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Basics of Piping layout

Activities Involved
Pipe Rack Planning/Area Planning
Pipe Routing/modeling
Interference check
Discrepancy check
Visual walk through of plant model
Preparation of piping isometric drawings
Preparation of Piping composite drawings
Inputs Required
Plot Plan
G.A. drawing of building or specific area
Equipment GA drawings
3 D Models
Civil/ Structural drawings
Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams (P&IDs)
Terminal Point Details
In Line Component details
Instrument installation drawings or guide line.
Design Criteria document
Piping Design Tables (PDTs)
Piping Layout Considerations:


Pipe racks and Pipe Trenches
Piping outside process units shall be supported on
sleepers, at ground level in Pipe racks or below ground
level in Pipe Trenches.
The choice between Pipe tracks and Pipe trenches is
dictated by technical and economic considerations.
The distance between sleepers in pipe tracks and in pipe
trenches shall be based on maximum allowed free span of
the majority of pipes.
Elevation of sleepers shall be such that there is access for
maintenance and for operation of valves, drains and
Flanged connection shall not be installed in trenches.
Concrete trenches shall be adequately drained.
The Headroom normally provided
is as below.
Sr. Description Headroom
No. (mm)
1. Clear head room under 2200
Structures/pipe lines
inside operating area.
2. Head room over rail 7000
(from top of rails)
3. Clear headroom above 7000
crest of road for crane
4. Clear headroom above 6000
crest of road for truck
5. Clear headroom above 4500
crest of road between
General Piping layout Guidelines
Shall be done in line with process requirement.
Bottom of lines should be on same elevation.
Avoid pipe in Trenches.
Avoid valves in vertical run
Proper accessibility of inline components
Pipe to pipe spacing shall be as recommended
Distance between pipes shall allow for turning of spectacle
blind, if present.
Piping shall be supported properly.
Standard and easily available pipe fittings to be used.
For large dia buried pipe line air release valves, manholes
to be provided.
Slopes to be provided in pipeline as per the process
General Piping Layout Guidelines
For cold lines with stretch beyond 80 meter, expansion loop
shall be provided.

Flanges installed to facilitate maintenance and inspection.

Branch connection for air, steam or gas line should be on top

and for water or liquid line should be from bottom of main

Installation of valves.

Control valve installation.

Drain and vent connections.
Specific guidelines for piping around


Pressure relief

Suction piping of centrifugal pumps

Specific guidelines for Fuel Gas Piping
Branch connection taken from top of main header.

All flanged joints shall be provided with jumper

arrangement to avoid any discontinuity which may
cause sparking due to static electricity generation
and shall be suitably earthed afterwards.
Specific guidelines for Tank Farm Area
Within the bund/dyke area the number of pipes shall be
minimized and shall be routed in shortest practicable way.
Pipes shall be grouped together
Pipes connected to tanks shall be sufficiently flexible to
cope with thermal expansion/contraction.
Piping shall be connected and supported after hydrostatic
testing of tank.
Piping shall be supported by concrete sleepers or steel
There shall be access to manholes, mixing nozzles, drains
and other facilities on the tanks.
Specific guidelines for Steam Piping
Branch lines from steam header should be taken from top of
Low point drains should be provided in steam lines
Drain should be provided upstream side of valve
Loop shall be provided to provide flexibility in long straight run of
All steam piping should be sloped down in the direction of flow a
minimum of 5mm/meter or as specified
All high points should be vented
Temperature elements (TI, TW, TE) tap point shall be provided on
top and pressure elements tap points shall be provided in
horizontal direction.
All valves shall be placed at accessible position.
All steam lines shall preferably be supported from top.
Specific guidelines for Large Diameter
Pipes DN 900 and Larger shall be provided with inspection
and maintenance manholes of minimum size DN 600 and
distance between manholes should be no more than 100m

Cooling towers shall have isolation valves

Main distribution pipes shall have drain and vent facilities.

Underground piping shall have minimum 1.0m soil cover

Mitre bends to be used for 90 degree or 45 degree bends.

Tees should generally be welded.

Piping For Instruments
Flow measurement instruments need certain straight
length, normally 15D on the upstream and 5D on
Pipe lines in which flow meters are located should be fill
with Liquid all the time.
Isolation valves for level gauges and pressure gauges shall
be made accessible.
Rotameters shall be placed on vertical line and the inlet
should be from the bottom of the instrument
Specific requirements for instrument installation to be
checked, like temperature gauge can not be installed in
pipe which is less than 4 inch in size
Enough operating and maintenance access shall be
considered while locating any instrument.
Verification Points
The layout to be checked properly considering support
location, feasibility of supports.
Accessibility of all inline valves, instruments, equipment to be
Piping layout should be interference free.
Piping Layout should be inline with P&ID.
Sufficient gaps are maintained between pipes for the
expansion due to high temperature.
Piping layout to be checked with analysis for flexibility.
Nozzle loads for Piping connection with any equipment should
be within vendor certified allowable limit.
Layout to be checked for upstream downstream length
requirements of flow elements.
Work Process MPD7.01
Isometric check list
Suction of Pump
Valve location
Easily accessible
1200-1500mm from
operating level

Chain arrangement should

be provided where ever
Pipe line Vents and Drains
Pipes are also
slopped towards low