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# 12/17/2017 1

Thermodynamic Systems:-
Thermodynamic System
A thermodynamic system is defined as a quantity of
matter of fixed mass and identity or a region in
space on which attention is focused for study
Boundary
Everything external to the system is the
surroundings
(or)
Real or imaginary layer that separates the system
from its surroundings
Surroundings
The system is separated from the surroundings by
the system boundary
Two types of exchange can occur between system and surroundings:
(1) energy exchange (heat, work, friction, radiation, etc.) and
(2) matter exchange (movement of molecules across the boundary of the system and
surroundings).
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Types of Systems
Closed
Open
Isolated
Closed Systems (fixed masses)
Energy, not mass, crosses closed-system boundaries

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Closed System with Moving Boundary

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Open Systems (Control Volumes)
Mass and Energy Cross Control Volume Boundaries

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Isolated System
A system is said to be isolated if no energy is transferred across the
boundaries. The universe is the best example of an isolated system.

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CONTROL VOLUME, CONTROL SURFACE
AND CONTROL MASS
Control volume is defined as a volume which encloses the matter and
the device inside a control surface.

## Everything external to the control volume is the surroundings with the

separation given by the control surface.

The surface may be open or closed to mass flows and it may have flows
from energy in terms of heat transfer and work across it.

In the case of a control surface that is closed to the mass flow, so that
no mass can enter or escape the control volume, it is called a control
mass containing same amount of matter at all times.
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Macroscopic & Microscopic point of view:-

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Properties of system:-
A characteristic which defines the physical condition of the system is known as
property.

Pressure, Volume, Temperature, enthalpy, entropy density etc are some of the
properties of the system.

## Intensive properties Independent of mass

eg: pressure, temperature etc

## Extensive properties dependent on mass

Eg: volume, energy etc.

## Specific extensive properties are intensive properties.

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State & Equilibrium:-

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State & Equilibrium:-

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Path & Process:-

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Path & Process:-

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Path & Process:-

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Path & Process:-

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Cycle:-

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Reversible & Irreversible process:-

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Reversible & Irreversible process:-

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Reversible & Irreversible process:-

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Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics:-

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Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics:-

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Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics:-

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Temperature:-

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Temperature Scales:-

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Temperature Scales:-

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Pressure:-

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Thermal Equilibrium:-

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Heat & Work:-

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Heat & Work:-

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Heat & Work:-

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Heat & Work:-

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Heat & Work:-

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Heat & Work:-

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Heat & Work:-

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Heat & Work:-

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Specific Heat:-

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Specific Heat:-

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Specific Heat:-

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Specific Heat:-

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Specific Heats of Ideal gases:-

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PdV Work:-

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PdV Work:-

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PdV Work:-

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PdV Work:-

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PdV Work:-

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