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Digestive System Anatomy

Digestive tract
Alimentary tract or
canal
GI tract
Accessory organs
Primarily glands
Regions
Mouth or oral cavity
Pharynx
Esophagus
Stomach
Small intestine
Large intestine
Anus
Digestive Tract Histology
Digestive System Regulation
Nervous regulation
Involves enteric Chemical regulation
nervous system Production of
Types of neurons: hormones
sensory, motor, Gastrin, secretin
interneurons
Production of
Coordinates peristalsis paracrine chemicals
and regulates local Histamine
reflexes Help local reflexes in
ENS control digestive
environments as pH
levels
Peritoneum and Mesenteries
Peritoneum
Visceral: Covers organs
Parietal: Covers interior
surface of body wall
Retroperitoneal: Behind
peritoneum as kidneys,
pancreas, duodenum
Mesenteries
Routes which vessels and
nerves pass from body
wall to organs
Greater omentum
Lesser omentum
Oral Cavity
Mouth or oral cavity
Vestibule: Space
between lips or
cheeks and alveolar
processes
Oral cavity proper
Lips (labia) and
cheeks
Palate: Oral cavity
roof
Hard and soft
Palatine tonsils
Tongue: Involved in
speech, taste,
mastication,
swallowing
Teeth

Two sets
Primary, deciduous,
milk: Childhood
Permanent or
secondary: Adult
(32)
Types
Incisors, canine,
premolar and molars
Tooth structure:
Salivary Glands
Produce saliva
Prevents bacterial
infection
Lubrication
Contains salivary
amylase
Breaks down starch
Three pairs
Parotid: Largest
Submandibular
Sublingual: Smallest
Pharynx and Esophagus
Esophagus
Transports food from
Pharynx pharynx to stomach
Nasopharynx Passes through
Oropharynx: esophageal hiatus
Transmits food (opening) of diaphragm
normally and ends at stomach
Hiatal hernia
Laryngopharynx:
Sphincters
Transmits food Upper
normally Lower
Deglutition (Swallowing)
Three phases
Voluntary
Bolus of food moved by tongue from oral cavity
to pharynx
Pharyngeal
Reflex: Upper esophageal sphincter relaxes,
elevated pharynx opens the esophagus, food
pushed into esophagus
Esophageal
Reflex: Epiglottis is tipped posteriorly, larynx
elevated to prevent food from passing into
larynx
Phases of Deglutition
(Swallowing)
Functions
Ingestion: Introduction of food into stomach
Mastication: Chewing
Propulsion
Deglutition: Swallowing
Peristalsis: Moves material through digestive tract
Stomach Anatomy:
Openings
Gastroesophage
al: To
esophagus
Pyloric: To
duodenum
Regions
Cardiac
Fundus
Body
Pyloric
Stomach Histology:
Layers
Serosa or visceral
peritoneum:
Outermost
Muscularis: Three
layers
Outer
longitudinal
Middle circular

Inner oblique

Submucosa

Mucosa
Stomach Histology
Rugae: Folds in
stomach when
empty
Gastric pits:
Openings for gastric
glands
Contain cells
Surface mucous:
Mucus
Mucous neck: Mucus
Parietal: Hydrochloric
acid and intrinsic
factor
Chief: Pepsinogen
Endocrine:
Hydrochloric Acid Production
Phases of Gastric
Secretion
Movements in Stomach
Small Intestine
Site of greatest amount
of digestion and
absorption
Divisions
Duodenum
Jejunum
Ileum: Peyers patches or
lymph nodules
Modifications
Circular folds or plicae
circulares, villi, lacteal,
microvilli
Cells of mucosa
Absorptive, goblet,
granular, endocrine
Small Intestine Secretions

Mucus
Protects against digestive enzymes and stomach
acids
Digestive enzymes
Disaccharidases: Break down disaccharides to
monosaccharides
Peptidases: Hydrolyze peptide bonds
Nucleases: Break down nucleic acids
Duodenal glands
Stimulated by vagus nerve, secretin, chemical or
tactile irritation of duodenal mucosa
Duodenum and Pancreas
Duodenum Anatomy and
Histology
Liver
Lobes
Major: Left and right
Minor: Caudate and
quadrate
Ducts
Common hepatic
Cystic
From gallbladder
Common bile
Joins pancreatic duct at
hepatopancreatic
ampulla
Functions of the Liver
Bile production
Salts emulsify fats, contain pigments as bilirubin
Storage
Glycogen, fat, vitamins, copper and iron
Nutrient interconversion
Detoxification
Hepatocytes remove ammonia and convert to urea
Phagocytosis
Kupffer cells phagocytize worn-out and dying red and white blood
cells, some bacteria
Synthesis
Albumins, fibrinogen, globulins, heparin, clotting factors
Blood and Bile Flow
Duct System
Gallbladder

