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BUSINESS

COMMUNICATION
International settings
Content
Module 1 - Written Communication
Module 2 Oral Communication
Structure Section A Introduction
- Section B Study
Written Communication
1. The layout and style of a business letter (p. 15)
Style of a business letter block style
- semi block style
- indented style
- British style
- American Style
For a good communication
2. Elements a business letter should contain
reference
-
clarity
-
brevity
-
timing
-
accuracy
For a better communication
3. Content of a business letter p14-21
Here's How:
Use block style - do not indent paragraphs.
Include address of the person you are writing to at the top of the letter, below your company address.
After the address, double space and include date
Double space (or as much as you need to put the body of the letter in the center) and include the salutation.
Include Mr. for men or Ms for women, unless the recipient has a title such as Dr.
State a reference reason for your letter (i.e. "With reference to our telephone conversation..."
Give the reason for writing (i.e. "I am writing to you to confirm our order...")
Make any request you may have (i.e. "I would be grateful if you could include a brochure..."
If there is to be further contact, refer to this contact (i.e. "I look forward to meeting you at...")
Close the letter with a thank you (i.e. "Thank you for your prompt help...")
Finish the letter with a salutation (i.e. "Yours sincerely,")
Include 4 spaces and type your full name and title
sign the letter between the salutation and the typed name and title

4. Cross cultural communication p 22


TYPES OF BUSINESS LETTERS
What kind of letters would a business person
need to write as to communicate successfully in
the business world?
in-company letters: reports, memos
company to company letters: advertisement,
enquiry, offer, order, complaint, credit letters; e-
mails and fax facilities, thank-you letters,
invitation and recommendation letters, letters of
introduction.
Which will be the politically correct level of
formality in a business letter?
THE REPORT
results of some research
interpretation of data
will include: - person/s to whom it is addressed (to)
- sender (from)
- date
- title
- introduction
- body
- recommendations/proposals
Report sample
Date: September 1, 2000
To: Center Interns
From: Center Team Leader
Subject: Writing and Designing a Report

Introduction. This report outlines some of the format considerations for designing business reports. Report formats can be
designed in a variety of ways. Often, the organization you are working for may have standard requirements for report
formats--be sure to follow these if they exist.
Body of the report
Reports can be as simple as the standard memo format or as complex as a formal report which might include
title page;
letter or memo of transmittal ;
table of contents ;
list of illustrations;
executive summary or abstract;
body text;
references;
appendices.
Note/Recommendation Remember that you may or may not need to include all of these items, depending on the writing
situation you are responding to.
The kind of report format you choose should be appropriate for the communication situation. For example, this report is
formatted as a memo, which is appropriate for more informal situations or for short reports. Regardless of whether the report
is formal or informal, in any report you should begin by stating the purpose of the report. The format, content, and
organization of the rest of the report depends on its purpose.
THE MEMO
meant to be known by a certain person/group of persons
from the company

contains the name/s of the person/s to


whom it is addressed (to)
- the name of the sending
person (from)
- a subject line
- the date
- a reference line
- the body of the memo/ the message as such
Memo sample
To: Members of the Ethics and Business Conduct Committee
From: Susan Litzinger, Director of Ethics and Business Conduct
Date: March 1, 20--
Subject: Reported Ethics Cases 20--
Reference line SL

Enclosed is the annual Ethics and Business Conduct Report, as required by


CGF Policy CGF-EP-01 , for your evaluation, covering the first year of our Ethics
Program. This report contains a review of the ethics cases handled by CGF Ethics
officers and managers during 20--.
The ethics cases reported are analyzed according to two categories: (1) major
ethics cases, or those potentially involving serious violations of company
policy or illegal conduct, and (2) minor ethics cases, or those that do not in-
volve serious policy violations or illegal conduct. The report also examines the
mode of contact in all of the reported cases and the disposition of the substan-
tiated major ethics cases.
It is my hope that this report will provide the Committee with the information
needed to assess the effectiveness of the first year of CGFs Ethics Program and
to plan for the coming year. Please let me know if you have any questions
about this report or if you need any further information. I may be reached at
(555) 211-2121 and by email at <sl@cgfp.com>.
Rules for writing business letters 1
Write down your aim. What is the purpose of your
letter?
Assemble all the relevant documents and information:
copies of previous correspondence, reports, figures etc.
Arrange the points in order of importance. Decide which
points are irrelevant and can be left out. Make rough
notes.
Write an outline in note form. Check it considering the
following:
Have you left any important points out?
Can the order of presentation be made clearer?
Have you included anything that is not relevant?
Rules for writing business letters 2
Write a first draft leaving plenty of space for changes and revisions.
Revise your first draft by considering the following:

Does it cover all the essential points?


