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ANNISA DWI DAMYANTI | 25316306

RIZKI WORO INDRASTUTI | 25316307

Soil and Groundwater Pollution| Environmental Engineering | 2017


INTRODUCTION

MECHANISMS THAT MAY


CONTENTS OCCUR

EXAMPLE FROM JOURNALS


Background
Many researches
using clay as an
alternative
The optimization of adsorption process
adsorption heavy that has potential
metal as as an adsorbent for
Heavy metal conventional
removal into remove the metals
removing process is
environment, needed in order to
In the recent endangering the
decades, heavy get low cots and
quality of water and high efficient
metals has been natural resources
concerned in waste removal process.
used for human
water due to various consumption.
industrial activities, Therefore we need
which produce the to reduce the heavy
toxic heavy metals metal
like lead (Pb).
Adsorption Mechanism
Mechanisms that may occurs on the adsorption process are (Sawyer et.al 2003):

PHYSICAL SORPTION :
CHEMICAL SORPTION

Physical sorption involves a relatively weak Chemisorption occurs when chemical


intermolecules force : VAN DER WALLS interactions between molecules of
Force, the energy released at relatively low adsorbates and molecules of adsorbents.
physical sorption. According to Oscik Chemisorption involves chemical
(1982), physical sorption is reversible, so substances thorough the stonger of
the adsorbates can easily removed with chemical bonds, such as coordination
decreased the pressure gases or bonds as the output of the electron pairs by
concentration of dissolved substances. adsorbents and adsorbates.
PHYSICAL SORPTION : VAN DER WALLS FORCE (VOLMER WEBER FORCE)

Sumber : Asep Supriatna, dkk (2009)


Adsorbates formed on the When the concentration The last, the adsorption and
surface adsorbent. increased, will fill the desorption equilibrium
surface of the adsorbent. occurred, and the adsorption
process is constant.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PHYSICAL PROCESS AND CHEMICAL PROCESS

Physical Adsorption Chemical Adsorption


Low Entalpi Adsorption (less than 20 High entalpi adsorption (between 100-
Kj/mol) 400 KJ/mol)
Multilayer Adsorption process Monolayer Adsorption Process
Temperatures below the adsorbate High Temperatures
boiling point
Doesnt involve the activation energy Involves activation energy

(Sumber: Bansal, 2005 dalam Mujizah 2010)


Factors that Influence the
Adsorption Process

ADSORBATE
Adsorben Properties
TYPE

The size of
Solubility of Adsorbent
the Surface Area Temperature pH
adsorbate Purity
adsorbate
Instantenous Adsorption Models

Linear adsorption is the simplest and most frequently used isotherm


ADSORPTION

adsorption. Isotherm relation from adsorbate concentration in a constant


temperature. expressed as :
LINEAR

= .
S = concentration adsorbed per unit mass or sorbent weight ( mg/l)
Kd = Coefficient distribution-equilibrium adsorption
C = the concentration of substances in equilibrium solution (mg/l)
ADSORPTION

Non-linear adsorption is the adsorption that occurs due to the


NON LINEAR

unbalanced condition caused by the difference in adsorption rate


between sorbent and sorbate. The adsorption isotherm equation
commonly used in the calculation of metal adsorption is the Isotherm
Langmuir model and the Freundlich Isotherm model (Sawyer et al,
2003)
LANGMUIR ISOTHERM
If the experimental data 1 / q is plotted against 1 / Ce,
Langmuir Isotherm expressed as : then a straight line will be formed and the intersection of
the Y axis represents the value 1 / qm while the slope
qm. Kads. Ce represents the value 1 / (qm.Kads)
=
(1 + Kads. Ce)

Linear equations of Langmuir


isotherm expressed as :

1 1 1 1
= + .
.
FREUNDLICH ISOTHERM
In log S trial data plotted against Log C it
Freundlich Isotherm expressed as :
will form a straight line. The intersection
with the Y axis represents the log value of
= . K and the slope is the value of n.

Linear equations of Freundlich


isotherm expressed as :

log = Log K + n. Log Ce


ADSORPTION CAPACITY
Adsorption capacity is the amount of
metal concentration absorbed in each
unit of adsorbent weight (Afrianita et al., Where:
2013). : Qe = amount of Metals
absorbed on equilibrium conditions
Qe = +V (mg adsorbate / g adsorbent)

While the results obtained from Co = Initial Concentration (mg / L)
adsorption on each metal followed by Ce = concentration after adsorption
calculating the maximum efficiency (mg adsorbate / L)
value of the adsorbent. V = Volume Aqueous (L)
m = Adsorbent Weight (g)

Removal (%) = 100 R = Effeciency Removal (%)

General Metal-Soil Adsorption Mechanism (Pb)

