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Chapter 20

PRESENTING INSIGHTS AND FINDINGS:


ORAL PRESENTATIONS

McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2014 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Learning Objectives

Understand . . .
 The uses and differences between the types of
materials designed to support your points.
 How proficiency in research presentations
requires designing good visuals and knowing
how use them effectively.
 The importance of delivery to getting and
holding the audience’s attention.

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Learning Objectives

Understand . . .
 Why practice is an essential ingredient to
success and how to do it.
 What needs to be assembled and checked to be
certain that arrangements for the occasion and
venue are ready.

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Pull Quote

Listeners have one chance to hear your talk and


can’t “re-read” when they get confused. In many
situations, they have or will hear several talks on
the same day. Being clear is particularly
important if the audience can’t ask questions
during the talk.
Mark D. Hill,
professor of computer sciences and electrical
and computer engineering,
University of Wisconsin-Madison

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Oral
Presentation
and the
Research
Process

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Model for
Presentation
Planning

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Artistotle’s Proofs

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Aristotle Proofs & the Presentation

Ethos

Pathos

Logos

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Questions Guide the Plan

• Who makes up the audience?


Audience • What do they want to learn about?

• Why is this presentation occurring?


Content • How does it connect to the larger picture?

• When will the presentation take place?


Venue • Where will the presentation take place?

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Audience Analysis
Seven Questions to Understand Your Audience

• Who are they?


• Why are they here?
• What keeps them up at night?
• Why should they care about the presentation?
• What do you want them to do?
• Should you expect resistance?
• How can you best reach them?

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Types of Learners

Visual

Auditory

Kinesthetic

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Selective
Perception
Psychological
Principles
for Speakers Primacy Process
Effect Meanings

Recency Imaginative
Effect Construction

Audience
Construct
Formation

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Web-based Presentation Planning

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Patterns of Organization

Topical
Spatial
Classification
Climax
Problem/Solution
Chronological
Past/present/future

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Patterns of Organization

Past/present/future
Cause/effect/solution

Pros/Cons/Recommendation

Research Briefing

Motivated Sequence

Narrative

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Facts

Support Story
Statistics

Specific
Demonstration
Instance

Materials

Metaphor Example

Analogy Testimony

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Support Material Checklist
Factor Description
Relevant Relevant to the point it is supporting
Appropriate Fill the needs and style of the audience
Believable Accurate, ethically sound and fairly presented
Timely Workable with in presentation time limits
Variety More than one type of support
Balanced Between quantity and variety
Speaker Specific Enhance speaker’s style of delivery & message
Stylistic Benefits from analogies and metaphors
Simplicity Statistics are understandable
Detail Developed to point that audience can understand

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Audience
Match

Ten Passionate
Delivery
Appropriate
Language

Steps to
a Good
Story
Humorous
Shorts Central
Point
Strong
Story

Tweet-sized
Punch Personal
Experience

Fewer
Words Vivid

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Developing a Story

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Developing a Story

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Developing a Story

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The Oral
Presentation
and the
Research
Process

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Visualization Tools

Slides

Notes

Handouts

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Psychological
Principles Perceptual
Organization
Relevance

of
Visualization
Appropriate
Discriminability
Knowledge

Salience Capacity
limitations

Informative
Changes

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Visual Design Principles

Visual Preparation

Flow Aids

Visibility

Whitespace

Picture Supremacy

Photographic Framing

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Visual Design Principles

Contrast

Relationship

Simplicity

Clarity

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Design Flow Aids

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Graphs for
Orals

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Graphs for
Orals

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Simplifying Visuals

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Simplifying Visuals

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Simplifying Visuals

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Rx for Better Slides

Low Word Count

Avoid Slideuments

Keep it Simple
10-20-30 Rule

Large Font Size


Bullets in Moderation
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Presentation Aids: Key Word Prompts

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Jargon Clearer Meaning

Swim lane

Avoid SWAT team

Jargon
Leverage knowledge
capital
Peel the onion

Ocular inspection
Hard stop
Move the needle
Reinvent the flat tire
Relanguage
Low hanging fruit