Is the information relevant, correct and complete?
Are the grammar, punctuation and spelling correct?
Does it look attractive?
Does it sound natural and sincere?
Is it clear, concise and courteous?
Will it give the reader the right impression?
Is it the kind of letter you would like to receive yourself?
COMPANY TO COMPANY
LETTERS
the advertisement letter
the inquiry letter
the offer letter
the order letter
the complaint letter
the letter of credit
e-mail and fax facilities
miscellaneous - thank-you letter
- invitation to a reception
- recommendation letter
- letter of introduction
Cross cultural communication
the peoples proficiency in informal idiomatic
English might not be very high
differences between different varieties of English
(see The English Language Today- Perception,
Varieties and Acquisition, Luminita Andrei, Ed.
Universitas XXI, Iasi, 2005 p. 61-66; 80- 81; 97-
104)
false friends: rentability, library, actually
The Advertisement Letter
To meet the needs of your potential
customers:
warm tone

common sense discourse/high degree of


formality
well-informed about potential customers
The Advertisement Letter
parts of the letter opening: We are/I am
writing to inform you about our products
- body: Please, visit us, we
are sure you will find our products/services
satisfactory
- closing: Hoping in a prompt
reply and future collaboration.
Looking forward to your visit.
Yours sincerely/ Yours faithfully/ Truly yours
The inquiry letter
Opening
We have read/seen in your advertisement/letter of.that you manufacture and
export electronics.
We are one of the largest importers of electronics and we found about your profile
from one of your customers.
Body
We would be grateful if you could send us your catalogs/leaflets/price lists/pattern
books/patterns
Closing
If the quality of your products /services comes up to our expectations, we will place
a substantial order. We are looking forward to your prompt reply.

Sincerely yours/ Faithfully yours


Different ways of writing the
paragraphs
Openings
1. We are a wholesale importing house, having many customers throughout
the country, both in the wholesale and retail trades.

2. We are importers and exporters specialized in building materials.

3. I refer to our appointment on March 9th, at your trade office, when I had
discussions with representatives who had come from your country, on the
occasion of the Bucharest International Fair.

4. We are indebted for your name and address to your Commercial Agency in
our city.
5. We understand/ learn/ hear from Mr. Smith, one of your partners, that you
export electronics.
The Inquiry Letter
Body 1
1. Will you please let us have a quotation/your best/rock bottom price for a lot
of washing machines.

2. We should be glad to receive your illustrated catalogs, patterns and


prospectuses.

3. Please quote on the following items/goods.

4. We should be grateful if you would send us your catalogues/ price lists/


pattern- books
The Inquiry Letter
Body 2
1. As we expect/anticipate/foresee a considerable demand for this
line/range of goods, we should require special terms/a special discount.

2. As we hope to attain a considerable turnover we trust you will quote us


your lowest prices.

3. If your spare part service is prompt and efficient, we think we can


promise you good results.
The Inquiry Letter
Closing

1. We thank you in anticipation of a prompt reply.

2. We are looking forward to your quotations.

3. An early reply will oblige.

4. Your prompt reply will be appreciated.


Inquiry sample
Dear sirs,

We are an import and marketing company established in the giftware industry.


We are interested in new products and be glad to receive information on the
products you are ready to export. We are prepared to act as sole agents or to import
and market products directly.
We look forward to receiving details on your goods.

Yours faithfully,
Application 1
Translate the following letter into English:
Domnilor,

Prin intermediul reclamei dvs. dintr-una din revistele comerciale, am aflat


ca sunteti exportatori de articole de sticla. Pentru informarea dvs., vrem sa
aratam ca suntem cumparatori pe scara mare de articole de sticla si ca
suntem una din cele mai vechi firme din tara noastra.

Am dori sa primim ultimele dvs. cataloage si lista dvs de preturi.

Va multumim anticipat,

Cu stima,
Application 2
Translate the following letter into Romanian:

Dear sirs,
We are one of the leading importers and distributors dealing in general
goods as well as glass and porcelain ware.

We trust there is a huge market potential and would kindly ask you to let us
have your catalog and price lists.
We hope to establish a lasting business cooperation.

We look forward to hearing from you.

