to handle environmental


disputes involving multi-disciplinary issues. The Tribunal shall not be bound by the procedure laid
down under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, but shall be guided by principles of natural justice.

The Tribunal's dedicated jurisdiction in environmental matters shall provide speedy


environmental justice and help reduce the burden of litigation in the higher courts. The
Tribunal is mandated to make and endeavor for disposal of applications or appeals finally within 6
months of filing of the same.
1. Judgement of the National Green Tribunal regarding municipal solid waste management in India, 22/12/2016
Judgement of the National Green Tribunal in the matter of Almitra H. Patel & Others VsMinistry of Health and Family
Welfare & Others dated 22/12/2016 regarding steps to improve the practices presently adopted for collection, storage,
transportation, disposal, treatment and recycling of Municipal Solid Waste popularly known as garbage generated
in various cities across India.
National Green Tribunal in its Judgement directed every state and Union Territory to enforce and implement the Solid
Waste Management Rules, 2016 in all respects and without any further delay and also all State Governments and the
local authorities to issue directives to all concerned, making it mandatory for the power generation and cement plants
within its jurisdiction to buy and use RDF as fuel in their respective plants, wherever such plant is located within a 100
km radius of the facility.
Judgement of the National Green Tribunal regarding Environmental Clearance to the construction of metro line from
Noida to Greater Noida, 31/05/2016

NGT in its Judgement declares that the metro Construction from Noida to Greater Noida is a project covered under Entry
8(b) of the Schedule to the Notification of 2006 and directs the project proponent - Noida Metro Rail Corporation to obtain
Environmental Clearance for the project in question as expeditiously as possible and in any case not beyond three months
from the date of pronouncement of this Judgment
Judgement of the National Green Tribunal regarding biomedical waste management, Chhattisgarh, 15/12/2016
Judgement of the National Green Tribunal in the matter of Mahesh Dubey Vs Chattisgarh Environment Conservation
Board & Others dated 15/12/2016 regarding improper disposal and mis-management of biomedical waste in the
State of Chhattisgarh.
NGT directs a State Level Committee to be constituted which will prepare a complete and comprehensive inventory
of all the HCFs (Health Care Facilities), as defined under Rules of 2016 and thereafter prepare the action plan
regarding proper and effective implementation of the provisions of Bio-Medical Management Rules, 2016.
Judgement of the National Green Tribunal regarding quarrying operations carried out in Kalanjoor Grama Panchayat,
Pathanamthitta District, Kerala, 11/08/2016
Judgement of the National Green Tribunal in the matter of Manushyavakasa Samrakshana Sangham & Others Vs
State of Kerala & Others dated 11/08/2016 regarding quarrying operations carried out in Kalanjoor Grama Panchayat,
Pathanamthitta District, Kerala. NGT finds that in the light of the various reports filed by the statutory authorities, it
is clear that the quarrying operations carried on by the said respondents are well within the conditions prescribed
under the EC
Judgement of the National Green Tribunal regarding discharge of effluents by M/s. N. Muneeba Tanning Company into
agricultural lands, Vellore District, Tamil Nadu, 05/07/2016

Judgement of the National Green Tribunal (Southern Zone, Chennai) in the matter of R. Rajendran Vs Tamil Nadu
Pollution Control Board dated 05/07/2016 regarding discharge of effluents by M/s. N. Muneeba Tanning Company into
the Applicants (R. Rajendran) lands. Tribunal directs the Tannery to be immediately closed and electricity
disconnected
Green Ratings
Rating systems for Green buildings in India

We can define Green Buildings as structures that ensure efficient use of natural resources like building materials,
water, energy and other resources with minimal generation of waste. Technologies like efficient cooling systems have
sensors that can sense the heat generated from human body and automatically adjust the room temperature, saving
energy. It applies to lighting systems too. Green buildings have a smarter lighting system that automatically switches off
when no one is present inside the rooms. Simple technologies like air based flushing system in toilets that avoids water
use by 100%, Use of energy efficient LEDs and CFLs instead of conventional incandescent lamp, new generation
appliances that consume less energy, and many other options help in making the buildings green and make them
different from conventional ones

Whether Green buildings are really green is decided against the predefined rating systems. There are three primary
Rating systems .

1.GRIHA
2.IGBC
3.BEE
Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment (GRIHA)

Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment (GRIHA) is Indias own rating system jointly developed by TERI and
the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Government of India. It is a green building design evaluation system.

Throughout their life cycles, from construction to operation and then demolition, buildings consume resources in
the form of energy, water, materials, etc. and emit wastes either directly in the form of municipal wastes or indirectly
as emissions from electricity generation. GRIHA attempts to minimize a buildings resource consumption, waste
generation, and overall ecological impact to within certain nationally acceptable limits / benchmarks.

Going by the old adage what gets measured, gets managed, GRIHA attempts to quantify aspects such as energy
consumption, waste generation, renewable energy adoption, etc. so as to manage, control and reduce the same to
the best possible extent.

