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Reactors

in
power system

M.G.Morshad / ACM ( Elect.)


Transformer Mtce. Division / TS II
References

1. REPORT - SYSTEM PLANNING & PROJECT APPRAISAL DIVISION – CEA

2. LOAD GENERATION BALANCE REPORT 2010-11 – CEA

3. INSTALLED CAPACITY - CEA

4. JOURNAL - TECH NEWS – AREVA

5. HV SHUNT REACTOR SECRETS FOR PROTECTION ENGINEERS -


Zoran Gajić , Birger Hillström, Fahrudin Mekić ABB Sweden, Västerås, Sweden

6. IEEE Guide for the Protection of Shunt Reactors

7. APPLICATION OF NUMERICAL RELAYS FOR HV SHUNT REACTOR


PROTECTION –
Z. Gajić, B. Hillstrőm, M. Kockott , ABB Automation Technologies ,Sweden

8. TRANSIENTS DUE TO SWITCHING OF 400 KV SHUNT REACTOR


Ivo Uglešić, Sandra Hutter University of Zagreb Miroslav Krepela Siemens Božidar
Filipović- Grčić Croatian National Electricity Franc Jakl University of Maribor

9. IS 5553 ( Part 2) 1990

10. IS 2026 ( Part 1 & 3)

11. Installation & commissioning of shunt reactor - BHEL


Reactors in power system
REACTORS

Series Shunt
REACTOR REACTOR

PURPOSE PURPOSE
To reduce short To reduce over
circuit current voltage

AREA OF
AREA OF
APPLICATION
APPLICATION
Bus , Lines, Tertiary
Tie Lines
winging of ICT

Z
Acts as inductance and
opposes the flow of short
circuit current.
Acts as inductive load
and reduce high voltage
by absorbing MVAR.
Classification of shunt reactors

Shunt Reactors

Dry Type Oil immersed Type


(system voltage Below (system voltage 72.5 KV
72.5 KV) & above)
• Delta connected •Star connected with neutral
• Range below 30 MVAR grounding
•Connected at the tertiary • Range 30 to 300 MVAR
winding of transformer •Connected at the terminals of
transmission line

Air Core
Core less Gapped Core

Switch on / off type Permanently connected


type with thyristor
controlled
Back ground for
installing shunt
reactor
Reason for high grid voltage in Southern
grid during off peak period – As per CEA
report

Installed
Capacity
44220 MW
Peak Load
demand 34224
MW
Grid voltage lower
than rated (Max
Availability 0.95PU or 399 KV)
28450 MW

Grid voltage higher


than rated (Max
1.05PU or 441KV)

Off Peak Load


demand 13000
MW

11Hrs 15Hrs 22 03
Hrs Hrs
Effect of high grid voltage

High over voltage cause –


• Difficulty in regulating load flow through
HVDC line
• Difficulty in synchronization inter grid
transmission line
• instability in generator due to operation of
generator in under excitation zone near the
pole slip region.
• Increase in line loss

Present practice to overcome


overvoltage situation
• Keeping all 64 Nos Reactors (56 Nos Line &8
Nos Bus) are in service during off peak period
• Switching off all lightly loaded lines
Extract of PGCIL report (2006)

• With existing reactors and opening of the lines as per


existing practice , the study reports indicate high voltage
profile throughout the grid (the voltage ranges between
416 kV and 445 kV).

• Addition of 15 numbers of reactors of 63 MVAR each is


not adequate to control the voltages under acceptable
limits even with some of the transmission lines switched
off.

• Even large generating stations like Ramagundam,


Neyveli, Vijayawada, Raichur TPS are not able to hold
their voltages as these are crossing reactive power
absorption limit. As such these stations may also be
considered for installation of bus reactors.

• With 10 more reactors (making it 25 ), the results


indicate that when lightly loaded transmission lines are
out of service, the voltages at various buses are
generally controlled and are less than 420 kV and with
the above lines in, the voltages are higher going up to
431 kV.

