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Introduction to Petrophysics

Ricky Adi Wibowo


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Outline

Introduction to Petroleum Systems


Logging-Life of Well
Formation Properties
Tool Theory and Interpretations
Petrophysics Interpretations Workflow
Petrophysics Interpretations
Sandstone
Carbonate

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A definition of petrophysics
The study of pore liquids and gases lies in the scope of hydrology
and petroleum engineering. Petrophysics, the study of the physical
properties of pores, lies on the boundary between these disciplines
and sedimentary geology.
Selley, 1988

There is a need for a term to express the physics of rocks. It should be


related to petrology much as geophysics is related to geology.
Petrophysics is suggested as the term pertaining to the physics of
particular rock types, whereas geophysics pertains to the physics of larger
rock systems composing the earth.
Archie, 1950

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What is Petrophysics?
Using:
Mud logs
Cores
Open hole and cased hole logs
Production test

We can determine:
Fluid properties such as saturations and contacts
Rock properties such as porosity, permeability and lithology
Production information like cement integrity, fluid flow

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Petrophysics in integrated GGR
studies
Reservoir
Geophysics Geology Petrophysics
engineering

Well data preparation well data collation; log data editing, environmental corrections, and normalisation; core data preparation

Reservoir
Geophysics Geology Petrophysics
engineering

Link between geology and Link between geology and Link between petrophysics
Time-depth geophysics through Geological facies petrophysics through Petrophysical and reservoir engineering Formation tester
calibration relationship between analysis relationship between rock type analysis through fluid distribution analysis
Synthetics physical characteristics Borehole image geological and petrophysical Lithology, consistent with reservoir Pressure gradient
Fluid substitution interpretation rock types porosity, and properties and pressure analysis
Rock physics Structural saturation distribution Fluid contact and
modelling interpretation Saturation height distribution
Structural Sedimentological functions determination
interpretation interpretation Permeability Well test analysis
Attribute analysis Fracture analysis
interpretation Pay
determination

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The petrophysics big picture
Reservoir
Petrology
engineering

Rock
Fluids
matrix
Pore
network

Tool response

Measurement
physics

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A conceptual framework for reservoir
petrophysics studies

Regional-Petroleum system

Study Basin and detail lithology

Formation Evaluation Reservoir


Compartements

Seismic Model Production Data


Geostatistic Models Reservoir
Management

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Summary of the Petroleum System

Our industry is prospecting


Seal Rock
Reservoir Rock for Hydrocarbon FIELDS
Overburden Rock that are within these basins
Source Rock that are formed, filled, and deformed
From: Basin and Petroleum System Modeling,
Oilfield Review, Summer 2009: Mobarek Al-Hajeri etal.

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Basin-Filling
Variety of Basin Fill Rocks
Source rocks
- reducing conditions in the sediments
- lacustine environments
- restricted marine (lagoons, pelagic)
- peat swamps
Special Case (unconventional) : Source and Reservoir are the same
Reservoir rocks
Coal Bed Methane (CBM)
- Fluvial systems
Shale gas
- Carbonate Reefs
Fractured basement
- Beach deposits
- Eolian deposits (sand dunes)

Seal rocks
- Salt (Anhydrite or Sylvite)
- Basalt/Ash beds
- Cemented Carbonates beds
- Marine/Lacustrine shales
From: Basin Analysis and Basin Modeling: From Input to Output
By Dr. Daniel Palmowski, IES GmbH, Germany 02/2010
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Big Picture - why we log
Lithology (reservoir rock?)
Resistivity (HC,water,both?)
Porosity (how much HC?)
What type of HC

Formation mech. properties


Permeability / cap pressure
Shape of the structure
Geological information
Geothermal
Unconventional applications

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A Well Log
Why Interpret Well Logs?

The principal objective of well log interpretation


is to determine whether there is oil or gas in the
penetrated borehole and if any, how much can
be recovered and how much water will be
produced.
To answer: is the well profitable for our client?
Some of these basic questions may be answered
with Archies equation.
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Big Picture - Why We Log
In simple words:
Where is it? (the hydrocarbon)
What is it? (oil or gas) How much is there?
How extensive is it?
How fast and how long can it be produced?
All these can be answered through the formation
property estimation
What are the key parametersfrom logs
that help us quantify the reserves?

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Petroleum
Explorations Challenge
Interpreting the Unseen
Surface Geology
- Aerial photos
- Geologic maps

Subsurface Analysis
- Gravity
- Magnetics
- Seismic
- Well logging

Silicon Graphics
Schlumberger Oilfield Services

Geophysics
Geomechanics Geology
Drilling Eng.

Project Mgmt. Information Eng.

Petrophysics
Reservoir Eng. Production Eng.
Completion Eng.
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Reservoirs

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The Reservoir & Petroleum System

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Petroleum formation, migration &
accumulation

19 TJN
12/17/2017
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Petroleum System Elements
Petroleum System Elements

Anticlinal T rap
Top Seal Rock
(Impermeable)
Reservoir Rock
(Porous/Permeable)

Potential
Migration Route
Source Rock
(Organic Rich)

24803

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Traps

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Traps

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Drilling During the Field Lifecycle

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Reservoir elements

What are the major elements of a reservoir?

asp-16/04/2011
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Reservoir elements

What are the major elements of a reservoir?

permeable rock : stores the hydrocarbon


source rock: produces hydrocarbon
impermeable rock: seals or traps hydrocarbon
trap: captures fluids
migration: transport of hydrocarbon into reservoir

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To be continued to next sessions
(Logging Live of Well)

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