GRIHA is a rating tool that helps people assesses the performance of their building against certain nationally
acceptable benchmarks. It evaluates the environmental performance of a building holistically over its entire life
cycle, thereby providing a definitive standard for what constitutes a green building. The rating system, based on
accepted energy and environmental principles, will seek to strike a balance between the established practices and
emerging concepts, both national and international.
Features of GRIHA

The system has been developed to help 'design and evaluate' new buildings (buildings that are still at the inception
stages). A building is assessed based on its predicted performance over its entire life cycle inception through operation.
The stages of the life cycle that have been identified for evaluation are:

Pre-construction stage: Intra- and inter-site issues like proximity to public transport, type of soil, kind of land, where the
property is located, the flora and fauna on the land before construction activity starts, the natural landscape and land
features.

Building planning and construction stages: Issues of resource conservation and reduction in resource demand, resource
utilization efficiency, resource recovery and reuse, and provisions for occupant health and well-being). The prime resources
that are considered in this section are land, water, energy, air, and green cover.

Building operation and maintenance stage: Issues of operation and maintenance of building systems and processes,
monitoring and recording of energy consumption, and occupant health and well-being, and also issues that affect the
global and local environment.
Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment (GRIHA)

The benefits
On a broader scale, this system, along with the activities and processes that lead up to it, will benefit the community at
large with the improvement in the environment by reducing GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions, reducing energy
consumption and the stress on natural resources.

Some of the benefits of a green design to a building owner, user, and the society as a whole are as follows:

Reduced energy consumption without sacrificing the comfort levels


Reduced destruction of natural areas, habitats, and biodiversity, and reduced soil loss from erosion etc.
Reduced air and water pollution (with direct health benefits)
Reduced water consumption
Limited waste generation due to recycling and reuse
Reduced pollution loads
Increased user productivity
Enhanced image and marketability
Indian Green Building Council (IGBC)

The Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED) is the rating system developed for certifying Green Buildings.
LEED is developed by the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), the organization promoting sustainability through
Green Buildings. LEED is a framework for assessing building performance against set criteria and standard points of
references. The benchmarks for the LEED Green Building Rating System were developed in year 2000 and are currently
available for new and existing constructions.

Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) formed the Indian Green Building Council (IGBC) in year 2001. IGBC is the non
profit research institution having its offices in CII-Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre, which is itself a LEED certified
Green building. Indian Green Building Council (IGBC) has licensed the LEED Green Building Standard from the USGBC.
IGBC facilitates Indian green structures to become one of the green buildings
Following are some of the Green Building rating systems under IGBC;

IGBC Green Factory Building


IGBC Green SEZ
IGBC Green Townships
IGBC Green New Buildings
IGBC Green Existing Buildings
IGBC Green Healthcare Ratings
IGBC Green Schools
IGBC Green campus
IGBC Green Residential Societies

Examples: ABN Amro Bank, Hyderabad; Birla International School , Jaipur; Olympia Technology Park, Chennai; etc.
IGBC Green New Buildings rating system

The green concepts and techniques in the building sector can help address national issues like water efficiency, energy
efficiency, reduction in fossil fuel use in commuting, handling of consumer waste and conserving natural resources.
Most importantly, these concepts can enhance occupant health, happiness and well-being.

Against this background, the Indian Green Building Council (IGBC) has launched IGBC Green New Buildings rating system
to address the National priorities. This rating program is a tool which enables the designer to apply green concepts and
reduce environmental impacts that are measurable. The rating program covers methodologies to cover diverse climatic
zones and changing lifestyles.

Benefits

Green New buildings can have tremendous benefits, both tangible and intangible. The most tangible benefits are the
reduction in water and energy consumption right from day one of occupancy. The energy savings could range from 20 - 30
% and water savings around 30 - 50%. The intangible benefits of green new buildings include enhanced air quality,
excellent daylighting, health & well-being of the occupants, safety benefits and conservation of scarce national resources
IGBC Green New Buildings Rating system

IGBC Green New Buildings rating system addresses green features under the following categories:

- Sustainable Architecture and Design


- Site Selection and Planning
- Water Conservation
- Energy Efficiency
- Building Materials and Resources
- Indoor Environmental Quality
- Innovation and Development

The guidelines detailed under each mandatory requirement & credit enables the design and construction of new
buildings of all sizes and types (as defined in scope). Different levels of green building certification are awarded based
on the total credits earned. However, every green new building should meet certain mandatory requirements, which are
non-negotiable.
IGBC Certification Levels

The threshold criteria for certification/pre-certification levels are as under:

Owner-occupied Tenant-occupied
Certification Level Recognition
Buildings Buildings
Certified 40 - 49 40 - 49 Best Practices
Silver 50 - 59 50 - 59 Outstanding Performance
Gold 60 - 74 60 - 74 National Excellence

Platinum 75 - 100 75 - 100 Global Leadership

IGBC recognizes Green New Buildings that achieve one of the rating levels with a formal letter of certification
and a mountable plaque.
Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE)

BEE developed its own rating system for the buildings based on a 1 to 5 star scale. More stars mean more energy
efficiency. BEE has developed the Energy Performance Index (EPI). The unit of Kilo watt hours per square meter per
year is considered for rating the building and especially targets air conditioned and non-air conditioned office
buildings. The Reserve Bank of Indias buildings in Delhi and Bhubaneshwar, the CII Sohrabji Godrej Green Business
Centre and many other buildings have received BEE 5 star ratings.