Yours truly,
The Offer Letter
An answer to an inquiry letter
Details about quality, price, delivery, payment and guarantees
Expressing regrets that we are not able to help and suggesting
the services of another firm
The Offer Letter
Paragraphs
Opening: Thank you for the inquiry of October 2007, in which you were asking us
about our products/ services, pack number 87.
Body
1. Positive answer: You will find enclosed our catalog and price list, together
with our discount conditions/ We can quote the following products
2. Negative answer. We regret to inform you that we do not have the required
goods in our stock for the moment, that is why we have passed your request to
who might help you.

Closing: We will be glad to receive an order from you as soon as possible/ We hope
you will find our offer acceptable and place an order soon.
Sincerely yours,
Different ways of writing the
paragraphs
Opening
Many thanks/ We are much obliged for your inquiry of/ letter of/ interest in our
products
We acknowledge receipt of your letter/ inquiry of/ dated..
As requested by you on the telephone.
With regard/respect to your letter dated.
Body 1
We are able to inform/advise you that
We have pleasure in quoting as follows/our best quotation for
By todays separate post/under separate cover we are sending you our best
quotation/our latest price list/our catalog/our pattern book/samples and prices.
We enclose herewith/please find enclosed our best quotation.
Different ways of writing the
paragraphs
Body 2
The samples we sent/enclosed will no doubt convince you of the excellent quality
of our goods
As we had an extremely fine season, we were able to produce wines of very high
quality.
The quality of our goods leaves nothing to be desired/will no doubt meet with your
approval.
Body 3
We could let you have this product at $10 per ton/meter, in terms of.
Our prices range fromper ton upwards, according to order amount/to quantity/to
quality.
We regret that due to increased costs of raw material and labour, we have no
alternative but to request a higher price for this instrument than for the 2006
contract.
The above prices do not include packing charges/costs, insurance.
Different ways of writing the
paragraphs
Body 3 (continuation)
- Payment by irrevocable, divisible and transferable letter of credit with the
bankin favour of
- Payment for an initial order would be required on proforma invoice.
- Our prices are to be understood F.O.B./C.I.F.
Body 4
- For quantities of and over we can grant a discount of % on list prices.
- We wish to inform you that we are ready to grant you a % introduction
discount.
Body 5
- The goods/products will be ready for dispatch./We can supply the goods at
once/in a fortnight/in three months from your order
- Shipments can be effected a month/45 days after your firm order has been
received and L/C established.
Different ways of writing the
paragraphs
Body 6
We hold this offer open/valid till further notice.
Please let us have your order bysince the price concession will not apply
after that date.

Body 7
We await your instructions/order by return/by first mail.
Please advise (confirmati)/confirm by letter if you accept our quotation/our
proposal meets your requirements.
In your order please quote catalog no./colour required/
Different ways of writing the
paragraphs
Closing

We hope/trust/are sure that these goods/our offer/our terms will meet your
requirements/prove satisfactory/be of interest to you
We shall be pleased to receive an order from you soon.
Should you be interested in further details, please do not hesitate to write to us.
We look forward to your trial order/your first order
If there are any other products in which you are interested, kindly ask for
further offers.
Sample letter of Offer
Dear Mr..
Thank you for your letter ofand please find enclosed the price quotation
for those items required which are in our current production. Prices are
understood f.o.b, shipment in 40 containers via Polish port and are valid
until the 31-st December 2007.
Warranted terms of payment would be required, i.e. irrevocable Letter of
Credit payable at sight on presentation of shipping documents, opened
through a correspondent bank of the Romanian Bank for Foreign Trade,
Bucharest.
Shipment could start within six weeks after your firm order and L/C are
received.
Looking forward with interest to hearing from you.

Yours sincerely,

FOB means Free On Board;
Note
However, FOB, CIF, and CFR are all terms which relate to the delivery of the goods and
they will affect the price of those goods.

FOB means Free On Board. This means that the goods will be deemed to be delivered to the
Buyer at the point that the goods pass the ship's rail. Obviously, this will normally be as the
goods are swung in their container onto the ship.

CIF means Cost, Insurance, and Freight. This means that the Seller is providing a price which
includes the cost of the goods, the insurance of the goods for their journey to their destination
port/unloading point, and the cost of the ocean freight or whichever method of freight is being
used to transport the goods to the Buyer. Therefore, delivery of the goods when quoted CIF
will usually take place at the port of unloading.

CFR is also sometimes termed as C&F. This means cost and freight, and is where the Seller is
providing a price which includes the cost of the goods and of the freight, but NOT insurance.
Therefore it is similar to CIF but does not include insurance of the goods on their journey to
the Buyer.
Application 1
Translate into English:
Stimati domni,

Va multumim pentru scrisoarea dvs. din data de


Ne face placere sa anexam prezentei catalogul nostru, impreuna cu lista noastra de
preturi pentru,,,, asa cum ne-ati solicitat. Va rugam sa ne informati ce articole va
intereseaza, pentru a va putea furniza detaliile necesare.
Puteti fi siguri ca vom acorda prompt atentie comenzii dvs., pe care asteptam sa o
primim.

