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Q: Describe the three

Q: What is an atom? components of the atom and


their positions.

Q: What are the relative Q: What are the relative


charges of the three masses of the three
components of an atom? components of an atom?

Q: What happens to a material


Q: How can an insulator be gaining electrons through
charged by friction? friction, and what happens to
the material losing electrons?

Q: Explain an electric shock in


Q: Describe the two basic rules terms of movement of
for forces between two charged electrons.
objects.
A: Central core or nucleus of
the atom consisting of protons
and neutrons, surrounded by
A: The basic building block of
electrons occupying the space
an element that cannot be
around the nucleus. The
chemically broken down.
diameter of the nucleus is
~100,000 times smaller than
the diameter of the nucleus.

A: Neutron = 1, proton = 1, A: Neutron = 0, proton = +1,


electron = 0. electron = -1.

A: By rubbing it against another


A: The material gaining insulator. The friction, caused
electrons becomes negatively- by the rubbing, strips off some
charged, the material losing of the outer electrons of one
electrons gains an equal and insulator and transfers them to
opposite positive charge. the other, thus causing a build-
up of charge.

A: If you come close to an insulator


with a large amount of negative
charge, electrons on the surface of
the insulator will jump the tiny
distance of air and travel through to A: Like charges repel, unlike
Earth. If the insulator is positively- charges attract.
charged, the electrons will travel
from the Earth to the insulator, but
the experience will still be
unpleasant.
Q: In terms of movement of Q: Explain how a balloon
electrons, how is lightning rubbed against your clothes
formed? sticks to a wall.

Q: Explain how a charged comb Q: Explain earthing in terms of


picks up small pieces of paper. movements of electrons.

Q: Explain how static electricity Q: Explain how static electricity


is used in paint spraying. is used in insecticide sprayers.

Q: What electrostatic danger is


associated with fuelling aircraft Q: What is electric current?
and tankers?
A: The friction between your clothes and A: Clouds rub against each
the balloon transfers electrons to the other and become charged with
balloon. The surface of the balloon
becomes negatively charged. The electrons. Charges discharge
charged balloon repels some of the between the cloud and the
electrons away from the surface of the Earth to produce enough an
wall. This leaves the surface of the wall
closer to the balloon with a positive
electric current big enough to
charge. Opposite charges attract; hence heat up the air and produce
the balloon is attracted to the wall. light.

A: This involves having a metal


conductor secured between an
A: A charged ruler or comb
object and the Earth. This helps
electrostatically induces an
to transfer electrons from the
opposite charge in the paper,
object to the Earth, where they
leading to attraction between
are dispersed (or vice versa)
the paper and the comb.
and therefore reduces the
danger of sparking.
A: The object to be sprayed is connected
to a negative supply. The nozzle of the
sprayer is charged positive; this makes
A: The insecticide is given a the tiny droplets of paint emerging from
the nozzle positively-charged. The
positive charge and the plants
charged droplets of paint repel each
acquire a negative charge by other and form a dispersed cloud. The
induction. cf. Paint sprayers. droplets are attracted to the object being
sprayed. This technique uses less paint
and coats even the underside of the
object.

A: The friction between the fuel and


the rubber pipe makes each of
them acquire opposite charges. The
charges can build up and create a
A: The rate of flow of charge. spark with devastating
consequences; this is why aircraft
and tankers are earthed with an
earthing line when fuelling.
Q:What is the relationship
Q: In metals, what physically is
between charge, current and
the electric current?
time?

Q: What type of current is


Q: What is direct current?
supplied by cells and batteries?

Q: What happens to current


Q: What is an ammeter and
when it reaches a junction in a
how is it placed in a circuit?
circuit?

Q: What happens to the current


in a circuit if you increase the Q: What is potential
potential difference of the difference (voltage)?
source?
A: Charge (coulomb, C) =
current (ampere, A) x time
(second, s) A: The flow of electrons.

Q=Ixt

A: Movement of charge in one


A: Direct current (d.c.).
direction only.

A: An instrument to measure
A: Current is conserved at a electric current in amperes,
junction in a circuit. placed in series in an electric
circuit.

A: The energy transferred


A: It increases.
per unit charge passed.
Q: What happens to the electric
Q: What is a volt? current in a circuit if you
increase the resistance?