The Objectives of Standards & Labeling Program is to provide the consumer an informed choice about the energy
saving and thereby the cost saving potential of the marketed household and other equipment. The scheme targets
display of energy performance labels on high energy consuming end use equipment and enables minimum energy
performance standards. More stars implies more energy saving. This is expected to impact the energy savings in the
medium and long run while at the same time it will position domestic industry to compete in such markets where
norms for energy efficiency are mandatory.

The scheme was launched in May,2006 and is currently invoked for equipment /appliances such as Room Air
Conditioner , Ceiling Fan, Color Television, Computer, Direct Cool Refrigerator, Distribution Transformer, Domestic Gas
Stove, Frost Free Refrigerator, General Purpose Industrial Motor, Monoset Pump, Open well Submersible Pump Set,
Stationary Type Water Heater, Submersible Pump Set, Washing Machine, Solid State Inverter, Office Automation
Products, Diesel Engine Driven Monoset pumps for Agricultural Purposes, Diesel Generator Set, Led Lamps, Room Air
Conditioner , Chiller, Variable Refrigerant Flow, Agricultural Pump set.
Climate Change
Climate Change Issues

Climate change is one of the major challenges of our time and adds considerable stress to our societies and to the
environment. From shifting weather patterns that threaten food production, to rising sea levels that increase the risk of
catastrophic flooding, the impacts of climate change are global in scope and unprecedented in scale. Without drastic action
today, adapting to these impacts in the future will be more difficult and costly.

Climate is defined as long-term averages and variations in weather measured over a period of several decades. The Earths
climate system includes the land surface, atmosphere, oceans, and ice. Many aspects of the global climate are changing
rapidly, and the primary drivers of that change are human in origin. Evidence for changes in the climate system abounds,
from the top of the atmosphere to the depths of the oceans Scientists and engineers from around the world have compiled
this evidence using satellites, weather balloons, thermometers at surface stations, and many other types of observing
systems that monitor the Earths weather and climate. The sum total of this evidence tells an unambiguous story: the planet
is warming.

Temperatures at the surface, in the troposphere and in the oceans have all increased over recent decades . Consistent with
our scientific understanding, the largest increases in temperature are occurring closer to the poles, especially in the Arctic.
Snow and ice cover have decreased in most areas. Atmospheric water vapor is increasing in the lower atmosphere, because
a warmer atmosphere can hold more water. Sea levels are also increasing . Changes in other climate-relevant indicators such
as growing season length have been observed in many areas. Worldwide, the observed changes in average conditions have
been accompanied by increasing trends in extremes of heat and heavy precipitation events, and decreases in extreme cold.
Natural drivers of climate cannot explain the recent observed warming. Over the last five decades, natural factors (solar
forcing and volcanoes) alone would actually have led to a slight cooling

The majority of the warming at the global scale over the past 50 years can only be explained by the effects of human
influences especially the emissions from burning fossil fuels (coal, oil, and natural gas) and from deforestation. The
emissions from human influences that are affecting climate include heat-trapping gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2),
methane, and nitrous oxide, and particles such as black carbon (soot), which has a warming influence, and sulfates, which
have an overall cooling influence. In addition to human-induced global climate change, local climate can also be affected by
other human factors (such as crop irrigation) and natural variability.
In addition to temperature , scientific attribution of observed changes to human influence extends to many other aspects of
climate, such as changing patterns in precipitation, increasing humidity, changes in pressure, and increasing ocean heat
content.

Natural variations in climate include the effects of cycles such as El Nio, La Nia and other ocean cycles; the 11-year
sunspot cycle and other changes in energy from the sun; and the effects of volcanic eruptions. Globally, natural variations can
be as large as human-induced climate change over timescales of up to a few decades. However, changes in climate at the
global scale observed over the past 50 years are far larger than can be accounted for by natural variability. Changes in
climate at the local to regional scale can be influenced by natural variability for multiple decades.

Global annual average temperature (as measured over both land and oceans) has increased by more than 1.5F (0.8C) since
1880 (through 2012)
The Human Fingerprint on Greenhouse Gases
Greenhouse gases occur naturally and are essential to the survival of humans and millions of other living things, by keeping
some of the suns warmth from reflecting back into space and making Earth livable. A century and a half of industrialization,
including clear-felling forests and certain farming methods, has driven up quantities of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
As populations, economies and standards of living grow, so does the cumulative level of greenhouse gases
(GHGs) emissions.

There are some basic well-established scientific links:

The concentration of GHGs in the earths atmosphere is directly linked to the average global temperature on Earth;
The concentration has been rising steadily, and mean global temperatures along with it, since the time of the Industrial
Revolution;
The most abundant GHG, carbon dioxide (CO2), is the product of burning fossil fuels.
United Nations Initiatives

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change


The UN family is in the forefront of the effort to save our planet. In 1992, its Earth Summit produced the United Nations
Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) as a first step in addressing the climate change problem. Today, it has
near-universal membership. The 197 countries that have ratified the Convention are Parties to the Convention. The ultimate
aim of the Convention is to prevent dangerous human interference with the climate system.

