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BASIC PETROLEUM ENGINEERING

SECTION 1 - 3
CONTENT OF COURSE
1. Introduction
2. Geologic Framework
3. Rock and Reservoir Properties
4. Fluid Properties
5. Well Logging and Data Acquisition
6. Well Pressure Testing
7. Reservoir Types and Classifications
8. Reserve Estimation Methods
9. Improved Recovery Methods
Introduction
1.

2. Geologic Framework Petroleum Engineering and


3. Rock and Reservoir
Properties
Its Applications
Reservoir Management
4. Fluid Properties
5. Well Logging and Data

6.
Acquisition
Well Pressure Testing
Process
7. Reservoir Types and Reservoir Management
Classifications
8. Reserve Estimation Methods Economics
9. Improved Recovery Methods

CONTENT OF COURSE
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING AND ITS
APPLICATION
Definition:
thebranch of engineering that involves the
development and exploitation of crude oil and
natural gas fields as well as the technical analysis
and forecasting of their future performance.
Encyclopedia Britannica
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING AND ITS
APPLICATION
Main concern of petroleum engineers:
Precise knowledge of the behavior of crude oil,
natural gas, and water, singly or in combination,
under static conditions or in motion in the reservoir
rock and in pipes and under changing temperature
and pressure Craft & Hawkins
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING AND ITS
APPLICATION
Oil Consumption per capita (13 Jan 07):

Oil Barrels per person each day


PETROLEUM ENGINEERING AND ITS
APPLICATION
Petroleum Products:

Crude Oil Gasoline

from 2007 Energy Information Administration data, average April 2006 to March 2007 refinery
products:http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pnp_pct_dc_nus_pct_m.htm

Kerosene Asphalt
RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT PROCESS

Reservoir management is a practical science


that uses elements of geology and petroleum
engineering to predict the behavior of oil and
natural gas within subsufrace rock formations

Figure A-1: Reservoir Life Process (Copyright 1992, SPE, from paper 22350)
RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT PROCESS

Traditional framework of oil and gas data sources, technical, economic and risk interpretation models and decision-making
tools. (Images courtesy of the University of Wyoming)
RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT PROCESS

Production and reservoir dynamic real-time optimization model methodologies. From: http://www.epmag.com/EP-
Magazine/archive/Optimize-reservoir-management-real-time_246
RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT ECONOMICS
RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT ECONOMICS
Introduction
1.

2. Geologic Framework Effective Reservoir


Rock and Reservoir
Rock Types
3.
Properties
4. Fluid Properties
5. Well Logging and Data Depositional Environment
Acquisition
6. Well Pressure Testing
7. Reservoir Types and
Classifications
8. Reserve Estimation Methods
9. Improved Recovery Methods

CONTENT OF COURSE
RESERVOIR ROCKS
CLASSIFICATION OF ROCKS
IGNEOUS SEDIMENTARY METAMORPHIC
Rock-forming Source of
material

Rocks under high


Molten materials in Weathering and
temperatures
deep crust and erosion of rocks
and pressures in
upper mantle exposed at surface
deep crust
process

Recrystallization due to
Crystallization Sedimentation, burial
heat, pressure, or
(Solidification of melt) and lithification
chemically active fluids
The Rock Cycle

Magma

Metamorphic Heat and Pressure Igneous


Rock Rock

n
a
Weathering,
Transportation
Sedimentary and Deposition
Rock Sediment

i
SEDIMENTARY ROCK TYPES

Relative abundance Sandstone


and conglomerate
~11%

Limestone and
dolomite
~13%

Siltstone, mud
and shale
~75%
Minerals - Definition
Naturally Occurring
Solid

Generally Formed by
Inorganic Processes

Ordered Internal
Arrangement of Atoms
(Crystal Structure)

Chemical Composition
and Physical Properties
Fixed or Vary Within
Quartz Crystals A Definite Range
AVERAGE DETRITAL MINERAL
COMPOSITION OF SHALE AND
SANDSTONE
Mineral Composition Shale (%) Sandstone (%)
Clay Minerals 60 5