• Therefore, it is concluded that provision of large number


of reactors are required to control the high voltages
situation in the grid.
Calculation of grid reactive power

Formula Data
System Voltage Skv 420 KV
Fault Current level FkA 40 KA
Short Ckt MVA Scc= 1.732 X Skv X FkA 29097 MVA
Max Bus voltage V1 = 441 KV or (441/420) PU 1.05 PU
Acceptable Bus voltage V2 = 416 KV or (416/420)PU 0.99 PU
Total reactive power Sr = Scc{ ( V2 – V1)/V1} 1763 MVAR
Standard capacity Sst 63 MVAR
Nos of reactor required Sr / Sst 27 Nos

About 27 numbers of 63 MVAR shunt reactor are required


in southern grid to absorb reactive power for bringing
down grid voltage from 441 KV to 416 KV during off peak
period
Recommended location for additional
25 Nos reactors
Advantages of installing reactor

Technical
1. Limited voltage rise on transmission lines at the time of
light loads or after load shedding
2. Prevention of self excitation on generator on leading PF
load.
3. Reduction of over voltage on sound phases during a line
to ground fault.
4. Reduction of switching over voltage due to initial
charging of lines.

Commercial
1. Being a capital item, investment on this equipment will
be adjusted in the fixed cost portion of tariff so that
entire amount ( capital + interest ) will return within the
operating period of the reactors.
Basic operating
principle
Basic operating principle
1. Initial charging current (i) produces pulsating flux in the coil
2. Induced voltage (e) = L (di / dt) is produced in opposite direction of
the coil due to pulsating flux
3. As a result of two opposite voltages current equal to (V-e) / R
passes through the coil

Initial charging current.

System Induced
Voltage, (V) Voltage, (e)

Operating current (V-e) / R.

Shunt Reactor acts as inductive load


when it is connected to Bus/Line and
draws current for active & reactive load.
Active current (I x Cos Φ )
to active load (KW) System
The reactive portion of current creates
Voltage
pulsating flux in the core and the power Φ
to reactive load (KVAR)
Reactive current (I x SinΦ )

required for this purpose is known as


reactive power (KVAR).
KVAR = Current X system voltage X SinΦ

The active portion of current causes I2R


loss and the power loss due to heating is
known as active power (KW).
KW = Current X system voltage X Cos Φ
Operating function of shunt reactors

Ir Iy Ib

(System voltage – Induced voltage)


1. Current drawn by each phase =
(Resistance per phase winding)

2. Induced voltage (e) depends upon the construction and magnetization characteristic of
the core

3. Shunt reactor is a device with the fixed impedance value. Therefore the individual phase
current is directly proportional to the applied phase voltage (i.e. I=U/Z).

4. For balance three phase current (Ir + Iy + Ib = 0), no current flows through the neutral.

5.Only during fault when phase current becomes un balance (Ir + Iy + Ib ≠ 0), current less
than 1 PU passes through the neutral. It is due to the fact that positive sequence
reactance(X1) is more or less equal to zero sequence reactance (x0) in five limbs core
configuration (Normally X1/Xo = 0.9).

6. During operation heat is produced as a result of copper loss ( due top I2R) and core
Loss ( due to Hysteresis and eddy current)

7. Typical total core & copper loss (KW)= rating of reactor (MVAR) x 0.2%

8. Typical core loss & copper loss = 75% & 25% of total loss respectively
Induced voltage and
Magnetizing characteristic
of the core
Characteristics of the induced voltage

The magnitude of the inductive voltage (e) developed in


the reactor coil due to pulsating flux depends upon -
1. Flux density in the core ( Concentration of flux in the core )
2. Magnetization characteristic of the core ( Ability of the core
to produce flux)

1. Flux density in the core

• The coil provided with iron core always have higher flux
concentration than the coil without core (Air core).
• As higher concentration of pulsating flux creates higher
induced voltage (e) in the coil, iron core is used for higher
voltage (> 72.5KV ) Reactor and air core is used for lower
voltage (< 72.5KV ) Reactor

