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Design of bolted connections

Design of bolted connections

A bolt is a metal pin with a head formed at one
end and the shank threaded at the other end in
order to receive a nut.
For structures which are not subjected to shock
or vibrations, bolts can be used instead of rivets.
The three types of bolts used in structural
applications are (a) unfinished or black bolts, (b)
turned and fitted bolts and (c) high- strength
Advantages of bolted connections

The bolting operation is very silent, in contrast

to the hammering noise in riveting.
Bolting is a cold process, and hence there is no
risk of fire.
Bolting operation is far quicker than riveting.
Less man-power is required in making the
Disadvantages of bolted connections
The bolted connections, if subjected to
vibratory loads, result in reduction in strength
if they get loosened.
Bolted connections for a given diameter of
bolt, have lesser strength in axial tension since
the net area at the root of the threads is less.
Unfished bolts have lesser strength because of
non-uniform diameter.
(a) According to type of shank
(i) Unfinished or black bolts
(ii) Turned bolts
(b) According to material and strength
(i) Ordinary structural bolt
(ii) High strength steel bolt
(c) According to shape of head and nut
(i) Square bolt
(ii) Hexagonal bolt
In common steel structural work, however, the following
three bolt types are recognized:
Ordinary unfinished or black bolts
Turned and fitted bolts
High strength bolts
They are used for light structures (purlins,bracings,etc) under
static loads.

They are manufactured from black round bars of low carbon

steel, and the surface of the shank is left unfinished, that is
rough as rolled. The head is formed by forging. The diameter
under the thread is usually 1.5 to 3 mm less than the shank.
They remain loose in the holes which are usually made 1.5
mm larger in diameter than the nominal diameter of the
bolt. Since the bearing of such bolts on the walls of the holes
imperfect, the allowable stresses in these bolts are kept
lower than the other types of bolts. They are therefore used
only for ordinary field work and light loads especially
during erection operations.
Are similar to unfinished bolts, with the
differences that the shank of these bolts is
formed from a hexagonal rod.
Surfaces of bolts are prepared carefully and are
machined to fit in the hole.
These bolts have high shear and bearing
resistance as compared to unfinished bolts.
Strength of such bolts approximately equals that
of rivets.

High strength friction grip bolts are made of

high strength steel
The joint produced is a rigid one, which remain
fully tight even under dynamic load, free from
Advantages of high strength bolts

It gives rigid joint as there is no slip between

plates at working loads.
It gives high static strength due to high frictional
There are no shearing or bearing stresses in the
It has high fatigue strength.
Disadvantages of high strength bolts

The material cost of these bolts is much higher;

it is about 50% greater than that of ordinary
bolts and about 3 times that of rivets.

Special attention is required for workmanship

in installing and tightening these bolts,
especially in regard to giving them right
amount of tension.
Table 1: Proof loads of HTFG bolts (IS: 3757- 1966)
Bolt Proof Load
diameter 10 K Bolts 8 G Bolts
(mm) kg(f) kN kg(f) kN
12 5900 57.9 5058 49.6
14 8050 78.9 7500 73.5
16 10790 105.8 9120 89.4
18 13440 131.8 11520 113.0
20 17150 168.2 14700 144.1
22 21210 208.0 18180 178.3
24 23710 232.5 21189 207.7
27 32130 315.1 27450 269.2
30 39270 385.1 33660 330.1
33 48580 476.4 41640 408.3
36 57190 560.8 49020 480.7
39 68320 669.9 58560 574.2
Note: The proof load of 10 K bolt is based on 70 kg/mm2 and that of 8G is based on 60
kg/mm2 on the stress area of the bolt.
Design tensile strength of bearing and
HSFG bolts
In a tension or hanger connection, the applied
load produces tension in the bolts
and the bolts are designed as tension
members. If the attached plate is allowed to
deform, additional tensile forces called prying
forces are developed in the bolts.
Tension Capacity A bolt subjected to a
factored tension force (Tb) shall satisfy
Eq. 1
Where, Tnb= nominal tensile capacity of the bolt,
calculated as follows:

fub = ultimate tensile stress of the bolt
fyb = yield stress of the bolt
An = net tensile stress area. For bolts where the
tensile stress area is not defined, An shall be
taken as the area at the root of the threads
Asb = shank area of the bolt
From Eq. 1, if there are n interfaces, we have:

Dividing this by a factor of safety (F), we have:

Shear per bolt = contribution of one bolt to the total
shear strength of the joint
Slip factor = coefficient of friction = 0.45
T = proof load = maximum permissible load in the bolt,
as given in table 1