Quartz 30 65

Feldspar 4 10-15

Rock Fragments <5 15

Carbonate 3 <1

Organic Matter, <3 <1


Hematite, and
Other Minerals (modified from Blatt, 1982)
THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL
CHARACTERISTICS
OF MINERALS STRONGLY INFLUENCE THE
COMPOSITION OF SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
Quartz Mechanically and Chemically Stable
Can Survive Transport and Burial
Feldspar Nearly as Hard as Quartz, but
Cleavage Lessens Mechanical Stability
May be Chemically Unstable in Some
Climates and During Burial
Calcite Mechanically Unstable During Transport
Chemically Unstable in Humid Climates
Because of Low Hardness, Cleavage, and
Reactivity With Weak Acid
Some Common Minerals
Oxides Sulfides Carbonates Sulfates Halides

Hematite Pyrite Aragonite Anhydrite Halite


Magnetite Galena Calcite Gypsum Sylvite
Sphalerite Dolomite
Fe-Dolomite
Ankerite

Silicates
Non-Ferromagnesian Ferromagnesian
(Common in Sedimentary Rocks) (not common in sedimentary rocks)
Quartz Olivine
Muscovite (mica) Pyroxene
Feldspars Augite
Potassium feldspar (K-spar) Amphibole
Orthoclase Hornblende
Microcline, etc. Biotite (mica)
Plagioclase
Albite (Na-rich - common) through Red = Sedimentary Rock-
Anorthite (Ca-rich - not common) Forming Minerals
THE FOUR MAJOR COMPONENTS

Framework
Sand (and Silt) Size Detrital Grains
Matrix
Clay Size Detrital Material
Cement
Material precipitated post-depositionally, during burial.
Cements fill pores and replace framework grains
Pores
Voids between above components
SANDSTONE COMPOSITION FRAMEWORK
GRAINS

KF = Potassium
Feldspar

PRF = Plutonic Rock


Fragment
PRF KF P = Pore
CEMENT Potassium Feldspar is
Stained Yellow With a
Chemical Dye
P
Pores are Impregnated
With Blue-Dyed Epoxy
Norphlet Sandstone, Offshore Alabama, USA
Grains are About =< 0.25 mm in Diameter/Length
POROSITY IN SANDSTONE

Pore
Throat Pores Provide the
Volume to Contain
Hydrocarbon Fluids

Pore Throats Restrict


Fluid Flow

Scanning Electron Micrograph


Norphlet Formation, Offshore Alabama, USA
Clay Minerals in Sandstone Reservoirs
Fibrous Authigenic Illite
Secondary Electron Micrograph
Significant
Permeability
Reduction

Negligible
Porosity
Illite Reduction
High Irreducible
Water Saturation

Migration of
Fines Problem
Jurassic Norphlet Sandstone
Hatters Pond Field, Alabama, USA (Photograph by R.L. Kugler)
Clay Minerals in Sandstone Reservoirs
Authigenic Chlorite
Secondary Electron Micrograph

Iron-Rich
Varieties React
With Acid
Occurs in Several
Deeply Buried
Sandstones With
High Reservoir
Quality
Occurs as Thin
Coats on Detrital
Grain Surfaces

Jurassic Norphlet Sandstone


Offshore Alabama, USA ~ 10 mm
(Photograph by R.L. Kugler)
Clay Minerals in Sandstone Reservoirs
Authigenic Kaolinite
Secondary Electron Micrograph
Significant Permeability
Reduction

High Irreducible Water


Saturation

Migration of Fines
Problem

Carter Sandstone
North Blowhorn Creek Oil Unit
Black Warrior Basin, Alabama, USA (Photograph by R.L. Kugler)
EFFECTS OF CLAYS ON RESERVOIR
QUALITY

Authigenic Illite Authigenic Chlorite


100 1000
Permeability (md)

