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Stem-and-Leaf Display: C1

Stem-and-leaf of C1 N = 80

Leaf Unit = 1.0

1 7 6

Cummulative 2 8 7

Frequency 3 9 7

5 10 15

8 11 058

11 12 013

17 13 133455

25 14 12356899

37 15 001344678888

(10) 16 0003357789

33 17 0112445668

23 18 0011346

16 19 034699

10 20 0178

6 21 8

5 22 189

2 23 7

1 24 5

Quartiles

parts, the division points are called quartiles. The first or

lower quartile, q , is a value that has approximately 25%

1

the observations above. The second quartile, q , has

2

The second quartile is exactly equal to the median. The

third or upper quartile, q , has approximately 75% of the

3

median, the quartiles may not be unique. The

compressive strength data in Fig. 6-6 contains n 80

observations.

First Quartile is (n+1)/4 ordered observation

When n = 80, it is 20.25 observation. Hence, it is

between 20 and 21st observation

Third Quartile is 3(n+1)/4 ordered observation

When n = 80, it is 60.25 observation. Hence, it is

between 60 and 61st observation

MINITAB OUTPUT

The box plot is a graphical display that simultaneously describes several important

features of a data set, such as center, spread, departure from symmetry, and

identification of unusual observations or outliers.

FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION

AND HISTOGRAM

TIME SEQUENCE PLOTS

A time series or time sequence is a data set in which the observations are

recorded in the order in which they occur. A time series plot is a graph in

which the vertical axis denotes the observed value of the variable (say x) and

the horizontal axis denotes the time (which could be minutes, days, years,

etc.) When measurements are plotted as a time series, we often see trends,

cycles, or other broad features of the data that could not be seen otherwise.

Scatter Diagrams

Multivariate Data

In many

problems,

engineers and

scientists work

with data that is

multivariate in

nature; that is,

each observation

consists of

measurements of

several variables.

Quality Data of a

typical beverage

Scatter diagram is a

useful way to graphically

display the potential

relationship between

two or more variable

A scatter diagram is

constructed by plotting

each pair of

observations with one

measurement in the

pair on the vertical axis

of the graph and the

other measurement in

the pair on the

horizontal axis. Beverages of more intense color generally have a higher

quality rating.

Matrix of scatter diagrams is useful when two or more variables exist. It is helpful in

looking at all of the pairwise relationships between the variables in the sample.

CORRELATION COEFFICIENT

a quantitative measure of the strength of the linear relationship between two random

variables x and y

If the two variables are perfectly linearly related with a positive slope rxy = 1 and if they are

perfectly linearly related with a negative slope, then rxy = −1. If no linear relationship between

the two variables exists, then rxy = 0. The simple correlation coefficient is also sometimes

called the Pearson correlation coefficient after Karl Pearson,

Correlations below | 0.5 | are generally considered weak and correlations above | 0.8 | are generally

considered strong.

CORRELATION COEFFICIENT BETWEEN QUALITY AND pH Values

Correlation

Coefficients

PROBABILITY PLOTS

How to check whether data belongs to a particular probability

distribution

Leaf Unit = 0.1

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