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Jargon Clearer Meaning

Swim lane Specific responsibility

Avoid SWAT team Group of experts assembled


to solve a problem or tackle
Jargon an opportunity
Leverage knowledge Steal someone’s idea
capital
Peel the onion Delve into a problem one
aspect at a time
Ocular inspection Look at carefully
Hard stop Definite ending time
Move the needle Generate a reaction
Reinvent the flat tire Repeatedly make a mistake
Relanguage Reword or rewrite
Low hanging fruit Easily Accomplished

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Modes of Delivery

Impromptu

Memorized

Manuscript Reading

Extemporaneous

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Delivery Principles

Avoid Clutter

Reduce Jargon

Align Non-Verbal
Communication

Practice

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Non Verbal Admonitions for a Speaker

Eye Contact

Gestures

Posture & Body Language

Paralanguage

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Causes of Anxiety

Perceiving audience as judges

Possibility of visible failure

Needing to avoid failure

Uncertainty of ability to do well

Focus on own behavior & appearance

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Anxiety Coping Strategies

Reduce imagined audience power

Think positive, not negative, outcomes

Put performance in perspective

Control your own performance

Increase knowledge of audience

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Speaker Behaviors to Avoid

Vocal Physical
• Speak too softly • Rock back and forth
• Speak too rapidly • Pace without purpose
• Fail to vary volume, • Fiddle with things, hair,
tone, and rate of jewelry, clothing
speaking • Stare into space
• Fill pauses with you • Fail to make eye contact
know, um, ah • Move cursor without
purpose.

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Arrangements

Equipment Facilities

Visual Projection

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Meeting
Room
Arrangements

Seating Lighting

Facilities

Electrical
Temperature
Power

Lectern

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Size
Arrangements

Brightness Visibility

Visual
Projection

Barriers Projection

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Microphone
Arrangements
Electronic LCD
whiteboards projector

Equipment

Flipcharts
Video
/posters

Video
conferencing
/Webinars

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Key Terms

 analogy  enthymeme
 audience analysis  ethos
 auditory learners  example
 clarity  expert opinion
 contrast  extemporaneous
 compatibility presentation
 clutter  eye contact
 demonstration  Fact

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Key Terms

 flow aids  metaphor


 gestures  motivated sequence
 impromptu speaking  narrative pattern
 jargon  nonverbal
 kinesthetic learners communication
 logos  paralanguage
 manuscript reading  pathos
 memorization  performance anxiety

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Key Terms

 photographic framing  principle of


 posture and body discriminability
orientation  principle of informative
 primacy effect changes
 principle of appropriate  principle of perceptual
knowledge organization
 principle of capacity  principle of relevance
limitations  principle of salience

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Key Terms

 recency effect  specific instance


 relationship  statistics
 research briefing  stories
 rule of three  10-minute rule
 rule of thirds  testimony
 script  three-point speech
 simplicity  visibility
 speaker note cards  visualization

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Key Terms

 visual learners  Web-delivered


 visual preparation presentation
 whitespace

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Chapter 20
ADDITIONAL DISCUSSION OPPORTUNITIES

McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2014 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Snapshot: Culture of Reporting

Craft the message to fit the client.

Deliver negatives with politeness,


sensitivity.

Deliver puzzling findings with clarity.

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Snapshot: Overcoming Jitters

Public speaking is a top fear.

Anticipate your speech mentally,


physically, logistically.
Prepare 3 hours for 30-minute
speech.
Meet all (small group) or some
(large group) of your audience.
Memorize opening and closing to
cement audience rapport.

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PicProfile: Pictograph

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Research Thought Leader

“Thanks to the vast improvements in technology,


the time is right for companies to include
completely virtual meeting options as part of
their overall meetings strategy.

Chris Gaia,
vice president of marketing-travel division Maritz

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PulsePoint: Research Revelation

15 The percent of less information that is


delivered verbally when using a
PowerPoint presentation

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Chapter 20
PRESENTING INSIGHTS AND FINDINGS:
ORAL PRESENTATIONS

McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2014 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Photo Attributions
Slide Source
23 Purestock/SuperStock
26 ©Pamela S. Schindler
38 Purestock/SuperStock
39 Purestock/SuperStock
40 ©Image Source/Corbis
41 Ryan mcVay/Getty Images
53 Noel Hendrickson/Getty Images
54 ©Image Source/Corbis
55 ©Pamela S. Schindler

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