Sie sind auf Seite 1von 7

Middle Adulthood

Ages 40-65
Physical Qualities and Changes
• During middle adult years, reproductive capacity declines or is
lost for both men and women, which is climacteric.
• For men, a decrease occurs as the male hormone testosterone
• Women experience a decrease in estrogen and progesterone.
• The first stage of reduced fertility is called perimenopause.
• Eventually, women reach menopause and can no longer
Phyical Qualities and Changes
• One of the first observed sensory changes is diminished
• Loss of visual acuity, or visions sharpness is more noticeable
especially up close.
• Muscle mass and strength is reduced and fat tissue increase.
• Many adults may feel stiffness in their bones.
• Calcium deficiency causes bones to become brittle and less
dense (osteoporosis)
• Physical activity can slow or reverse many of these changes.
• As physical abilities decline, good nutrition and regular
physical activity are important.
• The average person will gain 10 to 20 pounds during middle
age without some change in diet and activity.
Physical Qualities and Changes
• Continue to need between 7 and 9 hours of sleep each night.
• Symptoms from inadequate sleep may include the reduced
ability to concentrate, solve problems and be productive.
• Regular health, eye and dental examines are recommended.
• Chronic diseases overtake accidents as the leading cause of
death. Cancer is the leading cause of death and heart disease
is the second.
• Chronic diseases (like diabetes and arthritis) usually start
slowly and last for years, if not a lifetime.
Signs of Cognitive Change
• Some improve while others decline.
• Crystallized intelligence (judgment and accumulated
knowledge ) often increase.
• The ability to reason peaks.
• Middle adults tend to forget episodic (day to day things like
where the car keys are) memories and remember semantic
memories (like how to change a tire).
• Adults can continue to improve their language, memory and
reasoning skills.
• According to Kohlberg, middle age adults are in the final stage
of moral development called postconventional morality.
• Middle-aged adults become more interested in establishing
and living by their personal values.
Signs of Socio-emotional
• Most have lived through many life changes.
• Maturity is the ability to adapt to the inevitable changes that
happen in life.
• Erikson called this stage of socio-emotional development the
generativity versus stagnation (how to leave legacies).
Biological involves raising children. Parental is giving back to
future generations by participating in children’s lives. Work
involves passing on work knowledge and cultural includes
communicating values to larger society.
• The sandwich generation is when middle aged adults are
caring for their parents and their children at the same time.
• When children leave home, the household is an empty nest.
• Parents often become grandparents during middle adult years.
Signs of Socio-emotional
Change/Special Needs
• Supportive relationships are healthy relationships that include
give-and-take between those involved.
• People often question whether they want to continue in their
chosen career.
• Leisure activities help to define self-identity outside of career
or family.
• Retirement is often on their minds.
• ____________________________________________
• Special needs can develop as a result of aging.