Cu stima,
Application 2
Translate into Romanian:

Dear Sirs,
We thank you for your inquiry of 23-rd of January and are sending you enclosed
our latest brochures, and the 2007 catalog and price booklet, as desired.
For the beginning we can recommend you our popular eight-days tour, which
includes flights to and from Bucharest, combines visits to the capital city and to the
majestic Carpathians. The full-time English speaking guide is included in the tour
price, which has always been extremely competitive. We grant up to 40%
reductions for low-season holidays.
We look forward to receiving your first order, which, we hope, will be the
beginning of a long and fruitful cooperation between our companies.

Yours faithfully
You have many offers
The Order Letter
After receiving an offer letter, the potential buyer may place an
order
In tabular forms used by some companies
Order letters written as an answer in correspondence
The Order Letter
Paragraphs
Opening
We thank you for your quotation of 12 September 2007/ We acknowledge
receipt of your offer letter dated. For 20 tons of apples.and are pleased
to place an order for
Body
Please make sure you send items/products of first quality. Considering our
large order, we should like to know if you could grant us a discount. As for
the delivery, we would like to receive the goods by the end of the
month/within 15 days of receipt of this order.
Closing
We trust that this first order will be satisfactorily covered, so that we could
place further orders with you. Looking forward to hearing from you.
Different Ways of Writing the
Paragraphs
Opening
We acknowledge with thanks receipt of your quotation dated 30 October 2007 forand have
pleasure in placing with you an order for/kindly ask you to book (to our account) the
following order.
Many thanks for letting us have your sample/patterns ofso that we are now able to confirm
our order for
With reference to your offer ofwe are now placing an order with you as per order form
enclosed
Please/kindly dispose an early forwarding/shipment of
Enclosed please find/ our order for/ an opening order for/ a trial order for
Following our interview of we are now placing an order with you

Body 1- quality and quantity


Please take care that the quality should be in every respect up to the mark/up to our
expectations.
We must point out that the machinery should be according to our specification/technical
appendices.
Different Ways of Writing the
Paragraphs
Body
The alcohol/oil/water content must not be under 12% and our order is being placed subject to this
guarantee.
Body 2 prices, reductions
We find the price satisfactory, but we should like to know if you could grant us a 3% discount for a quantity
of over
If your prices and terms are suitable, this trial order may lead to considerable business.
We could place a large order with you if you could see your way to bringing your price down to a level
comparable to the world market.
Body 3 alternative goods and services
As we understand that you are out of this line for the time being, please send us a similar one you have in
stock/let us have a suitable substitute on condition that the price is identical/does not exceed.
Body 4 delivery
If you can deliver the first part of our order next week, by air freight in view of the urgency of our order.
Please kindly forward the goods upon receipt of this order/within 10 days of receipt of our order.
Different Ways of Writing the
Paragraphs
Closing
Please acknowledge receipt of our order and give it your best attention.
We hope/trust tat you will carry out this order to our full satisfaction.
If this first order is satisfactorily executed we shall place further business with you.
Your prompt attention to our order will oblige/will be appreciated.

Rejecting an offer
Many thanks for your offer of Much to our regret, we have no demand for this article at the
moment so we must/are compelled to turn it down.
We thank you for your kind offer but we have already placed our order elsewhere.

Cancelling an order
Please cancel our order no. of 5 December, for and send us ..in exchange.
Business is poor, we have therefore to cancel our order no.
As you have failed to deliver within the specified time, we cannot help cancelling the order.
Sample Letter of Order
Dear Sirs,

We have duly received your proposal for the supply of textiles together with the pattern-book
and price lists.
While appreciating the good quality of all your samples, we find the prices of patterns 23 and
25 rather high for our market. We also have to point out that very good similar materials are
now available from other sources to better prices.
As we have in mind an order of some 5,000 yards for each sample, we would like to know if
you could give us a slightly better price at least for the 2 above mentioned patterns,
considering that ours is a highly competitive market and a keen price is essential.
We trust that you will be willing to meet our terms and look forward to your prompt reply.

Yours faithfully
Application 1
How would you start your reply in these situations?

