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GOVERNMENT OF INDIA

CENTRAL GROUND WATEBOARD

SOUTH EASTERN COASTAL REGION

MINISTRY OF WATER RESOURCES


REGIONAL DIRECTOR, SECR
Dr.E.SAMPATHKUMAR M.Sc Ph.D

Central Ground Water Board


South Eastern Coastal Region
Chennai
INTRODUCTION

CGWB is an apex organisation at National


level entrusted with Regulation of Ground
water resources of the Country and
responsibilities of Scientific studies
including
1.Pilot Aquifer mapping
2.National Aquifer mapping
3.Hydrology
4. Hydrometeriology
5.Geophysical Studies
6. Geochemical studies
7.Short term Investigations
TAMILNADU STATE
GENERAL FUCTURES
Total Geographical area 1,30,060 Sq.km
Hard rock 98,718 Sq.km
Soft rock 31,342 Sq.km
Rugged mountains(Hills) 21,320 Sq.km
Area not Suitable for G.W.development :17,848 Sq.km
Seashore line :1076km
Districts : 32
Developmental blocks :386
Contd General features

Revenue divisions 76

Taluks 215

Panchayats 1261
Total population : 7,21,38,958
(As on 2011 census)

Male : 3,61,58,871
Female : 3,59,80,087
5.96% Population of India
RIVERS
1.Palar 8.Vaippar
2.Ponnaiyar 9.Nambiar
3.Vellar
4.Cauvery
5.Vaigai
6.Tambraparani
7.Gundar
CLIMATE & RAINFALL
CLIMATE : Max:37- 44C Min: 12-17C
ANNUAL RAINFALL RECORDED FROM 400-1300mm
Average annual Rainfall : 925 mm(Based on 70 years
rainfall

SW Monsoon : 332.9 mm
NE Monsoon : 459.2 mm
Winter : 36.8 mm
Summer : 129.6 mm
(HUMITITY)

MAY(Summer)
Average relative humitity various from
40 to 70%
October(Winter)
Average relative humitity various from
60 to 85%
GEOMORPHIC UNITS
1.Western part - Western Ghats

2.Central part Pediments,Pediplains &


Residual hills
3.Eastern part Coastel plains & associated
landforms
IRRIGATION
Irrigated area by Surface water
1.Reservoirs : 78
2.Medium and
Major tanks : 39,400
3.Net area irrigated
by all sources during
2010-2011 : 29,12,129 ha
4.Cross irrigated : 33,47,557 ha
IRRIGATION
Irrigated area by Ground water
2010-2011 : 16,31,727 ha

56% of the total irrigated


area irrigated by Ground
water.
GEOLOGY
G.W.occurs in all geological formation
Hard rock : 73%
Charnockites
Gneissess
Granites and accociated rocks
Soft rock : 27%
Sandstone, clays, pebbles, gravels
limestone and shales
AREA OF GEOLOGICAL FORMATION
Hard rock : 98,718 Sq.km (73%)
Soft rock : 31,342 Sq.km (27%)
SEDIMENTARY FORMATION
Gondwana formation : 2626 Sq.km (1.9%)
Cretaceous formation : 1515 Sq.km (1.16% )
Tertiary Sandstone : 8546 Sq.km (6.92%)
Alluvium formation :22018 Sq.km(16.92%)
HYDROGEOLOGY

HARD ROCk-Dugwell
Yield : 30 to 250 m3/day
DD : < 1 to 5 m
Pumping hours : 1 to 4 hrs
Specific
capacity bet : 30 & 250
(lpm/m/dd)
Specific yield : < 1 to 6 %

Borewell yield : 260 to 430 m3/day


T (m2/day) : 0.24 to 1146
HYDROGEOLOGY
HARD ROCK - AQUIFER PARAMETER
T: < .01 to 375m3/day
S: 2.6X10-6 to 3.6x10-2
SP.Capacity : 0.265 to 1316 lpm/m/dd

DD : 0.33 to 6.55 m

Q : <.01 to 29.58 lps


PORUS FORMATIONS
YIELD OF THE WELLS VARIES FROM 200 -650 m3/day
1.Unconsolidated
Fine to coarse sands,Clay stone, clay gravels and admixtures
2. Semi-consolidated
a) Gondwana sedisments

kanchipuram,Tiruvallur,
Tiruvannamalai,Tiruchchirapalli,
Sivanganga districts
b) Cretaceous sediments
TERTIARY - SANDSTONE
1.Yield of dugwell : 200 to 400 lpm
for a dd upto 3m
AUTO FLOW ZONE OR FREE FLOWING
ZONE : 300m to 750 bgl
Sedimentary tract of Ramanathapuram,
Pudukottai, Tiruchchirapalli, Thanjavur,
Nagappattinam and Cuddalore districts.
TERTIARY CUDDALORE
SANDSTONE AQ.PARAMETER
T : 30 to 8492 m2/day

