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# 1C9

## Design for seismic

and climate changes

Jiří Máca
List of lectures

## 1. Elements of seismology and seismicity I

2. Elements of seismology and seismicity II
3. Dynamic analysis of single-degree-of-freedom systems I
4. Dynamic analysis of single-degree-of-freedom systems II
5. Dynamic analysis of single-degree-of-freedom systems III
6. Dynamic analysis of multi-degree-of-freedom systems
7. Finite element method in structural dynamics I
8. Finite element method in structural dynamics II
9. Earthquake analysis I

2
Finite element method in structural dynamics II
Numerical evaluation of dynamic response

## 1. Dynamic response analysis

2. Time-stepping procedure
3. Central difference method
4. Newmark’s method
5. Stability and computational error of time integration schemes
6. Example – direct integration – central difference method
7. Analysis of nonlinear response – average acceleration method
8. HHT method
1. DYNAMIC RESPONSE ANALYSIS

## - The equation of motion represents N differential equations

mu  cu  ku  p(t ) N equations

## - Considering modal analysis, the previous equations can be reduced if the

the nodal displacements are approximated by a linear combination of the
first J natural modes (usually J much less then N, number of DOF)
 q1  t  
J
u t    q  t   Φq(t )
n n
 
n 1
 q  t  
Φ    ... J  q t    2 
 ... 
M q  C q  K q  P(t ) J equations (J<<N) qJ  t  

M  ΦT mΦ ; C  ΦT cΦ ; K  ΦT kΦ ; P(t )  ΦT p(t )

(Modal analysis can only be used if the system does not respond into the non-linear range…)
Dynamic response analysis

## - If N is small → it is appropriate to solve numerically the equations

mu  cu  ku  p(t )

## - If N is large → it may be advantageous to use modal analysis

M q  C q  K q  P(t ) M and K are diagonal matrices

## - For systems with classical damping C is a diagonal matrix →

J uncoupled differential equations (see resolution of SDOF systems)
Mn qn (t )  Cn qn (t )  Kn qn (t )  Pn (t ) n = 1, J

## - For systems with nonclassical damping C is not diagonal and

the J equations are coupled → use numerical methods to
solve the equations
Dynamic response analysis

- The direct solution (using numerical methods) of the NxN system of equations
mu  cu  ku  p(t )

## - For systems with few degrees of freedom

- For systems and excitations where most of the modes
contribute significantly to the response
- For systems that respond into the non-linear range

- Numerical methods can also be used within the modal analysis for system with
nonclassical damping
2. TIME-STEPPING PROCEDURE

- Equations of motion for linear MDOF system excited by force vector p(t) or
earthquake-induced ground motion ug (t )
mu  cu  ku  p(t ) or  mιu g (t )
initial conditions u(0)  u0 and u(0)  u0

time scale is divided into a series of time steps, usually of constant duration
t  ti 1  ti
pi  p(ti ) ui  u(ti ) ui  u(ti ) ui  u(ti )

## mui  cui  kui  pi  mui 1  cui 1  kui 1  pi 1

unknown vectors ui 1 ui 1 ui 1

## Explicit methods - equations of motion are used at time instant i

Implicit methods - equations of motion are used at time instant i+1
Time-stepping procedure

- Modal equations for linear MDOF system excited by force vector p(t)

J
u t    q  t   Φq(t )
n 1
n n

M q  C q  K q  P(t )

M  ΦT mΦ C  ΦT cΦ K  ΦT kΦ P(t )  ΦT p(t )

M qi  C qi  K qi  Pi  M qi 1  C qi 1  K qi 1  Pi 1

unknown vectors qi 1 qi 1 qi 1
3. CENTRAL DIFFERENCE METHOD

## dynamic equilibrium condition

for direct solution xn → ui fn → pi M, C, K → m, c, k

## xn1  xn1 M xn  Cxn  Kxn  f n

x n 
2t
 x  2 xn  xn1   xn1  xn1 
x  2 xn  xn1 M  n1   C    Kxn  f n
xn  n1   t 2
  2  t 
t 2

1
 1 1    2   1 1  
xn1   2 M  C   f n   K  2 M  xn   2 M  C  xn1 
 t 2t    t   t 2t  

K̂ b a
Central difference method
1
 1 1 
for diagonal M and C, finding an inverse of
 t 2 M  C
is trivial (uncoupled equations) 2t 

time step
conditionally stable method - stability is controlled by the highest frequency
or shortest period TM (function of the element size used in the FEM model)
T
t  M

the time step should be small enough to resolve the motion of the structure.
For modal analysis it is controlled by the highest mode with the period TJ
TJ
t
20
acceleration records are typically given at constant time increments (e.g.
every 0.02 seconds) which may also influence the time step.
Central difference method

(initial conditions)

## (effective stiffness matrix)

Central difference method

for direct solution: delete steps 1.1, 1.2, 2.1 and 2.5
replace (1) q by u, (2) M, C, K and P by m, c, k and p
4. NEWMARK’S METHOD

## dynamic equilibrium condition

for direct solution xn → ui fn → pi M, C, K → m, c, k

## xn 1  xn  txn  0.5   t 2 xn  xn 1t 2

Mxn 1  Cxn 1  Kxn 1  f n 1
xn 1  xn  1   txn  txn 1
(“discrete” equations of motion)
(Newmark’s equations)