A. A company wrote to you on the 23 September. They wanted to know if


you sell photocopiers.
B. You want to know if the company you are writing to organizes holidays
to Africa.
C. You want to know the prices of some air conditioners.
D. You saw an advertisement in the newspaper yesterday and you want
further information.
Application 2
Translate into English:
Domnilor,
Va multumim pentru oferta dvs. din 2 oct.
anul curent. Va rugam sa ne expediati
marfa descrisa mai jos.
Cititi instructiunile si conditiile de
transport de pe verso-ul prezentei
comenzi. Dac nu puteti executa comanda
in conditiile stabilite, anuntati-ne (notify)
imediat.
Rugam confirmati primirea comenzii cu
prima posta ( by return).
Nerespectarea instructiunilor (failure to
comply with instructions) din aceasta
comanda va face pasibili (liable) de orice
cheltuieli suplimentare survenite pe
parcurs (incurred).

Cantitate
Expeditie
Conditii de plata

Cu stima,
Application 3 what kind of letter is this,
translate it into Romanian
The Complaint Letter

If there is a dissatisfied party, either the seller or the buyer, in a business


deal
It is unpleasant, but necessary sometimes
The tone should be friendly and the writer should express regret of being
forced to make a complaint
The dissatisfied party will have to clearly specify the nature of the
complaint (quality, quantity, delivery, payment etc.)
The Complaint Letter
Paragraphs

Opening
It is with great regret that we have to /We are writing to inform you that goods delivered
under contract number 25 of 23 April 2007, are not in accordance with the contract
specifications/are not up to the samples/patterns.
Body
We were surprised to find that the supplied goods were below the agreed standards, since you
have never disappointed us so far. We think that the best solution is for us to return the goods
to you, at your expense and for you to replace them with the right ones in due time. We must
also ask you to attend more carefully to our orders in future, otherwise we shall be obliged to
fulfil our requirements/ to place our orders elsewhere.
Closing
Please let us know what you are prepared to do in this matter.
Different ways of writing the
paragraphs
Opening
We would like to inform you that the quality is decidedly inferior to any other previously
supplied/leaves much to be desired/ is far from being satisfactory;
We are making a claim on/against you for inferior quality of the goods delivered against
contract no.as follows
We have to advise you that the goods supplied by you have operating defects/a faulty
design/manufacturing defects
Body
We had an analysis made and specialist reports that the chemical content is 20% less than
guaranteed
As results show/you can see from the test certificate we enclosed, the supplied goods fail to
meet the quality conditions as agreed.
Evidently some mistake was made and the goods have been wrongly delivered
The parcel no. 8 contains several articles we have not ordered.
Apparently, we have received goods intended for another customer of yours.
Different ways of writing the
paragraphs
Closing
The best solution would be for us to return the wrong items to you, postage and
packing forward.
Should you be interested, we enclose herewith: the official report/the minutes/the
test certificate/the estimate for the necessary remedies, drawn up by a well known
specialised firm.
Although the quality of these goods is not up to that of our usual lines, we are
prepared to accept them if you reduce the price, say by
Please inform us what you are prepared to do in this matter
Sample Letter of Complaint

Dear Sirs,

We have to let you know that our last consignment of tyres delivered by you is not up to your
usual standards.
We have always been able to rely on the high quality of your products and we are all the more
disappointed of the present situation as we supplied these goods to a new client.
You will find enclosed a report of domestic survey agents who carefully inspected the
products.
We should be grateful if you would kindly arrange to urgently ship replacements of the 200
tyres for compensations.

Yours truly
Answering a complaint letter
the adjustment letter
Dear Mr. Smith,
We acknowledge with many thanks receipt of your letter dated 12-th
November 2007, and are very glad to tell you that, after looking into
manufacturing costs of model 4, we have reached the conclusion that we
could lower our contract price by 15%. We hope you will find this
reduction satisfactory, considering the high quality of our products.
We look forward to continuing our business relationship with you.

Yours sincerely
Application 1

It is now common to use .to address women in business, regardless of


whether they are married or not.
A. Miss
B. Ms.
C. Mrs.

In all type of business correspondence you should be ..and ..


A. clear, briefing, correct
B. concise, short, polite
C. clear, concise, polite
Application 2
Situation
You are the secretary of ABC
International. Your boss has left
the letter from a customer on your
desk, for you to answer. Write the
two letters for this situation.
Consider your customer made a
complaint.
Application 3
Situation
You have ordered six
computers from a
specialised firm. They
delivered only two to
you. Write the two
letters for this situation
Application 4
Match the following sentences to make your own
complaints:

1. Unfortunately, one of the machines you sent us was damaged.


2. Unfortunately, we have not yet received your payment.
3. Unfortunately, your driver took the goods to the wrong place.