S : 7.74X10-6 to 2.575x10-1

Sp.Capacity : 5.22 to 1892 lpm/m.of dd


DD: 0.26 to 23.45 m
Q: 3. to 689lps
RECENT ALLUVIAL DEPOSITS
1.Marine deposits Productive aquifer
with salinity hazards
2.Fluvial deposits Good to very good
aquifer
Yield upto 150 m3/hr
Specific yeild as high as 30%
T : 200 to 5000 m2/day
ALLUVIUM FORMATION
AQUIFER PARAMETER
T: 7 to 4180 m2/day

S: 1.2X10-3 to 7.55x10-4

SP.Capacity : 6.9 to 942 lpm/m/dd

DD : 2.4 to 24 m
BEHAVIOUR GROUND WATER
LEVELS
PHREATIC AQUIFER PREMONSOON MAY 2011
GL to 28.23 m bgl
(Coimbatore dist) (Coimbatore dist)
Deeper water levels in upland areas like
Salem, Namakal, Erode districts.
Shallow water levels are abserved in isolated
batches spread over the state.
BEHAVIOUR OF GROUND
WATER LEVELS
PHREATIC AQUIFERPOSTMONSOON JAN 2012
GL to 30.45 m bgl
(Coimbatore dist) (Coimbatore dist)
Shallow water level in major part of the state<10mbgl covering plain
and central midline districts covering Madurai,Tirunelveli,
Tiruvarur and Tuticorin districts etc.
Deeper water levels in the northern and northern central and
southern part of the state.
MONITORING OF HYDROGRAPH
STATIONS IN TAMILNADU STATE
(AS ON MAY 2011)

TOTAL WELLS : 1166


DUGWELLS = 573
PZ/TUBE WELLS = 593
MONITORING OF HYDROGRAPH STATIONS

MADURAI DISTRICT
(AS ON MAY 2012)
TOTAL WELLS = 69
DUGWELLS = 10 3.64 -7.27 mbgl
PZ/Bore WELLS = 49 2.10 -18.20 m bgl
DUG WELL(URBAN)=10 4.2215.97 mbmp
EXPLORATORY DRILLING

Exploratory drilling has helped in


understanding of the hydrogeological
and hydrochemical regime of the area
and an area has been demarcated for
ground water development.
GROUNDWATER EXPLORATION IN TAMIL
NADU STATE AS ON 31st MARCH 2012.
DRILLED BY DEPARTMENTAL RIGS.
EXPLORATORY BOREWELLS : 1010
OBSERVATION BOREWELLS : 375
PIEZOMETERS : 203
SH : 7
Deposit Wells on payment basis : 91
Total wells drilled by CGWB : 1695
Out- sourcing : 293
(By private rigs)
GROUND WATER
EXPLORATION IN TAMIL NADU
STATE AS ON 31st MARCH 2011
Range of depth drilled(mbgl) : 25 -300
Potential fractures : 15 - 291
Yield range (lps) : 0.27 31.35
Specific capacity(lpm/m/dd) : 0.1 2 320.20
Transmissivity(m2/day) : 0.26 -8492
HIGH YIELDING WELLS
IN TAMIL NADU STATE
(lps)
Thoplagunda EW : 10.56
Porur EW : 16.84
Magudamchavadi EW : 26
Attayampatti :16.44
Oragadam :10.80
HIGH YIELDING WELLS
IN TAMIL NADU STATE

lps
Mallappanur 31.35
Karaikurichi 25
Vadalur 10

Melvanjiyur 12.93
Valmangalam 12

Gangaigondan 21
HIGH YIELDING WELLS
IN TAMIL NADU STATE

lps
Pattaguruparapalli 23
Chinnamattarapalli 16.44
Kurichi 14
Cumbum 18.97
Usilampatti 20.62
Valandur 21.72
Meivazhichalai 24
QUALITY OF GROUND WATER
(As ON MAY 2012)
Parameter Range No.of samples %
EC(Us/cm@25 <750 71 18.20
751-2250 232 59.50
2251-3000 40 10.20
Chloride(mg/l <250 232 59.50
251-1000 140 35.9
>1000 18 04.6
Contd Quality
Parameter Range No.of samples %

Fluoride(mg/l) <1 267 68.50


1-1.5 88 22.50
>1.5 35 09.00
Nitrate(mg/l) <45 272 69.70
>45 118 30.30
INSITU AND SALINE DIST
1.Ramanathapuram District

2.In parts of Nagapattinam District

3.In parts of Tiruvarur District


SEA WATER INGRESS
1.MINJUR area is north of Chennai
city,Tiruvallur District which is located 13
km from the coast.The interface has
moved from 6 to 10 km inland since 1969

