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1C9

Design for seismic


and climate changes

Jiří Máca
List of lectures

1. Elements of seismology and seismicity I


2. Elements of seismology and seismicity II
3. Dynamic analysis of single-degree-of-freedom systems I
4. Dynamic analysis of single-degree-of-freedom systems II
5. Dynamic analysis of single-degree-of-freedom systems III
6. Dynamic analysis of multi-degree-of-freedom systems
7. Finite element method in structural dynamics I
8. Finite element method in structural dynamics II
9. Earthquake analysis I

2
Finite element method in structural dynamics II
Numerical evaluation of dynamic response

1. Dynamic response analysis


2. Time-stepping procedure
3. Central difference method
4. Newmark’s method
5. Stability and computational error of time integration schemes
6. Example – direct integration – central difference method
7. Analysis of nonlinear response – average acceleration method
8. HHT method
1. DYNAMIC RESPONSE ANALYSIS

- The equation of motion represents N differential equations


mu  cu  ku  p(t ) N equations

- Considering modal analysis, the previous equations can be reduced if the


the nodal displacements are approximated by a linear combination of the
first J natural modes (usually J much less then N, number of DOF)
 q1  t  
J
u t    q  t   Φq(t )
n n
 
n 1
 q  t  
Φ    ... J  q t    2 
 ... 
M q  C q  K q  P(t ) J equations (J<<N) qJ  t  

M  ΦT mΦ ; C  ΦT cΦ ; K  ΦT kΦ ; P(t )  ΦT p(t )

(Modal analysis can only be used if the system does not respond into the non-linear range…)
Dynamic response analysis

For systems that behave in a linear elastic fashion…

- If N is small → it is appropriate to solve numerically the equations


mu  cu  ku  p(t )

- If N is large → it may be advantageous to use modal analysis


M q  C q  K q  P(t ) M and K are diagonal matrices

- For systems with classical damping C is a diagonal matrix →


J uncoupled differential equations (see resolution of SDOF systems)
Mn qn (t )  Cn qn (t )  Kn qn (t )  Pn (t ) n = 1, J

- For systems with nonclassical damping C is not diagonal and


the J equations are coupled → use numerical methods to
solve the equations
Dynamic response analysis

- The direct solution (using numerical methods) of the NxN system of equations
mu  cu  ku  p(t )

is adopted in the following situations:

- For systems with few degrees of freedom


- For systems and excitations where most of the modes
contribute significantly to the response
- For systems that respond into the non-linear range

- Numerical methods can also be used within the modal analysis for system with
nonclassical damping
2. TIME-STEPPING PROCEDURE

- Equations of motion for linear MDOF system excited by force vector p(t) or
earthquake-induced ground motion ug (t )
mu  cu  ku  p(t ) or  mιu g (t )
initial conditions u(0)  u0 and u(0)  u0

time scale is divided into a series of time steps, usually of constant duration
t  ti 1  ti
pi  p(ti ) ui  u(ti ) ui  u(ti ) ui  u(ti )

mui  cui  kui  pi  mui 1  cui 1  kui 1  pi 1

unknown vectors ui 1 ui 1 ui 1

Explicit methods - equations of motion are used at time instant i


Implicit methods - equations of motion are used at time instant i+1
Time-stepping procedure

- Modal equations for linear MDOF system excited by force vector p(t)

J
u t    q  t   Φq(t )
n 1
n n

M q  C q  K q  P(t )

M  ΦT mΦ C  ΦT cΦ K  ΦT kΦ P(t )  ΦT p(t )

M qi  C qi  K qi  Pi  M qi 1  C qi 1  K qi 1  Pi 1

unknown vectors qi 1 qi 1 qi 1
3. CENTRAL DIFFERENCE METHOD

explicit integration method

dynamic equilibrium condition


for direct solution xn → ui fn → pi M, C, K → m, c, k

for modal analysis xn → qi fn → Pi M, C, K → M, C, K

xn1  xn1 M xn  Cxn  Kxn  f n


x n 
2t
 x  2 xn  xn1   xn1  xn1 
x  2 xn  xn1 M  n1   C    Kxn  f n
xn  n1   t 2
  2  t 
t 2