Kyoto Protocol
By 1995, countries launched negotiations to strengthen the global response to climate change, and, two years later, adopted the
Kyoto Protocol. The Kyoto Protocol legally binds developed country parties to emission reduction targets. The Protocols first
commitment period started in 2008 and ended in 2012. The second commitment period began on 1 January 2013 and will end
in 2020. There are now 197 Parties to the Convention and 192 Parties to the Kyoto Protocol.
Paris Agreement
At the 21st Conference of the Parties in Paris, Parties to the UNFCCC reached a landmark agreement to combat climate change
and to accelerate and intensify the actions and investments needed for a sustainable low carbon future. The Paris
Agreement builds upon the Convention and for the first time brings all nations into a common cause to undertake take
ambitious efforts to combat climate change and adapt to its effects, with enhanced support to assist developing countries to do
so. As such, it charts a new course in the global climate effort.
The Paris Agreements central aim is to strengthen the global response to the threat of climate change by keeping the global
temperature rise this century well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the
temperature increase even further to 1.5 degrees Celsius.
On Earth Day, 22 April 2016, 175 world leaders signed the Paris Agreement at United Nations Headquarters in New York. This
was by far the largest number of countries ever to sign an international agreement on a single day.
Kyoto Protocol

The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change, which commits its Parties by setting internationally binding emission reduction targets.

Recognizing that developed countries are principally responsible for the current high levels of GHG emissions in the
atmosphere as a result of more than 150 years of industrial activity, the Protocol places a heavier burden on developed
nations under the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities."

The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997 and entered into force on 16 February 2005.
The detailed rules for the implementation of the Protocol were adopted at COP 7 in Marrakesh, Morocco, in 2001, and
are referred to as the "Marrakesh Accords." Its first commitment period started in 2008 and ended in 2012.
Kyoto Protocol
Doha, Qatar, on 8 December 2012, the "Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol" was adopted. The amendment includes:

New commitments for Annex I Parties to the Kyoto Protocol who agreed to take on commitments in a second commitment
period from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2020;

A revised list of greenhouse gases (GHG) to be reported on by Parties in the second commitment period; and

Amendments to several articles of the Kyoto Protocol which specifically referenced issues pertaining to the first
commitment period and which needed to be updated for the second commitment period.

On 21 December 2012, the amendment was circulated by the Secretary-General of the United Nations, acting in his capacity
as Depositary, to all Parties to the Kyoto Protocol in accordance with Articles 20 and 21 of the Protocol.

During the first commitment period, 37 industrialized countries and the European Community committed to reduce GHG
emissions to an average of five percent against 1990 levels. During the second commitment period, Parties committed to
reduce GHG emissions by at least 18 percent below 1990 levels in the eight-year period from 2013 to 2020; however, the
composition of Parties in the second commitment period is different from the first.
Kyoto Protocol

Under the Protocol, countries must meet their targets primarily through national measures. However, the
Protocol also offers them an additional means to meet their targets by way of three market-based
mechanisms.

The Kyoto mechanisms are:

International Emissions Trading

Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

Joint implementation (JI)

The mechanisms help to stimulate green investment and help Parties meet their emission targets in a cost-
effective way.
Greenhouse gas emissions a new commodity Kyoto Protocol

Parties with commitments under the Kyoto Protocol (Annex B Parties) have accepted targets for limiting or reducing emissions.
These targets are expressed as levels of allowed emissions, or assigned amounts, over the 2008-2012 commitment period.
The allowed emissions are divided into assigned amount units (AAUs).

Emissions trading, as set out in Article 17 of the Kyoto Protocol, allows countries that have emission units to spare -
emissions permitted them but not "used" - to sell this excess capacity to countries that are over their targets.
Thus, a new commodity was created in the form of emission reductions or removals. Since carbon dioxide is the principal
greenhouse gas, people speak simply of trading in carbon. Carbon is now tracked and traded like any other commodity. This is
known as the "carbon market."

More than actual emissions units can be traded and sold under the Kyoto Protocols emissions trading scheme.

The other units which may be transferred under the scheme, each equal to one tonne of CO2, may be in the form of:

A removal unit (RMU) on the basis of land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) activities such as reforestation
An emission reduction unit (ERU) generated by a joint implementation project
A certified emission reduction (CER) generated from a clean development mechanism project activity

Transfers and acquisitions of these units are tracked and recorded through the registry systems under the Kyoto Protocol.
An international transaction log ensures secure transfer of emission reduction units between countries
Kyoto Protocol
The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), defined in Article 12 of the Protocol, allows a country with an emission-
reduction or emission-limitation commitment under the Kyoto Protocol (Annex B Party) to implement an emission-
reduction project in developing countries. Such projects can earn saleable certified emission reduction (CER) credits,
each equivalent to one tonne of CO2, which can be counted towards meeting Kyoto targets.

The mechanism is seen by many as a trailblazer. It is the first global, environmental investment and credit scheme of its
kind, providing a standardized emissions offset instrument, CERs.

A CDM project activity might involve, for example, a rural electrification project using solar panels or the installation of
more energy-efficient boilers.

The mechanism stimulates sustainable development and emission reductions, while giving industrialized countries some
flexibility in how they meet their emission reduction or limitation targets

Joint Implementation
The mechanism known as joint implementation, defined in Article 6 of the Kyoto Protocol, allows a country with an
emission reduction or limitation commitment under the Kyoto Protocol (Annex B Party) to earn emission reduction units
(ERUs) from an emission-reduction or emission removal project in another Annex B Party, each equivalent to one tonne
of CO2, which can be counted towards meeting its Kyoto target.