Reactor - 72.5 KV and above


Reactor - Below 72.5 KV
•Star connected with solid / reactor
•Delta connected
grounding
•Air cooled , Air core
•Oil cooled , gapped core
•Rating below 30 MVAR
•Rating 30 to 300 MVAR
•Directly connected to tertiary
•Directly connected to bus /
winding of transformer
transmission line
2. Magnetization characteristic

V–I
linearity
range

•The flux produced by the core remains proportional to the current passes through the coil
till the core gets saturated.
•After saturation of core it can not produce flux further with the increase of current.
•Because of this magnetic saturation of the core, reactor coil can not develop inductive
voltage (e) further.
•In such condition impedance of the coil becomes lower with respect to the applied voltage
and higher current drawn by the winding causing high I2R loss ( heat generation) or earth
fault.
Components of Reactor

WTI

OTI

1. 400KV,1250 Amps OIP HV bushings (3 Nos)


2. 145 KV ,1250 amps neutral bushing (1No)
3. Air cell type conservator tank with silica gel breather
4. Radiator banks (8 Nos) with ONAN type cooling
5. Buchholtz relay, Pressure relief valve and sudden pressure valve for protection
6. Floor mounted marshalling box for providing WTI,OTI and required control circuit for
protection
7. Provision of line side and neutral side CT terminals in each phase
8. Two numbers treated earth pit for earthing neutral through steel flat
9. Two number earth grid terminals for earthing reactor tank and other metal structure.
Components of reactor

Five limbed core construction is adopted to achieve high zero


sequence impedance. In addition to the three gapped core limbs with
windings, there are two continuous outer return limbs. The two unwound
side limbs help in achieving zero sequence impedance approximately
equal to the positive sequence impedance
Gapped core construction is preferred for high system voltages over
coreless construction due to the high energy density that can be achieved in
gapped core construction

The core sections between consecutive air gaps are moulded in epoxy
resin to prevent movement between individual laminations. The spacers
forming the air gaps are blocks of ceramics with a high modules of elasticity
and the whole stacking of core modules is cemented together during the
assembly to form a solid column without possibility of rocking , or rubbing
between individual parts.

The core segments are of radial laminated configuration. The radial


laminations prevent fringing flux from entering flat surfaces of core steel which
would result in eddy current overheating and hot spots.
Grading of core according to loss

Loss in Watt / Kg

1.11

0.97

0.89

0.74
0.66

0.57
23 27
ZDKH
M0H M0H
M4 M5 M6

Hi-B grade CRGO Steel Strip


Thickness 0.3- 0.5 mm , Flux Density 1.6 Tesla Frequency 50 Hz,
Gray colour ,E Carlite insulating laminated core

Interleaved disc winding has been used for rated voltages 220 KV
and above. This type of winding configuration provides better impulse voltage
distribution. For lower voltage classes a continuous disc winding or a multi
layer helical winding are used.
Vibration in reactor

1. As a result of magnetization of core, a


magnetic attraction force (F=107xB2)/8π
N / m2) approximately equal to
(107x1.62)/8π N/m2 or 104 Ton / m2 is
produced in the air gap between the core
sections.
2. This force pulsates at double frequency
(2 X 50 Hz = 100 Hz) due to sinusoidal
flux of frequency 50 Hz.
3. Because of this double frequency
pulsating force in the core sections, high
vibration and noise is observed in reactor
during operation.

To reduce the vibration within the limit ( 200 micron) following measures are
taken during construction – 1. Air gap are filled with ceramic materials 2.
Earthing of Reactor

To earthing grid LA LA LA To earthing grid

Treated earth pit

1. Neutral earthing – To provide return path for the fault / unbalance


current, the neutral of the reactor is grounded to two separately treated
earth pit

2. Tank earthing – To avoid heating of tank due to circulation of eddy


current as result of voltage build up on tank due to continuous passing
of fractional portion of main flux through it, the potential of the tank is
made zero by connecting with earth grid.