Actually, soil contains Rock type Pb Pb


small amount of Pb as Ultra Basalt 1-4 VI A in periodic table
Atomic number: 82
heavy metal good Basalt 3-6 Mass number: 209
for plan physiological solid phase
Granit 18-24 Density: 11,4 gr/cm3
But in high concentration, Melt point: 327,40C
Sabs and clay 20-23
heavy metal will act as Boiling point: 17490C
toxic material , very Black Sabs 20-30 Evaporation point: 550-6600C
Produced PbO, when react with O2 in
toxic to plant, animal sand 10-12 gas phase
and human. Dissolved with nitrite acid, acetate
lime 5-9 acid, sulfate acid

Commonly, Pb is used at battery industry, motor component, gas, paint,


pesticide, palm oil, oil mining, harbor, etc.
Maximum content of Pb in potable water (due to Health Ministry of Indonesia
No. 492/2010) is 0.01 mg/L or 0.01 ppm
General Metal-Soil Adsorption Mechanism (Pb)

Pb-Cellulose Bond
Adsorption
Driving Force

adsorbate affinity
Metal-Ligan and
to solvent and
solvent
adsorbate affinity
properties, pH Affinity is tendency of an unsure
to adsorbent
or element to bond with other
unsure or element
Characteristic of Clay
Clay
Soil
Consist of very fine sand which
has good properties of cohesion
and plasticity
Soil Grain Water Air It is a pore material which has high
absorptivity and used by industry
to reduce metal ion in waste
It is a good absorbent because it
Coarse (Sand, has high specific surface and
gravel) negative charge
It should be activated to get its
optimum adsorption capacity
Fine sand (silt, Physi-activation: Heating the clay
clay) Chemi-activation: using acid
solution
Previous Research
Researcher Topic Methods Result
Cindy Rianti Priadi et Zn and Pb adsorption Batch Adsorption for The most effective contact time 15min @
al. (2014) by Ceramics Industry in determine adsorbent pH8 and 5 g/l of adsorbent concentration
Clay concentration and effective
contact time
I.A Gede Widihati Pb adsorption by 0.2 gr modified bentonite with Interconnected clay with addition of
(2009) surfactan addition of ammonium palmitate acid increase distance between
interconnected Clay quaternary salt and palmitate clay layer resulting bigger adsorption
acid using X light diffraction capacity
method, uv vis
spectrophotometer
Putra et al. (2015) Pb ion adsorption by Modified kaolin increase adsorption
modified kaolin with capacity because kaolin anionic add
surfactant as negative ions in adsorbent
adsorbent
Ghorbel-Abid (2015) The competitiveness of Local Tunisian clay used as The adsorption of Criii is faster than Cdii
heavy metal in local sorbent while Criii and Cdii Adsorption time for Cr : 15 minutes,
landfill solution was used as metal Cd : 2 hours
sorbate
Previous Research
Researcher Topic Methods Result
Gier (2000) Heavy metal adsorption Cs, Ba, Cu, Zn an Pb ion acted Surface charge magnitude play role in
by mica and clay as heavy metal while adsorption capability. The higher ionic
mineral using X-ray characterized silicate 2:1 potential of metal ion, the higher surface
photoelectron (mica and illite) acted as charged, the higher adsorption capability.
spectrophotometry sorbent
Chen et al. (2016) The content of heavy Urban water catchment area The most finest clay has bad crystalline
metal in surface sediment is taken and divided structure after treatment which means has
sediment clay mineral to three different size of biggest absorption capacity
mineral.
1000-2000 (clay), 450-1000
(fine clay), 220-450 (very fine
clay). And evaluated by X-ray,
SEM and chemical analysis
Iannicelli-Zubiani Using clay and organo- Metal contained in e-waste is Type of metal that can be recovered is
(2017) clay to recover metal dissolved using strong acid lanthanum and copper
from e-waste and adsorbed using clay and
organo-clay
Previous Research
Researcher Topic Methods Result
Veli (2007) Cu and Zn adsorption Solution contained Cu and Zn Cu and Zn tend to adsorpt with 2nd order
using natural clay is mixed with cankiri bentonite kinetic.
(as natural clay). The valuated
parameters is pH, amount
and concentration of clay and
adsorption time
D. Schmitt et al. (2002) Natural organic matter Ion metal: Al, Fe, Zn and Pb Al and Fe adsorption is affected by natural
effect in metal ion pH: 5 and 7 organic matter while Zn and Pb is not
adsorption by mineral Treatment: with and without affected. This is happening because
clay organic matter aggregation process affect with specific ion
metal and decrease in presence of organic
matter and high value of pH
S. P. Singh et al. (2000) Phosphate-heavy metal Phosphate obtained form by- Metal absorption in clay: Pb>Cd>Zn.
ion interaction product mining industrial is
used to immobilized Pb, Cd
and Zn.
T H A N K

Y O U
Soil and Groundwater Pollution | Environmental Engineering | 2017