Q: What is the relationship


Q: What is a rheostat? between potential difference,
current and resistance?

Q: How does current vary with


Q: How does current vary with
potential difference for a
potential difference for a diode?
filament lamp?

Q: How does current vary with Q: Describe the relationship


potential difference for a fixed between resistance and light
resistor? intensity in an LDR.
A: It decreases. A: One joule per coulomb.

A: A variable resistor, in which


A: Potential difference (volt, V) you can change its resistance
= current (ampere, A) x manually. Usually a wire-wound
resistance (ohm, ) type that has a long length of
wire coiled into a tight spiral. A
slider is used to alter the length
V=IxR of wire in the circuit and this is
how its resistance is altered.

A: A:

A: The resistance of an LDR


decreases as the intensity of
A:
light incident on it increases
(more light = less resistance).
Q: How does the resistance of
Q: Why does a wire get hot
a (negative temperature
when there is an electric current
coefficient) thermistor vary with
passing through it?
temperature?

Q: How can we explain the Q: What is the relationship


heating effect of current in a between electrical power,
wire in terms of electron current and potential
movement? difference?

Q: What is the relationship


between energy transferred,
power and time? How can we Q: What is a scalar quantity?
relate this to current and
potential difference?

Q: What is a vector quantity? Q: What is displacement?


A: A current in a resistor (such A: The resistance of the
as a wire) will make it transfer thermistor decreases as it
electrical energy into heat temperature increases (greater
energy. temperature = less resistance).

A: When current is switched on, fast-


moving electrons collide with the ions
A: Electrical power (watt, W) = in the metallic lattice and transfer
current (ampere, A) x potential some of their kinetic energy to the
difference (volt, V) ions. This increases the vibrational
energy of the ions and they jiggle
about their fixed positions with
greater amplitudes. This increased
P=IxV
vibration of the ions is what we mean
by heat energy.

A: Energy transferred (joule, J) =


power (watt, W) x time (second, s)

A: One that has only size (or


or Energy transferred (joule, j) =
magnitude). Examples include:
current (ampere, A) x potential
distance, mass, volume, difference (volt, V) x time (second,
temperature, speed and energy. s)

E=IxVxt

A: One that has both magnitude


A: It has a size that is equal to
and direction. Examples
the distance from a specified
include: displacement, velocity,
point and it also has direction.
acceleration and force.
Q: What is velocity? Q: What is acceleration?

Q: How do you determine the


Q: What is a force? speed from a distance-time
graph?

Q: What is the relationship Q: What is the relationship


between speed, distance and between acceleration, velocity
time? and time?

Q: How do you determine the Q: How do you determine the


acceleration from a velocity- distance travelled from a
time graph? velocity-time graph?
A: The rate of change of A: An objects speed in a
velocity. specified direction.

A: A push or pull exerted by one


A: The gradient of the line is object on another (a vector
equal to the speed of an object. quantity, as it has both
magnitude and direction).

A: Acceleration (metre per


second squared, m/s2) = A: Speed (metre per second,
change in velocity (metre per m/s) = distance (metre, m) /
second, m/s) / time taken time taken (second, s)
(second, s)
v=x/t
a = (v u) / t

A: The area under a velocity-


A: Acceleration is equal to the
time graph is equal to the
gradient of the graph.
distance travelled.
Q: What is a free-body force
Q: What is Newtons third law?
diagram?

Q: What happens if the


Q: What is Newtons first law? resultant force on an object is
not zero?

Q: What two factors affect the Q: What is the relationship


acceleration of a moving between force, mass and
object? acceleration?

Q: What is the relationship


Q: What happens to all falling
between weight, mass and
bodies in a vacuum?
gravitational field strength?
A: When two bodies interact,
A: A diagram that shows all the
each object exerts and equal
forces acting on one object.
and opposite force on the other.

A: If there is no resultant force


acting on a body then if
A: The object will accelerate in
stationary, it will remain at rest;
the direction of the resultant
if moving, it will keep moving at
force.
a constant speed in a straight
line.

A: Force (newton, N) = mass


(kilogram, kg) x acceleration A: The resultant force F (in
(m/s2) newtons) and the mass of the
object, m (in kilograms).
F=mxa

A: Weight (newton, N) = mass


(kilogram, kg) x gravitational
A: They accelerate at the same field strength (newton per
rate. kilogram, N/kg)

W=mxg
Q: What happens to bodies
Q: What is terminal velocity?
falling through an atmosphere?