Bile is stored and concentrated


Stimulated by cholecystokinin and vegal
stimulation
Dumps into small intestine
Production of gallstones possible
Drastic dieting with rapid weight loss
Pancreas

Anatomy Secretions
Endocrine Pancreatic juice
Pancreatic islets (exocrine)
produce insulin and Trypsin
glucagon Chymotrypsin
Exocrine Carboxypeptidase
Pancreatic amylase
Acini produce digestive
enzymes Pancreatic lipases
Enzymes that reduce
Regions: Head, body, DNA and ribonucleic
tail acid
Bicarbonate Ion Production
Gastric hormones:
Movement in small intestine:

Mixing: Segmental contraction that occurs in small


intestine
Secretion: Lubricate, liquefy, digest
Digestion: Mechanical and chemical
Absorption: Movement from tract into circulation or
lymph
Elimination: Waste products removed from body
Large Intestine:

Extends from ileocecal junction to anus


Consists of cecum, colon, rectum, anal canal
Movements sluggish (18-24 hours)
Large Intestine
Cecum
Blind sac, vermiform appendix attached
Colon
Ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid
Rectum
Straight muscular tube
Anal canal
Internal anal sphincter (smooth muscle)
External anal sphincter (skeletal muscle)
Hemorrhoids: Vein enlargement or inflammation
Secretions of Large Intestine

Mucus provides protection


Parasympathetic stimulation increases rate of
goblet cell secretion
Pumps
Exchange of bicarbonate ions for chloride
ions
Exchange of sodium ions for hydrogen ions

Bacterial actions produce gases called


flatus
Histology of Large Intestine
Movement in Large Intestine
Mass movements
Common after meals
Local reflexes in enteric plexus
Gastrocolic: Initiated by stomach
Duodenocolic: Initiated by duodenum
Defecation reflex
Distension of the rectal wall by feces
Defecation
Usually accompanied by voluntary movements to expel
feces through abdominal cavity pressure caused by
inspiration
Reflexes in
Colon and
Rectum:
Digestion, Absorption,
Transport
Digestion
Breakdown of food molecules for absorption
into circulation
Mechanical: Breaks large food particles to small
Chemical: Breaking of covalent bonds by
digestive enzymes
Absorption and transport
Molecules are moved out of digestive tract
and into circulation for distribution
throughout body
Liver Histology

portal
triad Figure 24.20a, b
3. Architecture of the Hepatic
Parenchyma
The hepatic lobule is the structural unit of the liver.

Portal vein

Bile duct

Sinusoids

Central vein

Liver cells (Hepatocytes)


Portal area Hepatic artery
Bile
each day around 600 ml of bile is produced

Bile acid
Phospholipids
Cholesterol
Bilirubin
Waste products
Electrolytes
Mucin
Functions of the Liver
Bile production
Salts emulsify fats, contain pigments as bilirubin
Storage
Glycogen, fat, vitamins, copper and iron
Nutrient interconversion
Detoxification
Hepatocytes remove ammonia and convert to urea
Phagocytosis
Kupffer cells phagocytize worn-out and dying red and white blood
cells, some bacteria
Synthesis
Albumins, fibrinogen, globulins, heparin, clotting factors
Exocrine Pancreas
Enzymes
Trypsinogen
Chymotrysinogen
Carboxypeptidases
Pro-elastase
Phospholipase
pancreatic lipase
Pancreatic amylase
Bicarbonate Ion Production
Lipoproteins

Types
Chylomicrons
Enter lymph
VLDL
LDL
Transports cholesterol
to cells
HDL
Transports cholesterol
from cells to liver
Water and Ions:

Water
Can move in either
direction across wall of
small intestine depending
on osmotic gradients
Ions
Sodium, potassium,
calcium, magnesium,
phosphate are actively
transported
Effects of Aging

Decrease in mucus layer, connective


tissue, muscles and secretions
Increased susceptibility to infections and
toxic agents
Ulcerations and cancers