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1)Non -Renewable Power Generation

Presented By:
Salunke M.D.
J.S.P.M.’S B.I.T.B.
Subject:Energy and Environmental Engg.
A.Y. 2017-18
Availability of Energy Sources
• The various conventional energy sources
available are coal, water, petroleum products,
natural gas and nuclear energy.
• Other non-conventional energy sources which
are under development are solar, wind, ocean,
thermal, tidal and geothermal energy.
Types of Power Plant
1. Steam power plants.
2. Hydroelectric power plants.
3. Nuclear power plants.
4. Gas turbine power plants.
Thermal Power Plant
• A thermal power plant is one which is used to
produce electrical power on a large scale.
Usually, the steam power plants are used in
which the chemical energy of a fuel is utilized
to generate high pressure, high temperature
steam in a boiler
Various components of a steam power
Various components of a steam power
plant and their function
• Blower : The function of the blower is to draw the surrounding air
needed for combustion of fuel. The air drawn by blower is supplied
to airpreheater.
• Air preheater : It is a heat transfer device in which the air drawn
from surroundings is heated with the help of hot flue gases before
discharged to atmosphere through the chimney. The heated air is
supplied to the furnace. It improves the combustion efficiency of
the fuel.
• Furnace : Heated air from air preheater is supplied to the furnace
where fuel is burnt. The products of combustion of fuel and air are
called flue gases.
• Economiser : The feed water before supplied to the boiler tubes is
heated with the help of flue gases. It reduces the energy needed for
formation of steam.
• Boiler : It consists of boiler shell, water, tubes and superheater.
Feed water supplied from the economiser is first converted into wet
steam in water tubes and then into superheated steam in the
superheater due to the heat supplied by the hot flue gases. Steam
is generated at high pressures in the boiler.
• Steam Turbine and Generator : High pressure, superheated steam
of the boiler expands in the turbine and produces the mechanical
work. This work is utilised to drive a generator which converts the
mechanical energy into electrical energy.
• Condenser and condensate extraction pump : Steam from steam
turbine is exhausted to the condenser where the steam is
condensed by rejecting heat to circulated cooling water. The
condensed steam is called the condensate which is drawn with the
help of condensate extraction pump and supplied to hot-well.
• Feed pump : The condensate collected in the hot well with make up
water is fed back with the help of feed pump at boiler pressure to
the economizer.
• Cooling tower : Cooling water from cooling tower is circulated into
the condenser and absorbs heat from the exhaust steam of the
steam turbine. The resultant heated water from condenser is
supplied at the top of cooling tower. This heated water falls through
the nozzles. It gets cooled by the cool air passed from the bottom
of cooling tower. The heated air is discharged to the surroundings
from the top of cooling tower.
• Condenser water circulating pump : This pump circulates the
cooling water from the cooling tower to the condenser and the
heated water from the condenser back to the cooling tower.
Advantages of Steam Power Plants
1. Fuel used is cheaper.
2. They can respond quickly with changes in load on
the plant.
3. Space required is less compared to hydro power
4. A portion of steam can be used as process steam for
various industries.
5. Cost of electric power generation and its initial cost
is less compared to diesel plants.
6. Can be located near the load centre conveniently
thus reduces the transmission line cost and loss of
energy in transmission lines.
Disadvantages of Steam Power Plants
1. Operation and maintenance cost is high.
2. Time needed for errection of plant is high
before it is put to operation.
3. Large quantity of water is needed.
4. Coal and ash handling poses a serious problem.
5. The part load efficiency is low.
6. Pollution causes health problems to workers
and habitants near the thermal power plant.
Nuclear power plants
• Nuclear power plants utilise the energy produced by
nuclear reactions by fission for raising steam.
• This steam is further utilised in a conventional steam power
plant for running a steam turbine and an electric generator
• Nuclear fuels used for power generation are unstable
atoms such as thorium (Th232), uranium (U235) or artificially
produced element plutonium (Pu239).
Nuclear power plants
important parts of the nuclear power
plant and their function
1. Nuclear reactor : The energy is released by bombarding the slow
moving neutrons on the atom of fuel U235 i.e. by fission of U235 in the
nuclear reactor. This energy released is taken away by primary coolant.
2. Moderator : The fission of fuel produces fast moving neutrons. These
neutrons are slowed down to right speed by moderators so as to
increase the effectiveness of fission of fuel material. Materials used
for moderators are carbon or heavy water or peryllium.
3. Control rods : The rate of energy released by chain reaction due to
fission of nuclear fuel is very high. If the rate of heat energy is not
controlled properly, it may melt the entire core and the surrounding
4. 4. External shield : An external shield is provided for the physical
safety of persons operating the nuclear reactor from harmful effects
of radiation.
5. Heat Exchanger : In the heat exchanger, the heat absorbed by
primary coolant in the reactor is transferred to water. The water is
converted into high pressure steam.
Primary coolants may be a gas like carbon dioxide, helium or liquid
metals like sodium, potassium and their alloys.
Therefore the heat exchanger acts like a boiler of a steam power plant.