Joint implementation offers parties a flexible and cost-efficient means of fulfilling a part of their Kyoto commitments,
while the host Party benefits from foreign investment and technology transfer
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

UNFCCC entered into force on 21 March 1994. Currently , it has near-universal membership. The 197 countries that have
ratified the Convention are called Parties to the Convention.

The UNFCCC is a Rio Convention, one of three adopted at the Rio Earth Summit in 1992. Its sister Rio Conventions are the
UN Convention on Biological Diversity and the Convention to Combat Desertification. The three are intrinsically linked. It is in
this context that the Joint Liaison Group was set up to boost cooperation among the three Conventions, with the ultimate aim
of developing synergies in their activities on issues of mutual concern. It now also incorporates the Ramsar Convention on
Wetlands.
Preventing dangerous human interference with the climate system is the ultimate aim of the UNFCCC.

OBJECTIVE
The ultimate objective of this Convention and any related legal instruments that the
Conference of the Parties may adopt is to achieve, in accordance with the relevant
provisions of the Convention, stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the
atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with
the climate system.

Such a level should be achieved within a time-frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to


adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened
and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner.
The UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was set up by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to provide an objective source of scientific information. The year 2013
provided more clarity about human-generated climate change than ever before. The UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change (IPCC) released its Fifth Assessment Report which looked at the science of climate change. It is categorical in its
conclusion: climate change is real and human activities are the main cause.
Fifth Assessment Report
The report provides a comprehensive assessment of sea level rise, and its causes, over the past few decades. It also estimates
cumulative CO2 emissions since pre-industrial times and provides a CO2 budget for future emissions to limit warming to less
than 2 C. About half of this maximum amount was already emitted by 2011. Thanks to the IPCC, this is what we know:
From 1880 to 2012, the average global temperature increased by 0.85 C.
Oceans have warmed, the amounts of snow and ice have diminished and the sea level has risen. From 1901 to 2010, the global
average sea level rose by 19 cm as oceans expanded due to warming and ice melted. The sea ice extent in the Arctic has shrunk
in every successive decade since 1979, with 1.07 106 km of ice loss per decade.
Given current concentrations and ongoing emissions of greenhouse gases, it is likely that the end of this century will see a 12
C increase in global mean temperature above the 1990 level (about 1.52.5 C above the pre-industrial level). The worlds
oceans will warm and ice melt will continue. Average sea level rise is predicted to be 2430 cm by 2065 and 4063 cm by 2100
relative to the reference period of 19862005. Most aspects of climate change will persist for many centuries, even if emissions
are stopped.
There is alarming evidence that important tipping points, leading to irreversible changes in major ecosystems and the planetary
climate system, may already have been reached or passed.
Ecosystems as diverse as the Amazon rainforest and the Arctic tundra, may be approaching thresholds of dramatic change
through warming and drying. Mountain glaciers are in alarming retreat and the downstream effects of reduced water supply in
the driest months will have repercussions that transcend generations.
IPCC 5th Assessment Reports Outcome ( Working Group 1 Report Climate Change
2013: The Physical Science Basis )
Atmosphere

Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and since the 1950s, many of the observed changes are
unprecedented over decades to millennia. The atmosphere and ocean have warmed, the amounts of snow
and ice have diminished, sea level has risen, and the concentrations of greenhouse gases have increased

Each of the last three decades has been successively warmer at the Earths surface than any
preceding decade since 1850 . In the Northern Hemisphere, 19832012 was likely the warmest 30-year
period of the last 1400 years

The globally averaged combined land and ocean surface temperature data as calculated by a linear trend, show a
warming of 0.85 C, over the period 1880 to 2012.

Changes in many extreme weather and climate events have been observed since about 1950 . It is very likely that the
number of cold days and nights has decreased and the number of warm days and nights has increased on the global
scale. It is likely that the frequency of heat waves has increased in large parts of Europe, Asia and Australia. There are
likely more land regions where the number of heavy precipitation events has increased than where it has decreased.
The frequency or intensity of heavy precipitation events has likely increased in North America and Europe.
IPCC 5th Assessment Reports Outcome Working Group 1 Report Climate Change
2013: The Physical Science Basis )
Ocean
Ocean warming dominates the increase in energy stored in the climate system, accounting
for more than 90% of the energy accumulated between 1971 and 2010 .
It is virtually certain that the upper ocean (0700 m) warmed from 1971 to 2010 and it likely
warmed between the 1870s and 1971.

Cryosphere
Over the last two decades, the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets have been losing mass,
glaciers have continued to shrink almost worldwide, and Arctic sea ice and Northern
Hemisphere spring snow cover have continued to decrease in extent.