3. Steel structure earthing – To avoid damaging of steel structure


from lighting strike, entire steel structure is grounded through earth
grid.
Cooling of reactor
Approximate heat generation
during operation of reactor
due to core and copper loss =
0.2% x MVAR rating =
120 KW

Copper loss due to I2R loss is Core loss due to hysteresis & eddy
about 25% of total loss i.e. current is about 75% of total loss i.e.
0.25X120 = 30 KW 0.75X120 = 90 KW

The loss of 120 KW is converted to heat

50000 Litre of oil absorb the heat and rise the


top oil temperature to maximum 45 Deg C

8 nos radiator banks reduces oil temperature


to 15 Deg C by ONAN cooling process.
Significance of parameters

1. Capacity (S) – As reactor is used as inductive load which only absorb


reactive power, it capacity is given in MVAR .

Rated Voltage 1 PU ( 420 KV) 1.05 PU (441KV)


Rated Capacity 63 MVAR 69.45 MVAR
Current ( MVARx100)/(1.732xKV) 86.6 Amps 90.92 Amps

2. Impedance / Positive sequence Impedance (X1) – It is the per phase


AC resistance of the winding which decides the magnitude of per phase
current. X1 = U / I = {420000/(1.732X86.6)} =2800 Ohms

3. Zero sequence Impedance (X0) – It is the AC resistance of the neutral


path which decides the magnitude of earth fault current through neutral.
The value of X0 depends on the construction of core. For five limbs core,
the value of X0 lays between 90% and 100% of positive sequence
impedance (X1). Therefore X0 = 0.9 . X1 = 0.9 X 2800 =2520 Ohms.
Because of high zero sequence impedance earth fault current is restricted
within 1 PU
4. Winding resistance (R) – It is the per phase DC resistance of the
winding which decides copper loss (I2R). Measured winding resistance per
phase = ---------------Ohms
5. Total loss – It is the total active power consumed by the reactor and
converted in to heat. Total loss (core and copper loss) = 110KW

6. Power Factor – CosΦ = 110 / 63000 = 0.17%

630000KVAR

110KW
Operation
Position of Bus reactors in ts ii
Tie Line to
TS II Expn
400KV
Bus
Reactor II
400KV
TS II Expansion Extension
Reactor I
Gen (2 X 250MW) Bus

Power Grid
Feeder

Tie Line

Power Grid
400KV
Feeder
Bus
Stage II Gen
(4 X 210MW) Power Grid
Feeder

ICT

230KV
Bus Mines Feeder
Stage I Gen
(3 X 210MW)
State Grid Feeder

Tie Line to TS I
voltage compensation methods in power
system
Over excitation Under excitation
to deliver reactive power to absorb reactive power for
for increasing terminal decreasing terminal voltage
voltage

Increasing tap Decreasing tap


to deliver reactive power for to absorb reactive power for
increasing bus voltage decreasing terminal voltage

Switchyard Bus
395 – 415KV

Delivers reactive C R Absorb reactive


power to boost up A E power to reduce
voltage P C bus voltage

Capacitive loading
105% Grid Voltage (445KV)
1. Reduce excitation 2. Reduce GT
tap 3. Switch on reactor 4. Disconnect
Leading lines 5. Reduce Gen load
MVAR
100% Grid Voltage (420KV)

Lagging 1. Increasing excitation 2. Increase GT


MVAR tap 3. Switch on Capacitor 4. Reduce
gen load

95% Grid Voltage (380KV)

Inductive loading

WHENEVER THE BUS VOLTAGE RAISES TO 4%TO 5% MORE THAN THE RATED
VOLTAGE, SHUNT REACTOR IS TO BE KEPT IN SERVICE AND 2% TO 3% LESS THAN
THE RATED VOLTAGE THIS MAY BE KEPT OUT OF SERVICE.
Behavior of shunt reactor
during operation
Switching on of shunt reactor
Typical inrush current 3 to 5.5 times of rated current.

Closing point of BRK for Lowest


inrush current .
N R Y B
Closing point of BRK for Highest
inrush current .