100
10

10
1
1

0.1
0.1

0.01 0.01
2 6 10 14 2 6 10 14 18
Porosity (%)
(modified from Kugler and McHugh, 1990)
INFLUENCE OF CLAY-MINERAL DISTRIBUTION ON
EFFECTIVE POROSITY

fe Clay
Minerals
Dispersed Clay
Detrital Quartz
Grains

fe
Clay Lamination

Structural Clay fe
(Rock Fragments,
Rip-Up Clasts,
Clay-Replaced Grains)
DIAGENESIS
Diagenesis is the Post-
Depositional Chemical and
Mechanical Changes that
Carbonate Occur in Sedimentary Rocks
Cemented
Some Diagenetic Effects Include

Oil Compaction
Stained Precipitation of Cement
Dissolution of Framework
Grains and Cement
The Effects of Diagenesis May
Enhance or Degrade Reservoir
Quality
Whole Core
Misoa Formation, Venezuela
FLUIDS AFFECTING DIAGENESIS
Precipitation

Evaporation Evapotranspiration

Water Table
Infiltration
Meteoric
Water COMPACTIONAL
WATER Meteoric
Water

Petroleum
Fluids Zone of abnormal pressure

Isotherms
CH 4,CO 2,H2 S

(modified from from Galloway and Hobday, 1983)


Subsidence
DISSOLUTION POROSITY

Dissolution of
Partially
Framework Grains
Dissolved
(Feldspar, for
Feldspar
Example) and
Cement may
Enhance the
Pore Interconnected
Pore System
Quartz Detrital
Grain This is Called
Secondary Porosity
Thin Section Micrograph - Plane Polarized Light
Avile Sandstone, Neuquen Basin, Argentina

(Photomicrograph by R.L. Kugler)


HYDROCARBON GENERATION, MIGRATION,
AND ACCUMULATION
Organic Matter in Sedimentary Rocks
Kerogen

Disseminated Organic Matter in


Sedimentary Rocks That is Insoluble
in Oxidizing Acids, Bases, and
Vitrinite Organic Solvents.

Vitrinite
A nonfluorescent type of organic material
in petroleum source rocks derived
primarily from woody material.

The reflectivity of vitrinite is one of the


best indicators of coal rank and thermal
maturity of petroleum source rock.

Reflected-Light Micrograph
of Coal
INTERPRETATION OF TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON (TOC)
(BASED ON EARLY OIL WINDOW MATURITY)
Hydrocarbon
TOC in Shale TOC in Carbonates
Generation
(wt. %) (wt. %)
Potential
Poor 0.0-0.5 0.0-0.2

Fair 0.5-1.0 0.2-0.5

Good 1.0-2.0 0.5-1.0

Very Good 2.0-5.0 1.0-2.0

Excellent >5.0 >2.0


Schematic Representation of the Mechanism
of Petroleum Generation and Destruction
Progressive Burial and Heating

Organic Debris
Diagenesis

Oil Reservoir

Kerogen Initial Bitumen


Catagenesis Thermal Degradation
Migration
Oil and Gas

Cracking
Methane
Metagenesis
Carbon

(modified from Tissot and Welte, 1984)


COMPARISON OF SEVERAL COMMONLY USED
MATURITY TECHNIQUES AND THEIR CORRELATION
TO OIL AND GAS GENERATION LIMITS
0.2 65 1

Weight % Carbon in Kerogen


0.3 70
Vitrinite Reflectance (Ro) %

Spore Coloration Index (SCI)


2
0.4

Pyrolysis Tmax (C)


0.5 75
Incipient Oil Generation 3
0.6 430
0.7 80
0.8 4
0.9 OIL Max. Oil Generated 85 5
1.0 450
1.2 Wet 6
1.3 Gas 7 465
Oil Floor Dry 90 8
Gas Max.
Dry Gas 9
2.0 10
Wet Gas Floor Generated
3.0
4.0
Dry Gas Floor
95

(modified from Foster and Beaumont, 1991, after Dow and OConner, 1982)
GENERATION, MIGRATION, AND TRAPPING OF
HYDROCARBONS

Fault
Oil/water
(impermeable)
contact (OWC)

Migration route
Seal
Hydrocarbon Reservoir
accumulation rock
in the
reservoir rock
Top of maturity

