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CLOSE-RANGE /

BATTLEFIELD
AIRCRAFT

T.JANAKIRAM
2009603001
CHARACTERISTICS
•PLAYS A MULTITUDE ROLES(MILITARY, PARAMILITARY, CIVILIAN)

•LOW-ALTITUDE OPERATIONS

•RAPID RESPONSE TIME

•COMPLETELY MOBILE

SUB-TYPES OF CLOSE-RANGE UAVS


•Non-VTOL AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS

•VTOL SYSTEMS
OBSERVER
CHARACTERISTICS

ALL-UP-MASS 36Kg
WING SPAN 2.42m
WING AREA 1.73m2
ENGINE POWER 5.25KW
WING LOADING 184N/m2
SPAN LOADING 120N/m
CRUISE SPEEED 125km/hr
LOITER SPEED 110km/hr
MISSION RADIUS 25km
ENDURANCE 2 hrs
Phoenix

The BAE Systems Phoenix is an all-


weather, day or night, real-time
surveillance Unmanned Air Vehicle. It is
a twin-boom UAV with a surveillance
pod, from which the imagery is data
linked to a ground control station
(GCS).

For the British Army, Phoenix provides intelligence direct to artillery


forces, to command level, or to a Phoenix troop command post. The
principal method of communication from the GCS to artillery on the
ground is via the Battlefield Artillery Targeting System (BATES). The
UAV can be launched within an hour of reaching its launch site. A
second UAV can be launched within a further eight minutes and up to
two UAVs can be controlled from the same ground station.
Elbit Systems Hermes 90

The Elbit Systems Hermes 90 is an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)


designed for tactical short-range missions using a heavy-fuel motor.
Jane's claims that the Hermes 90 has its roots in the IAI I-View and later in
the BAE Skylynx II. Ownership of rights were subsequently moved to Elbit
Systems.[1]
The Hermes 90 has an operating range of about 15 hours and 100 km.[2]
In September 2009, the Hermes 90 made its maiden flight.[2]
ORBITER
RQ-7 Shadow 200

Characteristics:
RQ-7B RQ-7B
Length 11.2 ft Wing Span 14 ft
Gross Weight 375 lb Payload Capacity 60 lb
Fuel Capacity 73 lb Fuel Type MOGAS
Engine Make UEL AR-741 Power 38 hp
Data Link(s) LOS C2 Frequency S-band, UHF
LOS Video C-band
Performance:
Endurance 6 hr Max/Loiter Speeds 110/60 kt
Ceiling 15,000 ft Radius >68 nm
Takeoff Means Catapult/
Rolling T/O Landing Means Rolling Landing/
Arresting Wire
Sensor EO/IR Sensor Make Tamam POP 300
RQ-11 Raven (Pathfinder
Raven)
Characteristics:
RQ-11 RQ-11
Length 3.4 ft Wing Span 4.3 ft
Gross Weight 4 lb Payload Capacity 1 lb
Fuel Capacity n/a Fuel Type Battery
Engine Make Power
Data Link(s) C2 Frequency
Video

Performance:
Endurance 1.5 hr Max/Loiter Speeds
Ceiling 14,000 ft Radius 6 nm
Takeoff Means Hand launched Landing Means Stall
Sensor EO Sensor Make
RQ-2 Pioneer
Puma (Aqua or Terra Puma)
Characteristics:
Puma Puma
Length 5.9 ft Wing Span 8.5 ft
Gross Weight 14 lb Payload Capacity 2-4 lb
Fuel Capacity n/a Fuel Type Battery
Data Link(s) C2

Performance:
Endurance 2.5 hr Max/Loiter Speeds
Ceiling 10,000 ft Radius 6 nm
Takeoff Means Hand launched Landing Means Stall
Sensor EO & IR Sensor Make
RQ-15 Neptune

Neptune is designed for at-sea launch and recovery.