1
 1 1    2   1 1  
xn1   2 M  C   f n   K  2 M  xn   2 M  C  xn1 
 t 2t    t   t 2t  

K̂ b a
Central difference method
1
 1 1 
for diagonal M and C, finding an inverse of
 t 2 M  C
is trivial (uncoupled equations) 2t 

time step
conditionally stable method - stability is controlled by the highest frequency
or shortest period TM (function of the element size used in the FEM model)
T
t  M

the time step should be small enough to resolve the motion of the structure.
For modal analysis it is controlled by the highest mode with the period TJ
TJ
t
20
the time step should be small enough to follow the loading function –
acceleration records are typically given at constant time increments (e.g.
every 0.02 seconds) which may also influence the time step.
Central difference method

(initial conditions)

(effective stiffness matrix)


Central difference method

(effective load vector)

for direct solution: delete steps 1.1, 1.2, 2.1 and 2.5
replace (1) q by u, (2) M, C, K and P by m, c, k and p
4. NEWMARK’S METHOD

implicit integration method

dynamic equilibrium condition


for direct solution xn → ui fn → pi M, C, K → m, c, k

for modal analysis xn → qi fn → Pi M, C, K → M, C, K

xn 1  xn  txn  0.5   t 2 xn  xn 1t 2


Mxn 1  Cxn 1  Kxn 1  f n 1
xn 1  xn  1   txn  txn 1
(“discrete” equations of motion)
(Newmark’s equations)

 M  t C  t 2 K  xn 1  f n 1  C  xn  1    t xn   K  xn  t xn   0.5    t 2 xn 

K̂ fˆn1
Newmark’s method

effective stiffness matrix


Kˆ  [ M  tC  t 2 K ]

effective load vector


fˆn 1  f n 1  C  xn  1    txn   K  xn  txn   0.5    t 2 xn 

system of coupled equations

Kˆ xn 1  fˆn 1  xn 1

unconditionally stable method


for γ = 1/2 and β = 1/4 (average acceleration method)
TM
recommended time step depends on the shortest period of interest t
10
Newmark’s method
Newmark’s method

for direct solution: delete steps 1.1, 1.2, 2.1 and 2.7
replace (1) q by u, (2) M, C, K and P by m, c, k and p
5. STABILITY AND COMPUTATIONAL ERROR OF TIME INTEGRATION
SCHEMES

 TJ 
 t  
  

more (t  0.551TJ )


accurate
than

 TJ 
 t  
  
Stability and computational error of time integration schemes

Free vibration problem: mu  ku  0 u(0)  1 and u(0)  0  u(t )  cos nt

(t  0.1Tn )

Errors: amplitude decay (AD)


numerical
period elongation (PE) damping?
6. EXAMPLE – DIRECT INTEGRATION – CENTRAL DIFFERENCE METHOD

bh3 0.3 * 0.33


E  3.43*10 kN / m , I 
7 2
  6.75*104
12 12

ag (t ) / g
m
3.10m
0.2 1.2
k 3.10m

m
1.7

3.10m 3.10m
1.0 2.5 3.4 T sec
k
0.30m / 0.30m

12 EI 12 * 3.43 *107 * 6.75 *104  0.35


k  2* 3  2*  18640kN / m
L 3.14
m  60kN sec2 / m
 k  k   18640  18640 m 0  60 0 
K     18640 37280  M     0 60
  k 2 k     0 m   
T1  0.58 sec T2  0.22 sec
Example – direct integration – central difference method

Explicit time stepping scheme 1


 1    2   1  
General forcing function xn 1   2 M   f n   K  2 M  xn   2 M  xn 1 
 t    t   t  
1
 1 
xn1   2 M   f n  Kxn   2 xn  xn1 (undamped system)
 t 