Source rock
Cross Section Of A Petroleum System
(Foreland Basin Example)
Geographic Extent of Petroleum System
Extent of Play
Extent of Prospect/Field
O
O O

Stratigraphic
Extent of
Petroleum
Overburden Rock
System Essential

Sedimentary
Seal Rock

Basin Fill
Elements
of Reservoir Rock
Petroleum
Pod of Active System Source Rock
Source Rock
Underburden Rock
Petroleum Reservoir (O)
Basement Rock
Fold-and-Thrust Belt Top Oil Window
(arrows indicate relative fault motion)
Top Gas Window

(modified from Magoon and Dow, 1994)


HYDROCARBON TRAPS

Structural traps

Stratigraphic traps

Combination traps
Structural Hydrocarbon Traps
Gas
Shale Oil Oil/Gas Closure
Trap
Contact

Oil/Water
Contact
Oil
Fracture Basement
Fold Trap

Salt Salt
Diapir Oil
Dome

(modified from Bjorlykke, 1989)


Hydrocarbon Traps - Dome

Gas
Oil

Sandstone
Shale
Fault Trap

Oil / Gas
Stratigraphic Hydrocarbon Traps
Unconformity Pinch out

Uncomformity Oil/Gas
Oil/Gas

Channel Pinch Out

Oil/Gas

(modified from Bjorlykke, 1989)


Other Traps
Meteoric
Water
Asphalt Trap

Biodegraded
Oil/Asphalt
Partly
Water Biodegraded Oil

Hydrodynamic Trap
Hydrostatic
Head
Shale

Water
Oil
(modified from Bjorlykke, 1989)
HETEROGENEITY
Reservoir Heterogeneity in Sandstone
Heterogeneity

Segments Reservoirs

Increases Tortuosity of
Fluid Flow

Heterogeneity May
Result From:

Depositional Features

Diagenetic Features

(Whole Core Photograph, Misoa


Sandstone, Venezuela)
Reservoir Heterogeneity in Sandstone

Heterogeneity Also May


Result From:
Faults

Fractures

Faults and Fractures may


be Open (Conduits) or
Closed (Barriers) to Fluid
Flow

(Whole Core Photograph, Misoa


Sandstone, Venezuela)
Geologic Reservoir Heterogeneity

Bounding
Surface

Bounding
Surface

Eolian Sandstone, Entrada Formation, Utah, USA


Scales of Geological Reservoir Heterogeneity
Interwell
Well Area Well
Determined

Field Wide
From Well Logs,
Seismic Lines, 100's
Statistical m
Modeling,
etc.
1-10 km
Interwell

Reservoir 10's
Sandstone m

100's m

1-10's
Well-Bore

10-100's
m
10-100's mm
mm
Unaided Eye
Hand Lens or
Petrographic or Binocular Microscope
Scanning Electron
Microscope (modified from Weber, 1986)
Scales of Investigation Used in
Reservoir Characterization
300 m Relative Volume
14
Gigascopic 50 m Well Test 10

300 m
Reservoir Model 12
Megascopic Grid Cell 2 x 10
5m 150 m

2m
Wireline Log 7
1m
Interval 3 x 10
Macroscopic cm 2
Core Plug 5 x 10

mm - mm Geological
Microscopic 1
(modified from Hurst, 1993)
Thin Section
Stages In The Generation of
An Integrated Geological Reservoir Model
Geologic Activities
Regional Geologic
Framework

Depositional
Model (As Needed)

Core Analysis Diagenetic Structural


Model Model

Integrated Fluid
Log Analysis Model
Well Test Analysis Geologic Model
(As Needed)
Applications Studies
Reserves Estimation
Simulation

Model Testing
And Revision
Introduction
1.

