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 Brand are developed over a period of time- they

are not made in a day.
 The process of branding is continuous
brands are built along four dimensions –
*( represents skills of a brands)
And relationship
*(represents character of a brand)
1) Brand Salience (Identity)
• Breadth and depth of awareness of the brand
• Achieving the right identity creating brand salience
• Product Category identification
• Needs Satisfied
2) Brand Performance
• It describes how well the product or service meets
customers more functional needs
• Primary characteristics and secondary features
• Product Reliability (Consistency of performance)
• Durability and Serviceability
• Service Effectiveness
• Efficiency and Empathy
• Style, Design and Price
3) Brand Imagery
It depends upon the extrinsic properties of the
product or service, including the ways in which brand
attempts to meet customer’s psychological or social
a) User Profiles (demographic includes gender, age,
race, income) and (Psychographic includes careers,
social issues, profession
b) Purchase and Usage Situations (Type of Channels,
specific stores, location)
c) Personality and values (Sincerity, Excitement,
d) Brand History and Experiences
4) Brand Judgements
It is customers out personal opinions about and
evaluations of the brand, which consumers form by
putting together all the different brand performance
and imagery associations. Customers can make four
types of brand judgements w.r.t
a) Brand Quality: These are consumers’ overall
evaluations of a brand and often form the basis for
brand choice.
b) Brand Credibility: It describes the extent to which
customers see the brand as credible or convincing in
terms of three dimensions i.e. Perceived expertise
(competent, innovative and market leader), trust
worthiness (dependable and keeping customers
interest in mind) and likability (fun, interesting and
worth spending time with)
5) Brand Feelings
They are customers’ emotional responses and
reactions to the brand.
Six types of brand building feelings
a) Fun (amused, light hearted, joyous)

b) Excitement (feeling alive )

c) Security ( safety, comfort, self assurance)

d) Social Approval (look favourably on their

experience, behaviour)
e) Self-Respect (consumers feel sense of pride,
accomplishment, fulfilment)
f) Warmth (feel a sense of calm or peacefulness)
6) Brand Resonance
It describes the nature of the relationship and the
extent to which customers feel that they are “in sync”
with the brand.
Examples of high resonance include Apple and eBay.
It can be classified into four categories
• Behavioural Loyalty ( in terms of repeat purchase and
the amount or share of category volume attributed to
the brand i.e. Share of category requirements)
• Attitudinal Attachment

• Sense of Community

• Active Engagement

 Better profits margins

 Better cash flows
 Entry – barrier to competition
 Immunity from cyclical fluctuations
 Better market valuation of stock
Major contributors to brand building are
 Advertising
 Promotions
 Consistent presentation
 Wide distribution
 Large sales over a period of time

Creating a brand is another one thing. Making it meaningful is quite another thing.

Brand Salience is the degree to which a brand

is appears in the consideration set of a
customer when he or she is in process of
buying a product.
 Brand Salience is a psychological
phenomenon which helps during the buying
decision of a customer, based on a perception
made in the brain over a period of time.