Carried in a 72x30x20 inch case that transforms into a
pneumatic launcher, it can be launched from small
vessels and recovered in open water. It can carry IR or
color video sensors, or can be used to drop small
payloads. Its digital data link is designed to minimize
multipath effects over water. First flight occurred in
January 2002, and an initial production contract was
awarded to in March 2002
XPV-2 Mako
ScanEagle
SPRITE
CHARACTERISTICS

•BOTH GCS AND A/C HAS BACK-UP SYSTEMS



•TWO INDEPENDENT POWER-PLANTS

•A/C CAN HOVER ON ONE ENGINE

•MODULAR CONSTRUCTION OF GCS AND A/C ENABLES EASE OF
BUILD AND MAINTAINENCE

•IT HAS NEUTRAL STABILITY

•RELIES ON AFCS FOR +VE SPATIAL STABILITY

•LOW DETECTABLE SIGNATURES
RMAX
   Item RMAX RMAX
Type II G Type II
Performance Maximum Payload* 28kg 31kg
Chemical Capacity* 21kg 24kg

Flight Duration 60 minutes


Maximum 94 kg
Takeoff Weight*
Practical Range 150 m
(visual observation range)
Control System YACS-G YACS
Body Type L17-1 L17-2
Main Rotor Diameter 3,115 mm

Tail Rotor Diameter 545 mm


Overall Length 3,630 mm
(rotors included)
Overall Width 720 mm
Overall Height 1.080 mm
Engine Type Water-cooled, 2-stroke, 
horizontally opposed 2-cylinder
Displacement 246 cc
MaximumOutput 21PSÅ ^ 2.6kgm
/Maximum Torque

Starting System Cell Motor


Fuel Regular gasoline mixed
with 2-stroke engine oil
ROTOR DIA-3.13M
PAYLOAD - SPRAY EQPT AND FLUID

•FLY EFFICIENTLY AT LOW SPEEDS OVER


LOCAL FIELDS.
•21/2 MASS OF SPRITE

EADS - Scorpio 30
A lightweight helicopter designed for urban operations by military and paramilitary
organisations. Scorpio 30 is the larger version of the type and was first released to
the market in 2002. Low volume sales have been recorded for the French Army
and undisclosed South American customers. One system was acquired by the UK
Ministry of Defence for use in the former joint UAV experimentation programme.
Range Class: Close range  

Airframe Helicopter  

Span 2.20 m  

Length 2.00 m  

Max take-off weight 38.00 kg  

Payload Weight 15.00 kg  

Cruise speed 27.00 kts  

Endurance 2hrs  
COMPARISON OF CLOSE-RANGE UAV
WING LOADING:
RL must be able to leave the ramp top and sustain flight at
airspeed lower than the a/c using runway. This means RL should have low
wing loading..typically 1/10th of HALE &1/2 of medium-range a/c.

Phoenix has the highest wing loading ,followed by Scan Eagle and so on.

PROPELLER EFFICIENCY :
RL is vulnerable to air disturbances at air speed slightly
above the stalling speed. Side gust causes lateral roll, side-slip and ground
impact. Up-gust causes nose-up in turn resulting in lift and drag increase
leading to stall.
So propeller must accelerate rapidly to high speed to provide max thrust.
Leads to use of variable-pitch prop. Due to RL we us fixed-pitch prop thus
resulting in poor efficiency
LANDING EQUIPMENT:
PHOENIX AND OBSERVER HAS TO CARRY
PARACHUTE AND AIRBAG TO REDUCE THE IMPACT LOADS ON
TOUCH-DOWN.
Scan eagle use sky-hook
CONCLUSION OF AUTHOR IS VTOL IS BETTER
SUITED FOR SHORT-RANGE/BATTLE FIELD
SCENARIO THAN RL HTOL SYSTEMS BECAUSE:
1.VTOL IS LESS VULNERABLE TO ENEMY ATTACK IN AIR AND LESS
VULNERABLE ON GROUND DUE TO MORE MOBILE WITH FAR
LESS GROUND EQUIPMENT AND PERSONNEL DEPLOYED.
2.VTOL COST LESS IN OPERATION THROUGH LESS COST OF
PERSONNEL.
3.LOWER RESPONSE TO AIR TURBULANCE
4.VERSATILITY TO HOVER AND LOW SPEED FLIGHT
5.
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