Q: What two factors contribute Q: State some factors that


to stopping distance? might affect stopping distance.

Q: What is the relationship


Q: Is momentum a vector or a
between momentum, mass and
scalar quantity?
velocity?

Q: How do bubble wraps, seat


Q: What is the principle of belts, crumple zones and air
conservation of momentum? bags protect drivers or other
objects in cars?
A: When air resistance acting A: Air resistance increases with
on a falling body is equal to its increasing speed. Air
weight, the resultant force is resistance increases until it is
therefore zero and so no further equal in size to the weight of
acceleration occurs. the falling object.

A: Mass of the vehicle, speed of


the vehicle, the drivers reaction
time, the state of the vehicles A: Thinking distance and
brakes, the state of the road, braking distance.
the amount of friction between
the road surface and the tyres.

A: Momentum (kilogram metre


A: Vector it has both per second, kg m/s) = mass
magnitude and direction. (kilogram, kg) x velocity (metre
per second, m/s).

A: They all reduce the rate of


change of momentum during a A: Total momentum before a
collision and hence the force collision = total momentum after
experienced. a collision.
Q: What is the relationship Q: What is the relationship
between force, momentum between work done, force and
and time? distance moved?

Q: What is the relationship


Q: What is a joule? between work done and energy
transferred?

Q: What is the relationship


Q: What is power? between power, work done and
time?

Q: State the equation for


Q: What is a watt? calculating gravitational
potential energy.
A: Work done (joule, J) = force A: Force (newton, N) =
(newton, N) x distance moved change in momentum
in the direction of the force (kilogram metre per second,
(metre, m) kg m/s) / time (second, s)

E =Fxd F = (mv mu) / t

A: 1 joule is the work done


when a force of 1 newton
A: Work done by a force =
moves through a distance of 1
energy transferred.
metre in the direction of the
force.

A: Power (watt, W) = work done


(joule, J) / time (second, s) A: The rate of doing work
(measured in watts, W).
P=E/t

A: Gravitational potential
energy (joule, J) = mass
(kilogram, kg) x gravitational
field strength (N/kg) x vertical
height (metre, m) A: 1 watt = 1 joule per second.

GPE = m x g x h
Q: State the equation for Q: What is the principle of
calculating kinetic energy. conservation of energy?

Q: What is the relationship


between the work done by Q: What is the atomic (proton)
the brakes on a stopping car number of an atom?
and its initial velocity?

Q: What is the mass (nucleon) Q: State two ways of forming an


number of an atom? ion from an atom.

Q: Name the three types of


ionising radiation emitted from
Q: What is an isotope?
unstable nuclei in the random
process of radioactive decay.
A: Kinetic energy (joule, J) =
A: Energy can neither be x mass (kilogram, kg) x
created nor destroyed. It can velocity2 ((metre per second)2,
only be transformed into (m/s)2)
different forms.
KE = x m x v2

A: Work done by the brakes =


A: Atomic number( Z) is the initial KE of the car
total number of protons in the
nucleus of an atom.
Fd = x mv2

A: a) Rubbing insulators together


(the friction strips off electrons
from the atoms of one insulator,
A: Mass number (A) is the total
making some of the atoms
number of protons and
positive ions; b) heating a gas
neutrons within the nucleus of
(thermal energy ionises the gas
atoms; in this process, electrons an atom.
of the atoms gain energy and fly
off, leaving behind positive ions.

A: Nuclei of atoms of an
A: Alpha and beta particles, and element that have the same
gamma rays. number of protons but different
numbers of neutrons.
Q: What is an alpha particle? Q: What is a beta particle?

Q: Compare alpha, beta and Q: Explain how nuclear


gamma radiation in terms of reactions can be a source of
ionising power and penetrance. energy.

Q:How can we use U-235 to Q: What is a controlled chain


generate energy? reaction?

Q: What does the moderator in Q: What do control rods in a


a nuclear fission reactor do? nuclear fission reactor do?
A: An electron emitted from an A: A helium nucleus (two
unstable nucleus. protons and two neutrons).