The average rate of ice loss from glaciers around the world, excluding glaciers on the periphery
of the ice sheets, was very likely 226 Gt yr1 over the period 1971 to 2009, and very
likely 275 Gt yr1 over the period 1993 to 2009.
IPCC 5th Assessment Reports Outcome Working Group 1 Report Climate Change
2013: The Physical Science Basis )
The average rate of ice loss from the Greenland ice sheet has very likely substantially increased
from 34 Gt yr1 over the period 1992 to 2001 to 215 Gt yr1 over the period 2002 to 2011.
The average rate of ice loss from the Antarctic ice sheet has likely increased from 30 Gt yr1 over the period
19922001 to 147 Gt yr1 over the period 2002 to 2011. There is very high confidence that these losses are
mainly from the northern Antarctic Peninsula and the Amundsen Sea sector of West Antarctica.

Sea Level

The rate of sea level rise since the mid-19th century has been larger than the mean rate during the previous two millennia .
Over the period 1901 to 2010, global mean sea level rose by 0.19 m

Proxy and instrumental sea level data indicate a transition in the late 19th to the early 20th century from relatively low
mean rates of rise over the previous two millennia to higher rates of rise . It is likely that the rate of global mean sea level rise
has continued to increase since the early 20th century.

It is very likely that the mean rate of global averaged sea level rise was 1.7 mm yr1 between 1901 and 2010,
2.0 mm yr1 between 1971 and 2010, and 3.2 mm yr1 between 1993 and 2010. Tide-gauge and
satellite altimeter data are consistent regarding the higher rate of the latter period. It is likely that similarly high rates
occurred between 1920 and 1950.
IPCC 5th Assessment Reports Outcome Working Group 1 Report Climate Change
2013: The Physical Science Basis )
Carbon and Other Biogeochemical Cycles

The atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide have increased to levels unprecedented
in at least the last 800,000 years. Carbon dioxide concentrations have increased by 40% since pre-industrial times,
primarily from fossil fuel emissions and secondarily from net land use change emissions. The ocean has absorbed about
30% of the emitted anthropogenic carbon dioxide, causing ocean acidification .

The atmospheric concentrations of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O)
have all increased since 1750 due to human activity. In 2011 the concentrations of these greenhouse gases were 391
ppm, 1803 ppb, and 324 ppb, and exceeded the pre-industrial levels by about 40%, 150%, and 20%, respectively.

Concentrations of CO2, CH4, and N2O now substantially exceed the highest concentrations recorded in ice cores during
the past 800,000 years. The mean rates of increase in atmospheric concentrations over the past century are, with very
high confidence, unprecedented in the last 22,000 years
IPCC 5th Assessment Reports Outcome Working Group 1 Report Climate Change
2013: The Physical Science Basis )

Human influence has been detected in warming of the atmosphere and the ocean, in changes in the global water
cycle, in reductions in snow and ice, in global mean sea level rise, and in changes in some climate extremes . It is
extremely likely that human influence has been the dominant cause of the observed warming since the
mid-20th century

Continued emissions of greenhouse gases will cause further warming and changes in all components of the
climate system. Limiting climate change will require substantial and sustained reductions of greenhouse gas
emissions

Global surface temperature change for the end of 21st century is likely to exceed 1.5C relative to 1850 to 1900. It is likely to
exceed 2C and more likely than not to exceed 2C. Warming will continue beyond 2100 .Warming will continue to exhibit
interannual-to-decadal variability and will not be regionally uniform

It is very likely that the Arctic sea ice cover will continue to shrink and thin and that Northern Hemisphere spring snow
cover will decrease during the 21st century as global mean surface temperature rises. Global glacier volume will further
decrease. The global ocean will continue to warm during the 21st century. Heat will penetrate from the surface to the deep
ocean and affect ocean circulation

Global mean sea level will continue to rise during the 21st century. The rate of sea level rise will very likely exceed that
observed during 1971 to 2010 due to increased ocean warming and increased loss of mass from glaciers and ice sheets.
IPCC 5th Assessment Reports Outcome Working Group 1
Report Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis )

Climate change will affect carbon cycle processes in a way that will exacerbate the increase of CO2 in the
atmosphere . Further uptake of carbon by the ocean will increase ocean acidification.

Changes in the global water cycle in response to the warming over the 21st century will not be uniform. The contrast in
precipitation between wet and dry regions and between wet and dry seasons will increase, although there may be
regional exceptions
Climate change is a global challenge that does not respect national borders. Emissions anywhere affect people
everywhere. It is an issue that requires solutions that need to be coordinated at the international level and it
requires international cooperation to help developing countries move toward a low-carbon economy.

Implementation of the Paris Agreement is essential for the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals, and
provides a roadmap for climate actions that will reduce emissions and build climate resilience
National Action Plan on Climate Change
Climate change may alter the distribution and quality of India's natural resources and adversely affect the livelihood of
its people. With an economy closely tied to its natural resource base and climate-sensitive sectors such as agriculture,
water and forestry, India may face a major threat because of the projected changes in climate.
Recognizing that climate change is a global challenge, India will engage actively in multilateral negotiations in the UN
Framework Convention on Climate Change, in a positive, constructive and forward-looking manner. Our
objective will be to establish an effective, cooperative and equitable global approach based on the principle of
common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, enshrined in the United Nations framework
Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Such an approach must be based on a global vision inspired by Mahatma
Gandhi's wise dictum-The earth has enough resources to meet people's needs, but will never have enough to satisfy
people's greed. Thus we must not only promote sustainable production processes, but equally, sustainable lifestyles across the
globe.