2. Geologic Framework Porosity


Rock and Reservoir
Fluid Saturation
3.
Properties
4. Fluid Properties
5. Well Logging and Data Permeability
Acquisition
6. Well Pressure Testing Wettability
7. Reservoir Types and
Classifications Capillary Pressure
8. Reserve Estimation Methods
9. Improved Recovery Methods

CONTENT OF COURSE
POROSITY

Definition:
a measure of the void (i.e., "empty") spaces in a
material, and is a fraction of the volume of voids
over the total volume, between 01, or as a
percentage between 0100%. (Symbol: )

Vp
x100%
Vb
POROSITY

Thin section under gypsum plate of microscopic carbonate grains (skeletal grains and intraclasts), from lithified Pleistoceneeolianites of Man Head
Cay, San Salvador Island, Bahamas. Porosity shown as purple color. Scale bar 500 micrometres.From:Petrographic Analysis and Depositional History of
an Open, Carbonate Lagoon: Rice Bay, San Salvador, Bahamas, 2000, James L. Stuby, masters thesis, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio. Figure A3-
20 from Appendix 3: Photomicrographs of Carbonate Grains in Rice Bay
POROSITY

Type of Porosity:
Primary Porosity: The main or original porosity
system in a rock or unconfined alluvial deposit.
Secondary Porosity: A subsequent or separate
porosity system in a rock, often enhancing
overall porosity of a rock. This can be a result of
chemical leeching of minerals or the generation
of a fracture system.
POROSITY

Type of Secondary Porosity:


Fracture Porosity: porosity associated with a
fracture system or faulting.
Vuggy Porosity: porosity generated by dissolution of
large features (such as macrofossils) in carbonate
rocks leaving large holes, vugs, or even caves.
POROSITY

Dual Porosity: Refers to the conceptual idea


that there are two overlapping reservoirs which
interact. In fractured rock reservoirs, the rock
mass and fractures are often simulated as
being two overlapping but distinct bodies.
POROSITY
POROSITY
POROSITY

Vuggy porosity in Tambra debris flow (Poza Rica). From:


http://www.searchanddiscovery.com/documents/2008/08003scholle/images/30.htm
POROSITY
Effective Porosity (Open Porosity)
Refers to the fraction of the total volume in which
fluid flow is effectively taking place and includes
Catenary and dead-end (as these pores cannot be
flushed, but they can cause fluid movement by
release of pressure like gas expansion) pores and
excludes closed pores (or non-connected cavities).
Total Porosity
Refersto the fraction of the total volume in fluids or
gases are present.
POROSITY
FLUID SATURATION
Definition:
Saturation is defined as that fraction, or percent, of
the pore volume occupied by a particular fluid
Vf Vf
S fraction S x100%
Vp Vp
In hydrocarbon reservoirs:
S g So S w 1
Sg :
Gas Saturation, So: Oil Saturation, Sw: Water
Saturation
FLUID SATURATION
FLUID SATURATION
FLUID SATURATION

Type of Saturation:
Swi (initial water saturation)
Swc (connate water saturation)

Swirr (Irreducible water saturation)

Sgc (critical gas saturation)

Sgr (residual gas saturation)

Sor (residual oil saturation)


PERMEABILITY

Definition:
Permeability (K) is a measure of the ability of a
porous material (often, a rock or unconsolidated
material) to allow fluids to pass through it.
SI unit for permeability is m2.
A practical unit for permeability is darcy (D).

In hydrocarbon reservoir, a more common unit


is milidarcy (mD).
PERMEABILITY
PERMEABILITY

Type of permeability:
Absolute permeability (k)
Effective permeability (keff i.e., ko, kg, kw)

Relative permeability (kr)

Effective and relative permeability is a function


of fluid saturation.
keff ko f ( S o ) k o 0 @ S or
kr k g f (S g ) k g 0 @ S gr
k
0 kr 1 kw f (S w ) k w 0 @ S wr
PERMEABILITY
0.50