A: In radioactive decay, the kinetic


energy of the alpha or beta particles
emitted from the nucleus. This energy
can be used, e.g. to generate electricity A: Alpha is the most ionising,
on a small scale and is how a
followed by beta, then gamma.
radioisotope thermoelectric generator
(RTG) works. Nuclear reactions called The reverse order is true for
fusion reactions are responsible for the penetrance.
energy generated by the Sun and stars.
A nuclear reactor uses fission reactions
to generate electricity on a large scale.
A: A slowing moving neutron is
A: In a controlled chain absorbed by a U-235 nucleus. The
reaction, a steady output power newly created U-236 nucleus is
is produced, and on average a highly unstable. It immediately splits
into two smaller nuclei called
single neutron from the daughter nuclei and two or more
previous fission reaction is left fast-moving electrons. Energy is
to trigger the next fission released as the kinetic energy of
reaction. the daughter nuclei and the
released neutrons.
A: it slows down the fast-moving
A: They absorb neutrons and neutrons produced in fission
so control the chain reaction. reactions. Slow-moving neutrons
The two commonly used have a greater chance of reacting
materials used are cadmium with uranium nuclei than fast-
and boron. The control rods can moving neutrons, enhancing a
be lowered into the reactor to chain reaction. A commonly used
slow down the fission reactions. material for the moderator is
graphite.
Q: How is thermal (heat) energy
Q: What is the problem with
in a nuclear reactor converted
radioactive waste?
into electrical energy?

Q: Why does nuclear fusion


Q: What is nuclear fusion? not occur at low
temperatures and pressures?

Q: Why is it practically and


economically difficult to
Q: What is cold fusion?
create a nuclear fusion
reactor on the Earth?

Q: Why has the theory of cold


Q: What is background
fusion been rejected by the
radiation?
scientific community?
A: A large amount of energy, in
the form of kinetic energy of the
A: The waste from nuclear neutrons and the daughter nuclei,
power stations is radioactive is released in fission reactions.
and therefore has to be This kinetic energy is turned into
disposed of with care owing to heat and used to boil water to
its ionising properties. make steam. The steam is used
to turn the turbines as in a
conventional power station.

A: the creation of larger nuclei


A: This is due to from smaller nuclei,
electrostatic repulsion of accompanied by a release of
protons. energy, such as those that
occurs within stars.

A: In order to create fusion on Earth,


hydrogen nuclei have to be heated to
high temperatures of about 100 million
oC and contained by very strong
A: An invalidated theory that magnetic fields produced by super-
proposed nuclear fusion cooled electromagnets. This has proved
to be challenging for the production of
occurring at room temperature. energy as such conditions are not
economic and are difficult to manage
when considering large-scale
commercial power stations.

A: Pons and Fleischman failed


to publish sufficient technical
A: Radiation from natural
details of their experiment.
radioactive sources around us
Scientists around the world
and from outer space.
were unable to reproduce their
results.
Q: State some sources of Q: How is radioactivity used in
background radiation. smoke alarms?

Q: How is radioactivity used in Q: How is radioactivity used to


the food industry? sterilise medical instruments?

Q: How is radioactivity used in Q: How is radioactivity used to


tracing and gauging thickness? diagnose cancer?

Q: What happens to the


Q: How is radioactivity used to
radioactivity of a source over
treat cancer?
time?
A: Most smoke alarms use a weak source of americium-
241, which emits alpha particles (the most ionising A: Cosmic rays from space,
radiation). The alpha particles ionise the airr producing
positive ions and electrons. The positive ions are
rocks, food, nuclear power
attracted to the negative terminal of the alarms battery. stations, fallout from previous
The electrons travel in the opposite direction towards the
positive terminal. The ionisation of the air produces a tiny nuclear weapons tests,
current in the constant circuit.
explosions and accidents,
When smoke enters the casing of the alarm, it absorbs radiation from equipment or
the alpha particles. There is less ionisation of the air and
hence the current and p.d. across the resistor drops. The waste from hospitals or
electronic circuit detects the decrease in potential
difference and triggers the alarm. industry.

A: Gamma rays are used to sterilise A: Irradiating food with gamma


hospital equipment. Gamma rays have rays is used to prolong its life,
sufficient energy to kill off bacteria. In which gives more time for
hospitals, metal instruments are heated
transportation and a longer
to destroy the germs but the same
cannot be done to plastic syringes and shelf-life. The gamma rays kill
bandages. Syringes sealed in plastic off micro-organisms on the food
bags can be sterilised using gamma even after it has been
rays.
packaged.