Due to closing of breaker poles in three phases at different point of


cycle, unsymmetrical current is developed in three phases which
persist for approximately 1 sec

As a result of unsymmetrical current, 3rd harmonic current passes


through the neutral that may cause spurious tripping on earth fault.

Due to unsymmetrical current, DC off set current is produced


which decrease slowly because of low loss in reactor and may
cause saturation of CT
waveform of inrush current with dc off set
current during switching in

DC Off set
current

Wave form of 3rd harmonic current through


neutral during Switching in
Typical problem during switching in

One of the principal difficulties with shunt reactor protection scheme is


false tripping during reactor energizing.

This false tripping typically occurs within some hundreds of millisecond


or even 1 to 2 seconds after closing of circuit breaker. It also happens
randomly and not with every reactor switching attempt

Most of the time, it trips on Restricted Ground Fault protection /


Differential Protection / Ground fault protection during switching in

Cause for tripping during switching in


 It should be noted that HV shunt reactors are typically switched in and
out at least once per day or even more often depending on the power
system loading patterns.

 During switching in of shunt reactor relatively high and long lasting dc


current component appears in one or more phases. This current
waveform moves the operating point of CT magnetic core on the
hysteresis curve in one direction and when the dc component diminish
it leaves the main CT with certain level of residual (i.e. remnant) flux.

 During normal operation reactor current is always around 1pu and


therefore of a relatively low magnitude, which is never big enough to
move the operating point towards the origin.

 Therefore when next switching attempt comes, depending on the


moment of switching, residual flux in the CT core can increase or
decrease. Thus this mechanism will sooner or later cause CT
saturation during reactor switch in operation.

 This CT saturation then causes problems for protective relays, which


lose the correct information about the primary current and therefore
cause false operation of protective relays.
Switching off
During switching off operation of reactor high transient over
voltage is developed due to breaking of inductive current.

This switching transients are inversely proportional to the shunt


reactor rated power

Typical over voltage in 400 KV reactors


* ( Sav – Steepness of voltage)

Switching transients overvoltage can be reduced considerably by


installing surge reactor and control switching operation i.e switching
off during zero crossing.

Frequent transients overvoltage due to switching off operation


always have the impact on the dielectric life of reactor and breakers.
Electrical faults in
shunt reactors
Faults in shunt reactor

Internal fault External fault

Phase to ground
fault at line side
Phase to ground
fault
Phase to ground
fault at neutral side

Phase to phase
short circuit fault

Inter turn short


circuit fault

Over load due to


over voltage and
harmonics
Phase to earth fault - out side the reactor

Un balance in
phase current

N R Y B

Zero seq
current
(<1 PU)

•Shunt reactor is a device with the fixed impedance value. Therefore the
individual phase current is directly proportional to the applied phase voltage
(i.e. I=U/Z). During external fault voltage of the faulty phase becomes lower
than other phases and a result of that unbalance is created in the phase
current. Because of unbalance phase current , zero seq. current less than 1
PU passes through the neutral.

Unbalance in phase
current due to external
earth fault

Low zero sequence


current through neutral
due to unbalance in the

phase current
Phase to earth fault - at the line side

Un balance in
phase current
N R Y B

Zero seq
current

1. Short circuit current flow through the line side


faulty phase and causes unbalance in the phase
current
2. Zero sequence current typically 1 PU flow through
the neutral due to unbalance phase current
Phase to earth fault – at the neutral side

Rated current in the


N R Y B line side

Rated current
passes through the
line side phase

High current passes


through neutral side due
to transformer action
Turn to turn short

Shunt reactor winding impedance is approximately proportional


to the square of the number of active turns.

Short circuit between some number of turns will cause the


decrease of the winding impedance only in the faulty phase and
corresponding small raise of the shunt reactor neutral point
current.

Currents during turn-to-turn fault are of the small magnitude and


they will not produce any sufficient unbalance voltage.