2.Recently reported from PONDICHERRY


COAST.
3.KUTTAM area of Tirunelveli district.
FLUORIDE RICH DIST >1.5 mg/l
FLUORIDE RICH Districts
1.Dharmapuri 7.Pudukottai
2.Krishnagiri 8.Sivagangai
3.Salem 9.Virudhunagar Dist etc
4.Namakkal
5.Coimbatore
6.Erode
NITRATE RICH DISTRICTS
NITRATE RICH DISTRICTS
> 45 mg/l
IN VARIOUS DISTRICTS OF TAMIL
NADU DUE TO
TANNERIES,TEXTILES,CHEMICALS,
DYES,FERTILIZERS AND PESTICIDES
ETC.
SALINE FEATURES OF DYNAMIC
G.W.RESOURCE ASSESSMENT
(As on March 2009)

Total no.of assessment units :386


B.Cum
Total annual replenishable recharge :229434
Net Ground water availability :206491
Ground water draft for all uses :165643
Ground water resources available for : 39708
future irrigation
Stage of Ground water Development : 80%
SALIENT FEATURES OF DYNAMIC G.W.RESOURCE
ASSESSMENT IN MADURAI DISTRICT.
(As on March 2009)
Total no.of assessment units :386
(Ham)
Total annual replenishable recharge : 73653.45
Net Ground water availability : 66288.10
Ground water draft for all uses :53344.09
Ground water resources available for
future irrigation developmeny : 12560.02
Stage of Ground water Development : 80%

Total no.of assessment units :386


B.Cum
Total annual replenishable recharge :229434
Net Ground water availability :206491
Ground water draft for all uses :165643
Ground water resources available for : 39708
future irrigation
Stage of Ground water Development : 80%
GROUND WATER
DEVELOPMENT
Gronnd water development to meet the
increasing demands for
irrigation,industrial and domestic
purposes.
G.W.development through large-
diameter dug wells,dug-cum-bore wells,
shallow.medium and bore/tube wells
GROUND WATER
DEVELOPMENT

Large scale G.W.Development


from the deep-seated
fracture zones located as
deep as 300 to 350m bgl.
CATEGORIZATION
AS ON MARCH 2009
MADURAI DISTRICT 2009

OVER EXPLOITED BLOCKS : 5 CRITICAL


BLOCKS : 1
SEMI-CRITICAL BLOCKS : 2
Safe blocks : 5
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13

CONCLUSION
1.PHEARITIC AQUIFER AS ON MAY 2011
DTW level within 10 m bgl (85% of
the wells) over major part of state
covering the coastal plain and uplands.

14% of the wells between 10 to 20m bgl.

1% of the well more than 20m bgl.


CONCLUSION
PIEZOMETRIC SURFACE AS ON MAY 2011
0.7 to 105.5 m bgl
(Tiruchirapalli dist) (Cuddalore dist)

63% of the wells within 10 m bgl


23% of the wells bet 10 to 20 m bgl
14% of the wells > 20 m bgl
CONCLUSION

DECADEL MEAN AS ON MAY 2011

61% of the wells rise in water levels

39% of the wells fall in water level in


comparision to decadel mean.
RECOMMENDATION

1.The G.W.Scenario in T.Nadu has


changed considerably in recent years
owing to the increasing stress on the
available resources due to various
factors such as over
exploitation, contamination and erratic
monsoon.
RECOMMENDATION

2.Considerable desaturation of shallow


aquifer zones and deduction in yields of
dug/bore/tube wells has been
observed in major part of the state.

3.The threat of seawater intrusion into


coastal aquifers along coastline.
RECOMMENDATION

4.In view of the above,there is an urgent


need for Co-ordinated efforts from
various Agengies concered to Formulate
the strategies for sustainable
management of our precious ground
water resources for the sake of future
generations.
RECOMMENDATION
5 No further development of ground water
resources should be taken up in the areas
categorized as Over exploited or
Critical blocks without AR measures.
6 There is an urgent need to replenish the
ground water resources through
construction of appropriate ground
water conservation / Artificial recharge
structures.
RECOMMENDATION

7 There is an urgent need to arrest/prevent further


deterioration of ground water and soil quality
through a comprehensive plan incorporating
measures Viz., CETP for industrial areas.
8 In the areas already affected by ground water
pollution,cultivation of suitable salt tolerant
crops/fodder can be taken up in consultation
with the Department of Agriculture.
RECOMMENDATION
Detailed investigations are required
in parts of
Vellore,Coimbatore,Dindigul,
Tiruppur,Kanchchipuram,
Tiruvallur & Chennai districts.
THANK YOU