Finally, our approach must also be compatible with our role as a responsible and enlightened member of the international
community, ready to make our contribution to the solution of a global challenge, which impacts on
humanity as a whole. The success of national efforts would be significantly enhanced provided the developed countries
affirm their responsibility for accumulated green house gas emissions and fulfill their commitments under the UNFCCC,
to transfer new and additional financial resources and climate friendly technologies to support both adaptation and
mitigation in developing countries.

We are convinced that the principle of equity that must underlie the global approach must allow each inhabitant of the earth
an equal entitlement to the global atmospheric resource. In this connection, India is determined that its per capita
greenhouse gas emissions will at no point exceed that of developed countries even as we pursue our development
objectives.
National Action Plan on Climate Change

The National Action Plan on Climate Change identifies measures that promote Indias development objectives while also
yielding co-benefits for addressing climate change effectively. It outlines a number of steps to simultaneously
advance India's development and climate change-related objectives of adaptation and mitigation.

Eight National Missions

In dealing with the challenge of climate change India must act on several fronts in a focused manner simultaneously.
The National Action Plan hinges on the development and use of new technologies. The implementation of the Plan
would be through appropriate institutional mechanisms suited for effective delivery of each individual Mission's objectives
and include public private partnerships and civil society action. The focus will be on promoting understanding of climate
change, adaptation and mitigation, energy efficiency and natural resource conservation.

There are Eight National Missions which form the core of the National Action Plan, representing multi-pronged, long-
term and integrated strategies for achieving key goals in the context of climate change. While several of these programs
are already part of Indias current actions , they may need a change in direction, enhancement of scope and effectiveness
and accelerated implementation of time-bound plans.
National Action Plan on Climate Change

1. National Solar Mission

A National Solar Mission will be launched to significantly increase the share of solar energy in the total energy mix while
recognizing the need to expand the scope of other renewable and non-fossil options such as nuclear energy, wind energy and
biomass.

India is a tropical country, where sunshine is available for longer hours per day and in great intensity. Solar energy, therefore,
has great potential as future energy source. It also has the advantage of permitting a decentralized distribution of energy,
thereby empowering people at the grassroots level. Photovoltaic cells are becoming cheaper with new technology. There are
newer, reflector-based technologies that could enable setting up megawatt scale solar power plants across the
country. Another aspect of the Solar Mission would be to launch a major R&D program, which could draw upon
international cooperation as well, to enable the creation of more affordable, more convenient solar power systems, and
to promote innovations that enable the storage of solar power for sustained, long-term use.
National Action Plan on Climate Change

2. National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency

The Energy Conservation Act of 2001 provides a legal mandate for the implementation of the energy efficiency measures
through the institutional mechanism of the Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) in the Central Government and designated
agencies in each state.

To enhance energy efficiency, four new initiatives to be put in place. These are:

A market based mechanism to enhance cost effectiveness of improvements in energy efficiency in energy-intensive
large industries and facilities, through certification of energy savings that could be traded.
Accelerating the shift to energy efficient appliances in designated sectors through innovative measures to make the
products more affordable.
Creation of mechanisms that would help finance demand side management programs in all sectors by capturing future
energy savings.
Developing fiscal instruments to promote energy efficiency
National Action Plan on Climate Change
3. National Mission on Sustainable Habitat

A National Mission on Sustainable Habitat be launched to make habitat sustainable through improvements in energy
efficiency in buildings, management of solid waste and modal shift to public transport. The Mission promotes energy
efficiency as an integral component of urban planning and urban renewal through three initiatives.

The Energy Conservation Building Code, which addresses the design of new and large commercial buildings to optimize
their energy demand, will be extended in its application and incentives provided for retooling existing building stock.

Recycling of material and Urban Waste Management will be a major component of ecologically sustainable economic
development. India already has a significantly higher rate of recycling of waste compared to developed countries. A special
area of focus will be the development of technology for producing power from waste. The National Mission will
include a major R&D program, focusing on bio chemical conversion, waste water use, sewage utilization and recycling
options wherever possible.

Better urban planning and modal shift to public transport. Making long term transport plans will facilitate the growth
of medium and small cities in ways that ensure efficient and convenient public transport.

In addition, the Mission will address the need to adapt to future climate change by improving the resilience of
infrastructure , community based disaster management, and measures for improving the warning system for extreme
weather events. Capacity building would be an important component of this Mission.
National Action Plan on Climate Change
4. National Water Mission

A National Water Mission be mounted to ensure integrated water resource management helping to conserve water,
minimize wastage and ensure more equitable distribution both across and within states. The Mission will take into account
the provisions of the National Water Policy and develop a framework to optimize water use by increasing water reuse
efficiency by 20% through regulatory mechanisms with differential entitlements and pricing. It will seek to ensure that
a considerable share of the water needs of urban areas are met through recycling of waste water, and ensuring that the
water requirements of coastal cities with inadequate alternative sources of water are met through adoption of new and
appropriate technologies such as low temperature desalination technologies that allow for the use of ocean water.

The National Water Policy would be revisited in consultation with states to ensure basin level management strategies to deal
with variability in rainfall and river flows due to climate change. This will include enhanced storage both above and below
ground, rainwater harvesting, coupled with equitable and efficient management structures . The Mission will seek to develop
new regulatory structures, combined with appropriate entitlements and pricing. It will seek to optimize the efficiency of
existing irrigation systems, including rehabilitation of systems that have been run down and also expand irrigation, where
feasible , with a special effort to increase storage capacity.