K̂ fˆn1
Newmark’s method

## effective stiffness matrix

Kˆ  [ M  tC  t 2 K ]

fˆn 1  f n 1  C  xn  1    txn   K  xn  txn   0.5    t 2 xn 

## system of coupled equations

Kˆ xn 1  fˆn 1  xn 1

## unconditionally stable method

for γ = 1/2 and β = 1/4 (average acceleration method)
TM
recommended time step depends on the shortest period of interest t
10
Newmark’s method
Newmark’s method

for direct solution: delete steps 1.1, 1.2, 2.1 and 2.7
replace (1) q by u, (2) M, C, K and P by m, c, k and p
5. STABILITY AND COMPUTATIONAL ERROR OF TIME INTEGRATION
SCHEMES

 TJ 
 t  
  

## more (t  0.551TJ )

accurate
than

 TJ 
 t  
  
Stability and computational error of time integration schemes

## Free vibration problem: mu  ku  0 u(0)  1 and u(0)  0  u(t )  cos nt

(t  0.1Tn )

numerical
period elongation (PE) damping?
6. EXAMPLE – DIRECT INTEGRATION – CENTRAL DIFFERENCE METHOD

## bh3 0.3 * 0.33

E  3.43*10 kN / m , I 
7 2
  6.75*104
12 12

ag (t ) / g
m
3.10m
0.2 1.2
k 3.10m

m
1.7

3.10m 3.10m
1.0 2.5 3.4 T sec
k
0.30m / 0.30m

## 12 EI 12 * 3.43 *107 * 6.75 *104  0.35

k  2* 3  2*  18640kN / m
L 3.14
m  60kN sec2 / m
 k  k   18640  18640 m 0  60 0 
K     18640 37280  M     0 60
  k 2 k     0 m   
T1  0.58 sec T2  0.22 sec
Example – direct integration – central difference method

## Explicit time stepping scheme 1

 1    2   1  
General forcing function xn 1   2 M   f n   K  2 M  xn   2 M  xn 1 
 t    t   t  
1
 1 
xn1   2 M   f n  Kxn   2 xn  xn1 (undamped system)
 t 

 1 
 0   f1   K (1,1) K (1,2)   x1    x1   x1 
 x1  2 M (1,1)
 x   t         x    2 x    x 
 2  n1  0 1   2  n 
f K ( 2,1) K ( 2, 2 )   2  n   2  n  2  n1
 M (2,2) 
t 2
xn1 
1

M (1,1)
 
f1  K (1,1) * x1n  K (1,2) * xn2  2 * x1n  x1n1

t 2
x 2
n 1 
M (2,2)
 
f 2  K (2,1) * x1n  K (2,2) * xn2  2 * xn2  xn21
Example – direct integration – central difference method

## for the base acceleration case a (t )

t 2
x 1
n 1 
M (1,1)
 
 M (1,1) * an  K (1,1) * x1n  K (1,2) * xn2  2 * x1n  x1n1

t 2
x 2
n 1 
M (2,2)
 
 M (2,2) * an  K (2,1) * x1n  K (2,2) * xn2  2 * xn2  xn21

## for the problem considered

t 2
x 1
n1 
60
 
 60 * an  18640 * x1n  18640 * xn2  2 * x1n  x1n1

t 2
xn21 
60
 
 60 * an  18640 * x1n  37280 * xn2  2 * xn2  xn21
Example – direct integration – central difference method

t  0.01sec
Example – direct integration – central difference method

t  0.05sec
Example – direct integration – central difference method

Tmin 0.22
t  0.08 sec  tcrit    0.07
 

inaccurate solution
Example – direct integration – central difference method

## t  0.09 sec  tcrit

unstable solution

(unstable solution)
7. ANALYSIS OF NONLINEAR RESPONSE – AVERAGE ACCELERATION
METHOD

## Incremental equilibrium condition

mui  cui   f S i  pi

## Incremental resisting force

 f S i   k i sec ui  k i T ui

(assumption)

## secant stiffness:  k i sec

(unknown)
tangent stiffness:  k i T
(known) Need for an iterative process
within each time step…
Analysis of nonlinear response – average acceleration method

 1 1
  4 ;   2 
 

## (effective stiffness matrix)

Analysis of nonlinear response – average acceleration method

cont.
M N-R method

## - unconditionally stable method

- no numerical damping
- recommended time step depends on the shortest period of interest
Analysis of nonlinear response – average acceleration method

## To reduce computational effort,

the tangent stiffness matrix is
not updated for each iteration
8. HILBER-HUGHES-TAYLOR (HHT) METHOD (α – method)
implicit integration method – generalization of Newmark’s method
numerical damping of higher frequencies (elimination of high frequency
oscillations) + stable and second order convergent

## dynamic equilibrium condition

for direct solution xn → ui fn → pi M, C, K → m, c, k

## xn 1  xn  txn   0.5    t 2 xn   xn 1t 2

xn 1  xn  1    txn  txn 1
(Newmark’s equations)

## (“discrete” equations of motion) (unknowns)

tn 1  tn  1    t
HHT method
3 parameters – values for unconditional stability and second-order accuracy:
1
  1    4    0.3    0
2

2
the smaller value of α – more numerical damping is introduced to the system
for α = 0 – Newmark’s method with no numerical damping

## HHT method for transient analysis of nonlinear problems

Mxn 1  f int  xn  , xn    f  tn  , xn  
xn 1  xn  txn   0.5    t 2 xn   xn 1t 2 system of algebraic equations
xn 1  xn  1    txn  txn 1

## fint  xn  , xn   vector of internal forces

(depends non-linearly on displacements and velocities)