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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND TESTING OF

PLASTIC EXTRUSION MACHINE

Team Members:
BISHWAJEET SHRESTHA (071/BME/411)
MANOJ BHUSAL (071/BME/420)
SHASHI SHAH (071/BME/438)
YUVRAJ SHRESTHA (071/BME/446)

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1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Objectives:
Main Objective:
• To design, fabricate & test the Plastic Extruder Machine.

Special Objectives:
• To research and test different types of waste plastic’s pallets on
extruder machine.
• To produce plastic filaments from our surrounding plastic waste.
• To test the produced plastic filaments on 3D printer.

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1.2 Background:
• Plastic extrusion machine is a machine which melts plastic flakes
inserted into the hopper and extrudes it into a line of plastic.
• Extrusion machine can create filament, granulate or creative art
working with moulds.
• Blends differently colored plastics together and outputs a
homogeneous and smooth color.
• Increases recyclability of plastics.

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1.3 Problem Statement:
• Daily use of plastics are increasing day to day.
• The plastics industry releases 14% of the total toxic gas that went into
the air.
• The filaments we use for 3D printer is manufactured from synthesis of
raw materials on industry and are costly.
• Waste plastics causes environment pollution due to its stability.

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1.4 Justification:
• All plastic laying around is a resource with great potentials and
opportunities waiting to be discovered.
• Opportunity to eliminate plastic pollution by creating something new.
• Fabrication of plastic extrusion machine is a small step towards the
plastic waste management.
• Our project aim is to make optimum use of local waste plastic resource
into something usable, acceptable and affordable.

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1.5 Expected Outcomes:
• Development of an affordable plastic extrusion machine.
• Extrusion of plastic will be easier and economical as compared to the
industrial method of extrusion.
• Encouragement towards locally manufactured products from available
plastic resources.
• Import from other countries will decrease.

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2. METHODOLOGY

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3. LITERATURE REVIEW
This section lists different modes of extrusion and general products of an extrusion process.

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EXTRUSION THEORY:

The extruder can be considered as one of the core piece of machinery in the plastic processing industry. To
extrude means to thrust out a plastic material in any kind of form with the desired cross-section through a die.
The shape of material will depend on the die opening, and it will change to some extent as it exits from the
die. The extruder output is commonly referred to as the extrudate.

PLASTIC TYPES:
1. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET or PETE):

Properties: Clarity, lightness, strength, toughness, a barrier to liquid and gas.

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2. High-density polyethylene (HDPE):
Properties: Stiffness, strength, toughness, resistance to moisture, permeability to gas, ease of processing.

3. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC):


Properties: Versatility, ease of blending, strength, toughness, clarity, transparency.

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4. Low-Density Polyethylene (LDPE):
Properties: Strength, toughness, flexibility, resistance to moisture, ease of sealing, ease of processing.

5. Polypropylene (PP):
Properties: Strength, toughness, resistance to heat, chemicals, grease & oil, barrier to moisture.

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6. Polystyrene (PS):
Properties: Versatility, clarity, easily formed.

FLOATING PROPERTIES OF PLASTIC:

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COMMON PROPERTIES OF PLASTICS:

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PHYSICAL PROPERTIES:

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PRODUCTION LINE:

A general production extrusion line consists of:


1. Hopper
2. Barrel
3. Nozzle
4. Nozzle screw
5. Nozzle filter
6. Nozzle flow adjuster
7. Barrel holder
7. Barrel shaft
8. Extrusion framework
9. Extrusion electronic
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Different Types of Extruders:
There are mainly 4 types of filament extruders:
Melt fed , Plasticating
a. Single screw extruders Single stage
Screw Extruders Multi stage
Compounding
(continuous)
Twin screw extruders
b. Multi screw extruder Gear pumps
Planetary gear extruders
multi(>2) screw extruders
a. Viscous drag extruders Spiral disk extruder, Disk pack extruder
Disc or Drum Extruders Drum extruder
Stepped disk extrude
(continuous)
b. Elastic melt extruders Screw less extruder
Screw or disk type melt extruder

Melt fed extruder


Reciprocating Extruders (Discontinuous) Ram extruders Plasticating extruder
Capillary rheometer
Plasticating unit in injection molding
Reciprocating single screw extruders machines
Compounding extruders (The Kneader)
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1. Single Screw Extruders:
• These contains single screw to compress and extrude the materials.

2. Multi-screw Extruders:
In a general description, a multi-screw extruder is an
extruder consisting of more than one Archimedean
screws.
The early twin screw extruders, developed by Roberto
Colombo and Carlo Pasquetti in the late 1930s.

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3. Disc Extruder:
• Disk extruders are among the types of
extruders that do not utilize an Archimedean
screw for the transport of the material.
• Disk extruder was invented in 1950.

4. Ram Extruders:
• Ram extruders are normally simple extruders
• These contain ram to press the material.

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GENERAL PRODUCTS OF EXTRUSION:
1. Pipes Extrusion: Generally PVC pipes, electricity pipes, water pipes etc.
2. Plastic Films: Food packaging plastics, wrapping plastics
3. Extrusion Coating and Laminating: In this method,secondary objects are
coated and laminated by plastic.
4. Cable Coating: Cable insulation and the coating is also done by an extruder.
5. Extrusion Blow Molding:

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DIFFERENT SIZES OF EXTRUDERS:
1. Laboratory Extruder:
Laboratory extruders are suitable for Laboratory Testing, Research.
2. Pilot Extruder:
The pilot screw extruders have been able to produce thinner profiles but
the machine’s heating power is not enough to melt large amounts of material
quickly.
3. Production Extruder:
Production extruders are of large scale which are used in mainly mass
product extrusion.

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4. DESIGN CONCEPT
Technical Drawing:

Fig: Drawing of Plastic Extruder.

Figure: Model of Plastic Extruder.

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5.BUDGET PLANNING
S.N. Description Details Quantity Price(Rs.)

Mechanical parts
1. Strip 30x3 mm 10 cm 120
2. Round bar 30 mm 5.5 cm 250
3. Round bar 25 mm 22 cm 365
4. Square tube 30x30x3 mm 800 cm 4250
5. Tube 34x26x4 mm 53 cm 120
6. Angle profile 30x30x3 mm 32 250
7. Sheet metal 1 mm 1850
8. Motor 70 rpm 1 3650
9. Bearings UCFL 204 1 600
10. Drill 26 x 600 mm 1 3500

Electronics parts
11. PID controllers 0-400 Degree 2x 2400
12. SSR 2-24 V 2x 1000
13. Thermocouple Type K 2x 1800
14. Band heater 35x45 mm 3x 2200
15. Band heater 40x45 mm 1x 1000
16. Power switch 220 V 1x 350
17. Led indicator 220 V 1x 350
18. Electrical wire 5m 250

Others
19. Labor cost 5000
20. Field visit and snacks 2000
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20. Miscellaneous 695
6. TIME SCHEDULING:
6.1. Tabulated Time Schedule:

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6.2 Gantt Chart:

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7. REFERENCES:

1. Chapters. (n.d.). Retrieved December 12, 2017, from


https://preciousplastic.com/en/videos/build/extrusion.html
2. Materials. (n.d.). Retrieved December 12, 2017, from
https://www.spiratex.com/products_category/materials/
3. (2014, August 21). Starting up plastic extrusion buss Kanya auvinen degree
thesis. Retrieved December 12, 2017, from
https://www.slideshare.net/ahmad25may1/kanya-auvinen-degreethesis

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