A:In a paper mill, the thickness of paper can be


A: The patient is injected with a small monitored and controlled using a beta source.
amount of a radioactive tracer. Technetium- The thickness of the paper is continually
99m is a versatile tracer used in hospitals. It controlled by the amount of pressure applied by
emits gamma rays and has a half-life of the rollers. A beta source of strontium-90 is
about 6 hours. The tracer is carried round placed above the paper. A radiation detector is
the body the body by the blood. It builds up placed directly below the source and the paper.
in the cancerous regions of the patients If the paper thickness is more than the required
body. A special camera, known as a gamma thickness, the number of beta particles recorded
camera, is used to detect and display the per unit time by the detector decreases. A signal
gamma rays that pass through the patient.. is sent to the rollers to increase the pressure so
as to reduce the thickness of the paper.

A: In a technique known as
radiotherapy, the gamma source of
cobalt-60 is used in the treatment of
cancer. Gamma rays destroy all cells.
However, by targeting the cancerous
A: It decreases over time. cells and rotating the intense beam of
gamma rays, most of the cancerous
cells can be killed off with as little
damage as possible being done to
healthy cells.
Q: What is the unit of activity of
Q: Define the term half-life.
a radioactive source?

Q: Activity of a radioactive
Q: What are the dangers of
sample displays exponential
working with radioactive
decay. Mathematically, how can
sources?
you determine the activity A?

Q: What precautions should be Q: What effect did her work on


taken when using radioactive radioactivity did it have on
sources? Marie Curie?

Q: Describe some ways in


scientists have changed their Q: What are the advantages of
ideas about radioactivity over coal-fired power stations?
time?
A: The average time taken for
half of the undecayed nuclei in A: The becquerel (Bq).
a sample to decay.

A: Ionising radiations carry


sufficient energy to cause A: A = A0 x 0.5n
tissue damage in our bodies.
The cells cannot repair
themselves if the damage is too where A0 is the initial activity
severe. They can also damage and n is the number of half-
DNA causing mutation of cells, lives.
which may lead to cancer.

A: Never point the source


towards other people; use
A: She developed leukaemia in special holders to handle the
later life. Even after 100 years, source; only remove the source
her notebooks remain from its lead-lined container
radioactive. when doing experiments; wash
your hands after using the
source.

A: Through controlled experiments


in the laboratories. Sadly, lessons
were also learned from observing
A: Cheap fuel; over 100 years the effects on humans after atomic
worth of coal reserves; bombs were dropped on Hiroshima
relatively cheap to build. and Nagasaki in 1945, and nuclear
power plant accidents such as
Chernobyl in 1986 and Fukushima
in 2011.
Q: What are the disadvantages Q: What are the advantages of
of coal-fired power stations? a nuclear power station?

Q: What are the disadvantages Q: How do we dispose of low-


of a nuclear power station? level nuclear waste?

Q: How do we dispose of
Q: How do we dispose of high-
intermediate-level nuclear
level nuclear waste?
waste?

Q: Who would win in a wrestling


Q: Whose side did you take:
match between Lemmy and
Halen or Roth?
God?
A: Expensive air pollution
A: No CO2 or SO2 emissions;
controls; CO2 and SO2
waste is more compact; little
emissions; Extensive transport
background radiation; located
system; public perception is
far away from populated areas;
poor as it is seen to be a limited
low risk of 1 in 5 million of a
resource with a negative effect
nuclear accident.
on the environment.

A: Costly to build and


decommission; nuclear waste is
A: Waste consisting of paper, radioactive for thousands of years
rags, clothing etc. that contain and affects future generations; can
small amounts of short-lived cause leukaemia / cancer; severe
radioactivity is buried in shallow storage and disposal problems of
trenches in steel drums. nuclear waste; public perception is
poor because of the long-term
dangers posed by accidents.

A: Contains fissions products


generated in the reactor core A: Contains higher levels of
and is highly radioactive. This radioactivity and requires
type of waste can only be shielding. Buried ~8m under the
stored in deep disused mines or ground and shielded by water,
special tunnels made under concrete or lead.
mountains.

A: The correct answer is Roth.


A: Trick question: Lemmy *is* Any alternative answer
God. suggests they may work for the
Police.