0.40

0.30
kr - relative permeability

0.20

0.10

0.00
0.20 0.31 0.42 0.53 0.64 0.75
Sw

krw vs Sw
krow vs Sw
PERMEABILITY

Corey Model
An often used approximation of relative
permeability is the Corey correlation which is power
law in the water saturation

k rw S
* 4
w

k ro 1 S 1 2 S
* 3
w
*
w

S w S wi
S
*

1 S wi
w
WETTABILITY

Definition:
The preference of a solid to contact one liquid or
gas, known as the wetting phase, rather than
another Oilfield Glossary Schlumberger
CAPILLARY PRESSURE
Definition:
Capillary pressure is the difference in pressure across the
interface between two immiscible fluids
pc pnon wettingphase pwettingphase
Young-Laplace equation:
2 cos
pc
r
= Wetting angle, = interfacial tension, r = effective radius
of interface
CAPILLARY PRESSURE

Capillary pressure hysterisis

Tarek Ahmad, Resevoir engineering handbook. 2006


CAPILLARY PRESSURE
CAPILLARY PRESSURE

Free water level Pc = 0


Oil water contact Sw = 0
pc
h
0.433 w HC

Tarek Ahmad, Resevoir engineering handbook. 2006


CAPILLARY PRESSURE
Capillary pressure data are obtained on small core samples,
therefore, it is necessary to combine all capillary data
Leverett J-Function

J S w 0.21645
pc k
J(Sw) = Leverett J-function
f
Pc = capillary pressure (psi)
= interfacial tension (dynes/cm)
K = permeability (md)
= fractional porosity
CAPILLARY PRESSURE

Converting Laboratory Capillary Pressure Data:

res
pc res pc lab
lab
If we assume that the J-function will be
invariant for a given rock type:

res fres kcore


pc res pc lab
lab fcorekres
WELL LOGGING - INTRODUCTION
WELL LOG (THE BORE HOLE IMAGE)

What is well Logging


Well log is a continuous record of measurement made in bore hole respond to
variation in some physical properties of rocks through which the bore hole is drilled.
Traditionally Logs are display on girded papers shown in figure.

Now a days the log may be taken as films, images, and in digital format.
HISTORY

1912 Conrad Schlumberger give the idea of using electrical measurements to map subsurface rock
bodies.
in 1919 Conrad Schlumberger and his brother Marcel begin work on well logs.
The first electrical resistivity well log was taken in France, in 1927.
The instrument which was use for this purpose is called SONDE, the sond was stopped at periodic
intervals in bore hole and the and resistivity was plotted on graph paper.
In 1929 the electrical resistivity logs are introduce on commercial scale in Venezuela, USA and Russia
For correlation and identification of Hydrocarbon bearing strata.
The photographic film recorder was developed in 1936 the curves were SN,LN AND LAT
The dip meter log were developed in 1930
The Gamma Ray and Neutron Log were begin in 1941
LOGGING UNITS

Logging service companies utilize a variety of


logging units, depending on the location
(onshore or offshore) and requirements of the
logging run. Each unit will contain the following
components:

logging cable
winch to raise and lower the cable in the well
self-contained 120-volt AC generator
set of surface control panels
set of downhole tools (sondes and cartridges)
digital recording system
WORK FLOW CHART
depth to lithological boundaries

lithology identification

minerals grade/quality

inter-borehole correlation

structure mapping

dip determination

rock strength

in-situ stress orientation

fracture frequency

porosity

fluid salinity
DEPTH OF INVESTIGATION OF LOGGING TOOLS
LOG INTERPRETATION OBJECTIVES

The objective of log interpretation depends very much on the user. Quantitative analysis of well logs provides
the analyst with values for a variety of primary parameters, such as:
porosity
water saturation, fluid type (oil/gas/water)
lithology
permeability
From these, many corollary parameters can be derived by integration (and other means) to arrive at values for:
hydrocarbons-in-place
reserves (the recoverable fraction of hydrocarbons in-place)
mapping reservoir parameters
But not all users of wireline logs have quantitative analysis as their objective. Many of them are more
concerned with the geological and geophysical aspects. These users are interested in interpretation for:
well-to-well correlation
facies analysis
regional structural and sedimentary history
In quantitative log analysis, the objective is to define
the type of reservoir (lithology)
its storage capacity (porosity)
its hydrocarbon type and content (saturation)
its producibility (permeability)
GAMMA RAY LOG

