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Extracelluler Matrix

Nunuk Aries Nurulita


Molecular Biology
Faculty of Pharmacy
Universitas Muhammadiyah Purwokerto
Extracelluler Matrix (ECM)
 “Filler” of Spaces between cells and binds cell and
tissues together
 Plants doesn’t need such “filler” because plant’s cell
wall is rigid enough
Components of EC
 Matrix polisaccharides:
- Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs)
- Proteoglycans (PGs)

 Matrix proteins:
- Structural proteins: Collagen, elastin
- Adhesion proteins: Fibronectin, Laminin, Entactin
Matrix Poysaccharides
 Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs):
gel-forming polysaccharides of the ECM that consist of
unbranched repeating units of disaccharides
 Major types of GAGs: Hyaluronan
Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains occupy large
amounts of space and form hydrated gels
Major types of GAGs (cont…)
 Chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, keratan sulfate,
heparan sulfate
Matrix Polysaccharides
 Proteoglycans (PGs): protein covalently linked to
GAGs and consist of up to 95% polysaccharide by
wieght.
 The most abundant, heterogenous, and fuctionally
most versatile non fibrillar component of ECM
 Properties depend on the variable length and structure
of GAGs side chains
 e.g. heparan, perlecan, decorin, biglycan
Combination Structure between
GAGs and PGs
 Aggrecan (PG)-Hyaluronan (GAG) complex
structure of Aggrecan aggregate
Matrix Poteins
 Structural proteins:
- e.g. Collagen:major structural protein of ECM and
the most abundant protein in animal tissues
- A large protein family (at least27 members)
- The most abundant type ofcollagen: Type I

Type I: fibril-forming collagen and basic structural


components of connective tissues
Structure of Collagen
 Post translational modifications of proline and lysine
incorporated into collagen polypertide chanins into
hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine, respectively.
 They are formed within the ER
 Hydrogen bonds among these hydroxyl groups
stabileze the triple helices
Representative members of the
collagen family
Collagen Structure
Matrix proteins
 Structural proteins: Elastin
 Together with microfibril
and make up elastin fibers.
 This fibers are abundant in
connetive tissue and
responsible for elastisity of
organ (e.g. lung, skin, and
blood)
Matrix Proteins
 Adhesion protein: responsible for linking the
components of the matrix to one another and to the
surface of cells
 E.g. Fibronectin: principal adhesion protein of
connective tissues
Matrix Proteins
 Adhesion protein:
 Laminin: principal adhesion protein of basal lamina
 Entactin (or Nidogen): bridges laminins and type IV
collagen in basal lamina
Cell-cell Interactions
Development and function of multicellular
organisms

1. Adhesion junction
2. Tight junction
3. Gap junction
4. plasmodesmata
Summary of cell junctions found in
the cell
ECM-related physiologically
changing and Diseases
 ECM degradation:
- Cancer
- Rheumathoid arthritis
- Osteoporosis
- Bacterial pathogens
 Aging
Topic in cell-cell interactions
 Genetic diseases of junctions
 Invasion of pathogenic microorganisms
Commercially available ECM
products
 Biomaterials
 Anti-aging products
 Fortified foods