Sufficient unbalance voltage is produced only when number of


turn-to-turn short is high. In such condition it is possible to detect
turn to turn fault with the help of sensitive directional zero seq
relay connected on the HV side of the reactor.
Summary – protection

CAUSES EFFECTS RESULTS IN PROTECTION ACTUATES

•Zero sequence 3rd •Restricted Earth fault


Switching ON Unsymmetrical harmonic current with time delay
inrush current through the neutral •Diff protection
•Saturation of CT due to
slow decaying of DC
offset current
Switching Transient over High voltage stress on No protection is
OFF voltage the dielectric of the recommended for this
reactor & circuit breaker. purpose.
External Lower than •Unbalance in three •Line side residual current
phase to rated current phase line current protection
ground fault through the •Low zero sequence •Differential protection
faulty phase current ( 1PU)
passes through the
neutral
Internal High current at Unbalance in three •Line side residual current
phase to line side in the phase line current protection
ground fault faulty phase •Low zero sequence • line side over current
at line side current ( 1PU) protection
passes through the •Differential protection
neutral
Internal High current at •Rated current at line •Neutral side over current
phase to line neutral side phases protection
ground fault side •High current at neutral •Differential protection
at neutral side
side
Internal As the chance of this fault is very remote due constructional feature of
Phase to the reactor , protection for this fault is not recommended.
phase short
circuit
Inter turn Low magnitude Small rise in neutral No protection is
fault voltage unbalance side current recommended since the
magnitude of fault is very
low
Electrical
Protection& relay
scheme
Reactor protection
PURPOSE OF SHUNT REACTOR PROTECTION
The purpose of the protection relaying is to disconnect the reactor and limit damage in
case of internal short circuits, earth faults, inter turn faults and over voltage or over load.
The reactor forms certain impedance for rated frequency, and as it is shunt connected, as
over load may be caused by over voltage or harmonics in voltage and current.

PROTECTION DEVICES INBUILT OR MOUNTED ON REACTOR


a) Oil immersed reactor usually have a gas detector and oil surge detector (Buchholz alarm
& trip devices), which are excellent for detecting internal faults.
b) Temperature monitors for oil & winding provide good over load protection.
c) Pressure relief device is provided to safe guard the reactor from high pressures.

REACTOR DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION


It is widely used as instantaneous protection for short circuit faults with in the differential
zone. this is treated as main-1 protection for reactor. It can be of high impedance type or of
a sensitive current stabilized type. High impedance differential protection relays require an
equal CT turns ratio on the phase and neutral side. Sensitivity is 5% of nominal reactor CT
current.

BACK-UP PROTECTION
A variety of relays are available
a) Over current & earth fault protection. ( 50, 50N, 51, 51N, 67, 67N – any combination of
these)
b. Under impedance / distance ( z<)(21r).
c. Neutral displacement protection (un>)

RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT PROTECTION


If, for some reason, a sensitive differential protection not chosen, a restricted earth fault
protection can be utilized.

LINE PROTECTION – I, LINE PROTECTION – II


CBIP Guidelines on shunt reactor Protection

Reactor Differential protection


I) Shall be Triple Pole Type.
ii) Have an operating current sensitivity at least 10% of nominal current.
iii) Shall be tuned with system frequency.
iv) Have an operating time not grater than 30 m sec at 5 times of setting.
v) Have a suitable non-linear resistor to limit the peak voltage during in-zone faults in
case of high impedance type.
vi) Shall be high or low impedance Principle type.

Reactor REF Protection.


I) shall be single Pole.
ii) Have an operating current sensitivity at least 10% of nominal current.
iii) Shall be tuned with system frequency.
iv) Have a suitable non-linear resistor to limit the peak voltage during in-zone faults in
case of high impedance type.
v) Shall be high or low impedance Principle type.
vi) Connection of restricted earth fault protection on the neutral side shall be from
residually connected Bushing CTs or from the ground side CT.