Gamma Rays are high-energy electromagnetic waves which are emitted by atomic nuclei as a form
of radiation
Gamma ray log is measurement of natural radioactivity in formation verses depth.
It measures the radiation emitting from naturally occurring U, Th, and K.
It is also known as shale log.
GR log reflects shale or clay content.
Clean formations have low radioactivity level.
Correlation between wells,
Determination of bed boundaries,
Evaluation of shale content within a formation,
Mineral analysis,
Depth control for log tie-ins, side-wall coring, or perforating.
Particularly useful for defining shale beds when the sp is featureless
GR log can be run in both open and cased hole
SPONTANEOUS POTENTIAL LOG (SP)

The spontaneous potential (SP) curve records


the naturally occurring electrical potential
(voltage) produced by the interaction of
formation connate water, conductive drilling
fluid, and shale
The SP curve reflects a difference in the
electrical potential between a movable
electrode in the borehole and a fixed reference
electrode at the surface
Though the SP is used primarily as a lithology
indicator and as a correlation tool, it has other
uses as well:
permeability indicator,
shale volume indicator
porosity indicator, and
measurement of Rw (hence formation
water salinity).
NEUTRON LOGGING

The Neutron Log is primarily used to evaluate


formation porosity, but the fact that it is really
just a hydrogen detector should always be kept
in mind
It is used to detect gas in certain situations,
exploiting the lower hydrogen density, or
hydrogen index
The Neutron Log can be summarized as the
continuous measurement of the induced
radiation produced by the bombardment of that
formation with a neutron source contained in
the logging tool which sources emit fast
neutrons that are eventually slowed by
collisions with hydrogen atoms until they are
captured (think of a billiard ball metaphor where
the similar size of the particles is a factor). The
capture results in the emission of a secondary
gamma ray; some tools, especially older ones,
detect the capture gamma ray (neutron-gamma
log). Other tools detect intermediate
(epithermal) neutrons or slow (thermal)
neutrons (both referred to as neutron-neutron
logs). Modern neutron tools most commonly
count thermal neutrons with an He-3 type
detector.
THE DENSITY LOG

The formation density log is a porosity log that measures electron


density of a formation

Dense formations absorb many gamma rays, while low-density


formations absorb fewer. Thus, high-count rates at the detectors indicate
low-density formations, whereas low count rates at the detectors indicate
high-density formations.

Therefore, scattered gamma rays reaching the detector is an indication


of formation Density.
Scale and units:

The most frequently used scales are a range of 2.0 to 3.0 gm/cc or 1.95
to 2.95 gm/cc across two tracks.

A density derived porosity curve is sometimes present in tracks #2 and


#3 along with the bulk density (rb) and correction (Dr) curves. Track #1
contains a gamma ray log and caliper.
RESISTIVITY LOG

Basics about the Resistivity:

Resistivity measures the electric properties of the formation,


Resistivity is measured as, R in W per m,
Resistivity is the inverse of conductivity,
The ability to conduct electric current depends upon:
The Volume of water,
The Temperature of the formation,
The Salinity of the formation

The Resistivity Log:


Resistivity logs measure the ability of rocks to
conduct electrical current and are scaled in units of
ohm-
meters.
The Usage:
Resistivity logs are electric logs which are used
to:

Determine Hydrocarbon versus Water-bearing zones,


Indicate Permeable zones,
Determine Resisitivity Porosity.
Shahbaz Younis (Pakistan)

ACOUSTIC LOG

Acoustic tools measure the speed of sound waves in


subsurface formations. While the acoustic log can be
used to determine porosity in consolidated formations, it
is also valuable in other applications, such as:

Indicating lithology (using the ratio of compressional


velocity over shear velocity),
Determining integrated travel time (an important tool for
seismic/wellbore correlation),
Correlation with other wells
Detecting fractures and evaluating secondary porosity,
Evaluating cement bonds between casing, and formation,
Detecting over-pressure,
Determining mechanical properties (in combination with
the density log), and
Determining acoustic impedance (in combination with
the density log).