6. Steam turbine : High pressure steam expands in the turbine upto
condenser pressure to develop mechanical power. This is converted
into electrical energy by a generator.
7. Condenser : It condenses the steam exhausted from the turbine. The
condensate returned to heat exchanger with the help of feed pump.
8. Cooling tower : The cooling water is circulated from cooling tower to
condenser where it absorbs heat from the steam exhausted from the
steam turbine. The heated water from condenser is returned to
cooling tower at its top. The heated water is cooled by the
surrounding air circulated from the bottom of the cooling tower and
discharged from the top.
Advantages of Nuclear Power Plants
1. Large quantity of energy is released by very small
amount of fuel compared to conventional fuels used
in steam power plants.
2. Problem of large amount of fuel transportation and
its storage facility is not needed.
3. It does not cause air pollution.
4. Reduces the demand on depleting resources and
rising cost of fuels like coal, oil and gas.
5. It needs less space compared to conventional steam
6. Performance of these plants is high.
Disadvantages of Nuclear Power Plants
1. It’s capital cost is high.
2. It needs trained man power.
3. It has problem of radioactive waste disposal.
4. High degree of safety is needed for persons
working on these plants against the nuclear
5. Cost of power generation is high.
Hydro-electric power plants
• Hydro-electric power plants utilise the potential
energy of water to move hydraulic turbines which
are coupled to electric generators. Therefore,
these plants have to be located where the water
resources are available in abundance at sufficient
• The first hydro power plant was set up in 1897 at
Darjeeling of 200kW capacity and the first major
hydro-electric power plant was commissioned in
1902 of 4.5 MW capacity of Sivasamudram
scheme in Mysore.
Hydro-electric power plants
Main components of the hydro-electric
power plant and their functions
(1)Reservoir : A reservoir is provided to store water during rainy
season and supplies the same in dry season. The water from
the reservoir is used to run the hydraulic turbine.
(2)Dam : A dam is structure of considerable height built across the
river. Its function is to provide working head of water for power
plant and to increase the storage-capacity of reservoir.
(3)Trash rack : These are made up of steel bars. Trash rack is
provided to prevent entry of debris into the intakes from dam
or from the forebay. Any debris into the intake water pipe may
damage the turbine runners or choke the nozzles of an impulse
(4)Gate : The gate is provided for controlling of flow of water
from reservoir to hydraulic turbine through penstock. It is
closed when maintenance of system is required
(5)Forebays : It is small water reservoir at the end of water
passage from the reservoir and before the water is fed to
the turbine to the penstock.
It acts as a temporary regulating reservoir. It stores water
when the load on the plant reduces and the same water is
supplied to the turbine at the time of increasing load in the
initial stages.
It helps in absorbing the flow variations.
(6)Surge tank : The function of surge tank is to protect the
penstock due to sudden variation of flow or the velocity of
water. It is located near the power house on high ground.
(7)Penstock : A pipe which carries water from reservoir to
turbine house is called penstock. It is a large pipe of 1 m to
2 m in diameter made up of concrete to withstand high
(8)Anchors : These are concrete blocks to support penstock.
(9)Power house : A power house consists of hydraulic and
electric equipments where the water energy is converted
into electrical energy. Usually the power house is located
underground whenever possible e.g. as in case of Koyana
power house in Maharashtra state.
(10)Hydraulic turbines : These are used to convert the kinetic
energy of water into mechanical energy.
(11)Draft tube : A draft tube is a passage which connects the
exit from the turbine runner down to tail race water level.
It supplements the action of runner of the reaction turbine
by utilising the remainder K.E. of the water at discharge
end of the runner.
(12)Tail race : A tail race is a water way to lead the water
discharged from the turbine to the river.
Advantages of Hydro Power Plants
(i)Though its capital cost is comparatively high but its operation cost is
much less. Due to this the cost of power generation per unit is
(ii) These plants are more reliable.
(iii)Starting and stopping of these plants takes very short time
compared to steam and nuclear power plants.
(iv)These plants has no ash disposal problems of steam power plants
and nuclear waste disposal problems of nuclear power plants.
(v) The life expectancy is higher. It is about 50 years.
(vi)These plants have high efficiency over wide range of loads
compared to other power plants.
(vii)These plants require less supervising staff.
(viii)These plants can be used for irrigation and flood control purposes
in addition to power generation.
Disadvantages of Hydro Power Plants
(i)The total power developed depends upon the
availability of quantity of water, therefore, these
are dependent on rainfall.
(ii)These plants are usually located far away from
the place needing electrical power, hence, it
requires long transmission lines. It increases the
cost of transmission lines and power loss.
(iii)Time required for development of such plants is
turbine power plant
Gas turbine power plant
Components Of Gas turbine power
• Compressor
• Combustion Chamber
• Gas Turbine
• Auxiliaries such as fuel pump ,lubrication
pump etc.
Advantages Of GTP
Dis-Advantages Of GTP
• Low efficiancy
• Shorter life about 5 to 7 years
• Cause noise pollution
• Maintainance cost high
• Skilled labours required
Applications GTPP
Thermo electric and thermionic
Thermo electric and thermionic
Working Of Thermonic Generator
Working Of Thermonic Generator