Incentive structures will be designed to promote water-neutral or water-positive technologies, recharging of under
ground water sources and adoption of large scale irrigation programs which rely on sprinklers, drip irrigation and ridge and
furrow irrigation.
National Action Plan on Climate Change
5. National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem

A Mission for sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem will be launched to evolve management measures for sustaining and
safeguarding the Himalayan glacier and mountain eco-system. Himalayas, being the source of key perennial rivers, the
Mission would, inter-alia, seek to understand, whether and the extent to which, the Himalayan glaciers are in recession
and how the problem could be addressed. This will require the joint effort of climatologists, glaciologists and other experts.
We will need to exchange information with the South Asian countries and countries sharing the Himalayan ecology.

An observational and monitoring network for the Himalayan environment will also be established to assess freshwater
resources and health of the ecosystem. Cooperation with neighboring countries will be sought to make the network
comprehensive in its coverage.

The Himalayan ecosystem has 51 million people who practice hill agriculture and whose vulnerability is expected to increase
on account of climate change. Community-based management of these ecosystems will be promoted with incentives to
community organizations and panchayats for protection and enhancement of forested lands. In mountainous regions, the aim
will be to maintain two-thirds of the area under forest cover in order to prevent erosion and land degradation and ensure the
stability of the fragile eco-system.
National Action Plan on Climate Change

6. National Mission for a Green India

A National Mission will be launched to enhance eco system services including carbon sinks to be called Green India.
Forests play an indispensable role in the preservation of ecological balance and maintenance of bio-diversity. Forests also
constitute one of the most effective carbon-sinks.

The Prime Minister has already announced a Green India campaign for the afforestation of 6 million hectares. The national
target of area under forest and tree cover is 33% while the current area under forests is 23%.The Mission on Green India
will be taken upon degraded forest land through direct action by communities, organized through Joint Forest
Management Committees and guided by the Departments of Forest in state governments. An initial corpus of over Rs 6000
crore has been earmarked for the program through the Compensatory Afforestaion Management and Planning Authority
(CAMPA) to commence work. The program will be scaled up to cover all remaining degraded forest land. The institutional
arrangement provides for using the corpus to leverage more funds to scale up activity.
National Action Plan on Climate Change

7. National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture

The Mission would devise strategies to make Indian agriculture more resilient to climate change. It would identify and
develop new varieties of crops and especially thermal resistant crops and alternative cropping patterns, capable of
withstanding extremes of weather, long dry spells, flooding, and variable moisture availability.

Agriculture will need to be progressively adapted to projected climate change and our agricultural research systems must
be oriented to monitor and evaluate climate change and recommend changes in agricultural practices accordingly. This will be
supported by the convergence and integration of traditional knowledge and practice systems, information technology,
geospatial technologies and biotechnology. New credit and insurance mechanisms will be devised to facilitate adoption of
desired practices. Focus would be on improving productivity of rain-fed agriculture. India will spearhead efforts at
the international level to work towards an ecologically sustainable green revolution.
8. National mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change

To enlist the global community in research and technology development and collaboration through mechanisms
including open source platforms, a Strategic Knowledge Mission will be set up to identify the challenges of, and the
responses to, climate change. It would ensure funding of high quality and focused research into various aspects of
climate change.

The Mission will also have, on its research agenda, socio-economic impacts of climate change including impact on health,
demography, migration patterns and livelihoods of coastal communities. It would also support the establishment of
dedicated climate change related academic units in Universities and other academic and scientific research institutions in
the country which would be networked. A Climate Science Research Fund would be created under the Mission to
support research. Private sector initiatives for development of innovative technologies for adaptation and mitigation
would be encouraged through venture capital funds. Research to support policy and implementation would be under
taken through identified centres. The Mission will also focus on dissemination of new knowledge based on research
findings.
Implementation of Missions

These National Missions will be institutionalized by respective ministries and will be organized through intersectoral
groups which include in addition to related Ministries, Ministry of Finance and the Planning Commission, experts
from industry, academia and civil society. The institutional structure would vary depending on the task to be addressed
by the Mission and will include providing the opportunity to compete on the best management model.

. Where the resource requirements of the Mission call for an enhancement of the allocation in the 11th Plan, this will be
suitably considered, keeping in mind the overall resources position and the scope for re-prioritisation. Comprehensive
Mission documents detailing objectives, strategies, plan of action, timelines and monitoring and evaluation criteria would
be developed and submitted to the Prime Minister's Council on Climate Change by December 2008. The Council will also
periodically review the progress of these Missions. Each Mission will report publicly on its annual performance.
Building public awareness will be vital in supporting implementation of the NAPCC. This will be achieved through national
portals, media engagement, civil society involvement, curricula reform and recognition/ awards, details of which will be
worked out by an empowered group. The Group will also consider methods of capacity building to support the goals of the
National Missions.

We will develop appropriate technologies to measure progress in actions being taken in terms of avoided emissions,
wherever applicable, with reference to business as usual scenarios. Appropriate indicators will be evolved for assessing
adaptation benefits of the actions.