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5 th national robot contest

Presentation on general
aspects of electronics
Presented by
Deepak Parajuli
Giresh kunwar
What is ROBOT
 v“ a n a u to m a tica lly co n tro lle d ,
re p ro g ra m m a b le , m u ltip u rp o se ,
 m a n ip u la to r p ro g ra m m a b le in th re e o r
 m o re a xe s, fixe d o r m o b ile ”


widely used in manufacturing, assembly and


packing, transport, earth and space exploration,
surgery, weaponry, laboratory research, and
mass production of consumer and industrial
goods.
ROBOT Dissection
Mechanical body

Electronic automation

ØAutomatic movement or
manual control


Major Electronics
Hardware
vSensors
vMain controller (robot brain)
vMotor drivers and actuators
Software
vLanguage and Tools(assembly ,c , keil, mplab)
vSimulators(proteus, EWB)

General Block Diagram of
Robotic System


co n d itio n in g
S e n so r

in te rfa ce s
O u tp u t
se n so
r a ctu a to
r
se n so M icro co n tro lle r
r in d ica to r

se n so
r
sensors
Touch sensor
Photo diode
Photo transistor
LDR
IR
Ultra Sound
Image sensor
Gyro sensor

Sensors(cont...)
Use of sensors
White strip(line) detection
Proximity detection
Obstacle detection
Obstacle avoidance
Inter robot communication
Main controller(robot
brain)
Different families of microcontroller
 ATMEL, Motorola, Texas Instuments, Zilog
 Microchip PIC
 AVR etc.
Selection Criteria of microcontroller
 Computing needs of the task efficiently(speed, memory, I/O ports, Power
consumption, cost/unit)
 Availability of software development tools(compiler,
simulator, assembler, debugger, technical support)
 Market availability
 Availability of reliable source of information


Motor Driver circuits and
Motors
Electromechanical Relay switching
Relay driver(ULN 2 0 0 3 )
MOSFET H- bridge
Motors
 Wiper motor (high torque low speed)
 Dc motor (moderate torque/ moderate speed)
 Stepper motor (precise control/low torque)
Optocouplers
 Blocking the noise from motor controller and motors to pass
to the main controller circuit.
Motors (cont...)

G ear headed D C
m o to r

W ip e r
m o to r

S te p p e r
m o to r
H- bridge
Relay switching

D PD P re la y w ith
“ ice cube ”
S o lid sta te re la y p a cka g in g

D iffe re n t re la y
sw itch in g
PCB designing
 Mechanical etching(etching machine takes more than 1 hr)
 Chemical etching(Conc HCl and H2O2 takes 30 minutes)
 Single layer PCB
 Double Layer PCB
 Multi layer PCB
Circuit design considerations
 Avoid large looping of wires (cause noise coupling)
 Avoid large component leg length(acts as antenna in high
frequency)
 Greater conductor spacing (to reduce noise coupling)
 Avoid ground looping(to eliminate unwanted current to flow)
 Place decoupling capacitor across each IC (to eliminate noise to
pass to the IC)

Software aspects of
microcontroller
 It deals with inputs that comes from real world
and give output to the real world.

 Popular microcontrollers:
 8051 family : AT89s51, AT89s52, AT89C51,
AT89C52
 PIC family : PIC16F877A
 AVR controllers
PIC and AVR controllers available in markets have

extra features like PWM,ADC than 8051.



On-Chip Facilities Overview
AT89S51

Parallel Input/Output Ports


System Clock Generator
Timer/Counters
Interrupts
Serial Port

PIC 16F877A

PWM
ADC

Parallel Input/Output
Ports
Four 8-bit I/O ports.
Each bit is individually usable for up to 32 1-bit
ports.
All ports are bidirectional and direction can be
set in SFRs in software.
Some of the pins have alternate functions.
System

Clock Generator

 In p u t
circu it S yste m C lo ck

8051 uses 12 system clock cycles per machine


cycle.
PIC 16F877A uses 4 system clock cycles per

machine cycle.
Timer / Counters
8051 has two 16-bit programmable timers.
Timers increment on each system clock.
vEach timer is associated with corresponding
SFRs (TLx, THx, TMOD) and can be read or
written to.
Uses

Generate delay.
Measure time interval between events.
Generate time out signals.

Interrupts
8051 has five sources of interrupts:

Two External Hardware Interrupts


Two Timer interrupts
Serial port events (buffer full, buffer empty)

 Interrupt enabled or disabled using SFRs(IE,
TCON).

Serial Port (UART)
 8051 has one serial port.

T X ( tra n sm it)

S e ria l
 Po rt R X ( re ce ive )

Data can be sent and received serially.


Baud rate must agree between sender and

receiver.
Transmission modes are selected using

SFRs(SCON).

Pulse Width
Modulation(PWM)
Used for generating variable speed.
PWM uses single bit output to generate an
analog value proportional to the desired
speed of the motor.

Software tools and
languages
L a n g u a g e s w e h a v e b e e n u sin g to m a k e

b ra in o f R o b o t:
 Assembly language
 C language


Software tools and
languages
Software tools used to simulate brain of

Robot:
 SDCC(small device c compiler, free and open
source)
 Keil (free version is limited .... Like it can debug
only 2k out of 8k code in at82s52,produce hex
file of max size up to 16k)
 MPLAB IDE(free IDE provided by MPLAB for PIC
controllers bundled with assembler s and C
compilers and debuggers from various vendors
but these compilers are limited in free version
 Proteus VSM
 Software tools for AVR are generally free and open
source
Best of luck for 5th national robot
contest


 Thank you