 1 
 0   f1   K (1,1) K (1,2)   x1    x1   x1 
 x1  2 M (1,1)
 x   t         x    2 x    x 
 2  n1  0 1   2  n 
f K ( 2,1) K ( 2, 2 )   2  n   2  n  2  n1
 M (2,2) 
t 2
xn1 
1

M (1,1)
 
f1  K (1,1) * x1n  K (1,2) * xn2  2 * x1n  x1n1

t 2
x 2
n 1 
M (2,2)
 
f 2  K (2,1) * x1n  K (2,2) * xn2  2 * xn2  xn21
Example – direct integration – central difference method

for the base acceleration case a (t )

t 2
x 1
n 1 
M (1,1)
 
 M (1,1) * an  K (1,1) * x1n  K (1,2) * xn2  2 * x1n  x1n1

t 2
x 2
n 1 
M (2,2)
 
 M (2,2) * an  K (2,1) * x1n  K (2,2) * xn2  2 * xn2  xn21

for the problem considered

t 2
x 1
n1 
60
 
 60 * an  18640 * x1n  18640 * xn2  2 * x1n  x1n1

t 2
xn21 
60
 
 60 * an  18640 * x1n  37280 * xn2  2 * xn2  xn21
Example – direct integration – central difference method

t  0.01sec
Example – direct integration – central difference method

t  0.05sec
Example – direct integration – central difference method

Tmin 0.22
t  0.08 sec  tcrit    0.07
 

inaccurate solution
Example – direct integration – central difference method

t  0.09 sec  tcrit

unstable solution

(unstable solution)
7. ANALYSIS OF NONLINEAR RESPONSE – AVERAGE ACCELERATION
METHOD

Incremental equilibrium condition


mui  cui   f S i  pi

Incremental resisting force


 f S i   k i sec ui  k i T ui

(assumption)

secant stiffness:  k i sec


(unknown)
tangent stiffness:  k i T
(known) Need for an iterative process
within each time step…
Analysis of nonlinear response – average acceleration method

 1 1
  4 ;   2 
 

(effective load vector)

(effective stiffness matrix)


Analysis of nonlinear response – average acceleration method

cont.
M N-R method

- unconditionally stable method


- no numerical damping
- recommended time step depends on the shortest period of interest
Analysis of nonlinear response – average acceleration method

Modified Newton-Raphson (M N-R) iteration

To reduce computational effort,


the tangent stiffness matrix is
not updated for each iteration
8. HILBER-HUGHES-TAYLOR (HHT) METHOD (α – method)
implicit integration method – generalization of Newmark’s method
numerical damping of higher frequencies (elimination of high frequency
oscillations) + stable and second order convergent

dynamic equilibrium condition


for direct solution xn → ui fn → pi M, C, K → m, c, k

for modal analysis xn → qi fn → P i M, C, K → M, C, K

xn 1  xn  txn   0.5    t 2 xn   xn 1t 2


xn 1  xn  1    txn  txn 1
(Newmark’s equations)

Mxn 1  1     Cxn 1  Kxn 1     Cxn  Kxn   f  tn 1   xn 1

(“discrete” equations of motion) (unknowns)

tn 1  tn  1    t
HHT method
3 parameters – values for unconditional stability and second-order accuracy:
1
  1    4    0.3    0
2

2
the smaller value of α – more numerical damping is introduced to the system
for α = 0 – Newmark’s method with no numerical damping

HHT method for transient analysis of nonlinear problems


Mxn 1  f int  xn  , xn    f  tn  , xn  
xn 1  xn  txn   0.5    t 2 xn   xn 1t 2 system of algebraic equations
xn 1  xn  1    txn  txn 1

fint  xn  , xn   vector of internal forces


(depends non-linearly on displacements and velocities)

  n   1     n 1     n variables computed by convex combination