A. Please, could you send us your cheque before 15 December.


B. We would appreciate if you could collect them and bring them to our offices
C. We would be grateful if you could send us a replacement
Application 5
What would you write in these
situations?

A company has sent you a bill for


the wrong goods.
Your photocopier broke down.
You keep receiving letters for
someone else.
Application 6
Comment on the following letter:

To
the citizens of the United States of
America From Her Sovereign Majesty Queen Elizabeth II

In light of your failure in recent years to nominate competent


candidates for President of the USA and thus to govern yourselves,
we hereby give notice of the revocation of your independence,
effective immediately. (You should look up "revocation" in the
Oxford English Dictionary.) Her Sovereign Majesty Queen
Elizabeth II will resume monarchical duties over all states,
commonwealths, and territories (except Kansas, which she does not
fancy). Your new Prime Minister, Gordon Brown, will appoint a
Governor for America without the need for further elections.
Congress and the Senate will be disbanded.
A questionnaire may be circulated next year to determine whether any
of you noticed.
To aid in the transition to a British Crown dependency, the following
rules are introduced with immediate effect:
From Her Sovereign Majesty Queen
Elizabeth II
1. The letter "U" will be reinstated in words such as
"colour," "favour," "labour" and "neighbour." Likewise, you
will learn to spell "doughnut" without skipping half the letters,
and the suffix "-ize" will be replaced by the suffix "-
ise." Generally, you will be expected to raise your vocabulary
to acceptable levels. (Look up "vocabulary").
2. Using the same twenty-seven words interspersed with
filler noises such as '"like" and "you know" is an unacceptable
and inefficient form communication. There is no such thing as
U. S. English. We will let Microsoft know on your behalf. The
Microsoft spell-checker will be adjusted to take into account
the reinstated letter "u"'
From Her Sovereign Majesty Queen
Elizabeth II
3. July 4th will no longer be celebrated as a holiday.
4. You will learn to resolve personal issues without using guns, lawyers,
or therapists. The fact that you need so many lawyers and
therapists shows that you're not quite ready to be independent. Guns
should only be used for shooting grouse. If you can't sort things out
without suing someone or speaking to a therapist, then you're not ready to
shoot grouse.
5. Therefore, you will no longer be allowed to own or carry anything
more dangerous than a vegetable peeler, although a permit will be
required if you wish to carry a vegetable peeler in public.
6. All intersections will be replaced with roundabouts (sens giratoriu),
and you will start driving on the left side with immediate effect. At the
same time, you will go metric with immediate effect and without the
benefit of conversion tables. Both roundabouts and metrication will help
you understand the British sense of
humour.
From Her Sovereign Majesty Queen
Elizabeth II
7. The former USA will adopt UK prices on petrol (which you have been
calling gasoline) of roughly $10/US gallon. Get used to
it.

8. You will learn to make real chips. Those things you call French
fries are not real chips, and those things you insist on calling
potato chips are properly called crisps. Real chips are thick
cut, fried in animal fat, and dressed not with catsup (ketchup) but with
vinegar.

9. The cold, tasteless stuff you insist on calling beer is not actually beer at all. Henceforth,
only proper British Bitter will be referred to as beer,
and European brews of known and accepted provenance will be referred
to as Lager. Australian beer is also acceptable, as they are
pound for pound the greatest sporting nation on earth and it can
only be due to the beer. They are also part of the British
Commonwealth - see what it did for them. American brands will
be referred to as Near-Frozen Gnat's(tiny thing) Urine, so that all can be
sold without risk of further confusion.
From Her Sovereign Majesty Queen
Elizabeth II
10. Hollywood will be required occasionally
to cast English actors as
good guys. Hollywood will also be required
to cast English actors to play English
characters. Watching Andie
MacDowell attempt English dialogue in Four
Weddings and a Funeral was an experience
akin (similar) to having one's ears removed
with a cheese grater.
From Her Sovereign Majesty Queen
Elizabeth II
11. You will cease playing American
football. There is only one kind of proper
football; you call it soccer. Those of you brave
enough will, in time, be allowed to play rugby
(which has some similarities to
American football, but does not involve
stopping for a rest every twenty seconds or
wearing full Kevlar body amour like a bunch
of nannies
From Her Sovereign Majesty Queen
Elizabeth II
12. Further, you will stop playing baseball. It is not
reasonable to host an event called the World Series
for a game which is not played outside of
America. Since only 2.1% of you are aware there is a
world beyond your borders, your error is
understandable. You will learn cricket, and we will
let you face the Australians first to take the sting out
of their deliveries.
13. You must tell us who killed
JFK. It's been driving us mad.
From Her Sovereign Majesty Queen
Elizabeth II
14. An internal revenue agent (i.e. tax collector) from Her
Majesty's Government will be with you shortly to ensure the
acquisition of all monies (silver coins) due (backdated to
1776).
15. Daily Tea Time begins promptly at 4 p.m. with proper
cups, with saucers, and never mugs, with high quality biscuits
(cookies) and cakes; plus strawberries (with cream) when in
season.
God Save the Queen!
PS:
This is to be shared with friends who have a good sense
of humour (NOT humor)!
The letter of credit
They are methods of payment opened in favor of an exporter
by an importer
Issued by a bank authorizing a certain beneficiary/firm to draw
on it up to the total amount of the established credit.
It is usually irrevocable and it involves 4 parties:
1.Buyer/importer
2.Seller/exporter
3.Importers bank/issuing bank
4.Exporters bank/confirming or
advising bank
Issued after the sales contract is signed
The letter of credit
It contains the following details:

Name and address of the importer


Name and address of the exporter
Name and address of the issuing bank
Name and address of the confirming bank
Type of credit (revocable, irrevocable)
Expiry date
Terms of contract and shipment
Amount of credit
Description of the goods covered by the credit
Shipping details
Possible circuit of L/C
Sample letter of credit (L/C) - 1
Irrevocable Letter of credit
Lloyd Bank
11 Cambridge Street
Bristol 24WC, UK

Beneficiary Ref. ABC 1234


Furniture International LTD Dated 18 March 2006
2Useful Road London 9SE Date of expiry 18 May 2006
UK Place of expiry: UK
Amount: up to 50,000

Opening bank Applicant


Lloyd Bank of Australia Decora International Ltd.
7 Spring Street, Sydney 23 LW 29 Queen Avenue Sydney
Australia 2 TW, Australia

26 March 2006
Dear Sirs,

This letter is available with Lloyd Bank Bristol International Branch by payment against presentation of the documents listed
below and of your draft at sight (trate la vedere) drawn on Lloyd Bank, Bristol International Branch, for 100 per cent of
invoice value.
Sample letter of Credit - 2
Documents/drafts to be accompanied by:
-commercial invoice describing the merchandise
-insurance policy of certificate covering marine and war risks
-Bills of lading (conosament/contract semnat de comandantul unei nave)) drawn to the order of Decora
International Ltd., 29 Queen Avenue etc.

Covering the following merchandise/goods/items:


- 30 Marvel furniture
Cost, insurance and freight (CIF) Sydney
Partial shipment: not allowed/allowed
Shipment from UK port to Australia port
No later than 3 May 2006

Drawings must be presented at the office of the drawee within 15 days of issue date of transport documents
and within the L/C validity.
Drawings/documents are to be accompanied by your drafts drawn on Lloyd Bank Bristol Branch at sight
marked Drawn under irrevocable letter of credit nb. ABC 1234.
Sample letter of credit - 3

Special instructions/important.
Please check/include/do not include the details of this credit. Documents should be conform in every
respect with the credit terms. If there are differences from the credit terms, we reserve the right to make an
additional charge.
Unless otherwise expressly stated, this letter is subject to the Uniform customs and practice for
documentary credits (1998 Revision) International Chamber of Commerce, Publication no. 29/Brochure no.
400.

Yours faithfully
SPECIMEN SPECIMEN
Authorised signature Authorised signature
Different ways of writing the
paragraphs
Opening
We are pleased to inform you that our bank has
opened the following letter of credit in your
favor. We shall be much obliged if the supply
will be effected within the validity period of
the L/C.
Different ways of writing the
paragraphs
The irrevocable credit
The above mentioned issuing bank engages with you
that all drafts drawn under and in compliance (in
concordanta) with the terms of this credit will be duly
(la timp) honored, on delivery of documents as
specified, if presented at this office on or before the
expiry date indicated above. This letter is solely an
advice of credit opened by the above mentioned
issuing bank and conveys no engagement by us.
Different ways of writing the
paragraphs
Amendments to a L/C

Please arrange immediately by fax for the following


amendments to the above letter of credit:
Increase by US $ 10,000
Extend shipment date to July 2007.
The validity of the L/C is extended to November 30.
Old form of L/C
Application 1
Translate into English:

Scrisoare de cerere de credit


1 martie 2007
Catre Wells Fargo Bank

Va rugam sa deschideti in contul nostru un acreditiv documentar in concordanta cu detaliile mentionate mai
jos.
Suntem de acord ca, exceptand situatiile formulate in mod expres, acest acreditiv sa fie conform cu
practicile si uzantele uniforme pentru acreditive documentare (revizuite in 1974), din publicatia Camerei
internationale de comert no. 290.
Tip de acreditiv: irevocabil
Metoda de avizare: prin avion
Numele si prenumele beneficiarului
Suma:$ 5,000
Valabilitate: valabil pana la..in Bucuresti pentru negociere
Documente necesare: factura in trei copii, setul complet de conosamente, polita de asigurare
Cantitate si descrierea marfii: 10 t ingrasaminte
Conditii: CIF Londra
Expediate din Romania la Londra.
Semnatura
Application 2
Translate into Romanian:

Dear Sirs,
By order of Messrs. Green&Co, London, we request you to open an irrevocable
credit valid until 23 March 2007, in favor of Atibiotice, Iasi, for the amount of
$6,000
This credit is available for negotiation if accompanied by the following documents:
Invoice in 3 copies, full set of bills of lading, insurance policy, covering shipment
of 10 tons of fertilizers CIF London
Partial shipments are not allowed
Please send us 1 complete set of documents by airmail, the rest by following
airmail.
For your payment kindly reimburse yourselves on our bank.

Yours faithfully
E-mail and Fax facilities
E-mails and fax letters are the fastest ways to get to the partner
in a written form
Almost all types of letters may be sent in this way, when we
need a fast reply from our partner
A cover-sheet is necessary with the information about the
sender, the receiver the subject, the number of pages.
Sample fax/facsimile message/letter
1
ABC INTERNATIONAL
20 Main Street Liverpool SW
( + 44 788 2020)
Fax cover Sheet
Date: 11 April 2007
Message to: Name: Robert Johnson
Company: Medical 3
Fax no. 44 789 4567
Message from: Name: John Rogers
Company: ABC International
Fax number: 44 788 2020
Phone: 44 788 2021
Number of pages, including cover page: 2
Comments: if you do not receive this transmission clearly, please call us/let us know.
Sample fax/facsimile message/letter
2
Dear Mr. Johnson,
Thank you for your estimate on our medical insurance coverage for the year beginning June
1-st 2008
Our Board of Directors carefully considered your proposal, along with those of four other
companies. The final decision was between you and one other company. On the combined
cost-benefit basis, we have decided to accept your proposal.
Thank you for your complete submission and explanation in depth of the benefits under your
policy.
Looking forward to your answer.
Sincerely yours
John Rogers
President
Rules to observe in writing e-mails

Make it brief (no more than 1 page)


Return e-mails on the same day, if possible
Format it to be sent in plain text, rather than HTML (Hyper text markup
language)
Write a salutation for each new subject
Write a subject line
Title the document that you are attaching
Dont forget that e-mails are public documents
Include in your e-mails only those statements that you can openly defend
E-mail sample
From: DICOEN 2003
To: Conference participant
Subject: DICOEN Conference final programme
Date: NOV. 2003

Dear participant at DICOEN 2003,


It is a pleasure to inform you that the final programme of the Second
International Conference on Discourse, Communication and Enterprise is
now available at www.uvigo.es (please see Final programme).
Please do not hesitate to contact us if you need any information.
Looking forward to seeing you.
Fernando Ramallo
Miscellaneous letters

Thank you letter


Invitation to a reception
Recommendation letter
Letter of introduction
(54-59 op. cit.)
Application 1
What would you write in these situations?

A temporary secretary doesnt speak English. You have to write to the


agency that sent her to you.
Your best friends son desperately needs a job. He comes to you for help.
You spent a good time with your colleagues from another subsidiary of
your company. Now you are back to your office.
Application 2
Match the words with the abbreviations used in faxes and e-mails

And; are; attached; attention; best regards; confirm; contract; copy; department;
expected time of arrival; expected time of departure; hotel accommodation;
instruction; local time; on account of; message; subject to; reference; week; unless
used;

Wk; n; r; uu; ref.; atc.; sub.; brgds.; msg.; cnfm.; oa.; ctr.; l.t.;cc.; instr.; dept.;hotac.;
eta.; etd.;
Application 3
Translate the following fax messages into English and write a cover sheet
for it.

Stimata Doamna Ionescu,


Va multumim pentru faxul dvs. din 19 oct. 2008. Echipa de consultanti va
sosi la Iasi miercuri 27 oct. Seful echipei, d-nul Richards, va va contacta,
fie in acea dupa-amiaza fie joi, pentru a stabili o ora convenabila pentru
seminarul cu personalul ABC. SA.
Cu respect,
David Smith
Director General