Reactor Backup Protection (Impedance type)


I) Shall be Triple pole type.
ii) Shall be single step Polarized ‘MHO’ or Impedance Distance relay suitable for
Measuring Phase to Ground and Phase to Phase to faults.
iii) Shall grounds a Characteristic angle between 60-80 deg.
iv) Shall have adjustable definite time delay with setting range of 0.2 to 2.0 sec.
v) Shall have a suitable range for covering 60% of Reactor impedance.
vi) Typical setting : Reach - 60% of Reactor Impedance, Time setting - 1 sec
OR
Reactor Backup Protection (Definite Time O/L & E/F).
i) Shall be single stage Definite Time 3 Pole, Over Current relay with adjustable
current and Time.
ii) Shall be connected for 2 O/C and 1 E/F connection and shall be non-directional
with reset ratio and low Transient Overreach.
iii) Typical settings of o/c relays are: Current Setting- 1.3 x Rated current , Time
setting - 1 sec
Protection of bus reactor for double
bus & transfer bus scheme

Bus I

Bus II

Transfer bus

51N 87BB2 51N 87BB2


R R
E 21 E 21
87BB1 87BB1
A A
C C
87U 87U
T T
O O
R R
I II
1. Differential protection
Purpose :Internal / external phase to ground fault.

U1 V1 W1
N

1s1 1s1 1s1

Line side CT 1
1s2 1s2 1s2

DP
87

1s1 1s1 1s1


Neutral side CT 1
1s2 1s2 1s2

V2 W2
U2

CT Specification
1. Ratio: 200/1A
2. Class: PS
3. Knee point voltage: 200V
4. Magnetizing current: 40 mA
5. Secondary resistance: 1 Ohms
Typical Relay connection for Differential protection

Type of relay : High impedance differential relay


Setting : operating current sensitivity at least 10% of nominal current.
operating time not grater than 30 m sec at 5 times of setting.
2. Residual earth fault protection
Assigned Protection
1. External phase to ground fault.( Unbalance phase current)
2. Internal phase to ground fault at line side .( Unbalance phase current)
3. Circuit breaker pole discrepancy.( Unbalance phase current)

N U1 V1 W1

Instantaneous
Residual over
1s1 1s1 1s1 Current Relay (50N)
Or
1s2 1s2 1s2 AC Time residual
Over Current relay
(51N)

CT Specification
1. Ratio: 200/1A
2. Class: PS
3. Knee point voltage: 200V
4. Magnetizing current: 40 mA
5. Secondary resistance: 1
Ohms

U2 V2 W2

Typical relay setting


•Set low set to 20% with time delay in between0.6s and 1s or even longer.
•Use 2nd harmonic blocking.
•Set high set to 175% with time delay of 0.1s.
4. Back up impedance protection
Assigned Protection
Internal phase to ground fault at line side

N U1 V1 W1

21R – 3Ph, REACTOR


1s1 1s1 1s1 BACKUP IMPEDANCE
RELAY OF SUITABLY
SHAPED CHARECRESTICS
1s2 1s2 1s2 EITHER SINGLE / DOUBLE
ZONE TYPE

CT Specification
1. Ratio: 200/1A
2. Class: PS
3. Knee point voltage: 200V
4. Magnetizing current: 40 mA
5. Secondary resistance: 1
Ohms

U2 V2 W2

Typical relay setting


•Set low set to 130% with time delay in between 0.6s and 1s.
•Set high set to 250% with time delay of 0.1s.
Typical Relay connection for back up impedance
protection
5. Line protection main & backup
Assigned Protection
Internal phase to ground fault at Neutral side

N
U1 V1 W1 Line Side

1s1 1s1 1s1

500/1A 500/1A 500/1A


Instantaneous
1s2 1s2 1s2 Over Current
Relay (50)
1000/1A 1000/1A 1000/1A Or
AC time over
1s3 1s3 1s3
current relay
(51)
2000/1A 2000/1A 2000/1A Over current
1s4 1s4 1s4 protection

Neutral Side
U2 V2 W2

Typical relay setting


•Set low set to 130% with time delay in between 0.6s and 1s.
•Set high set to 200% with time delay of 0.1s.
Electrical Test on
reactor
Electrical test as per IS 5553
Routine Test ( To confirm the operating criteria)
1. Measurement of WR
2. Measurement of IR & PI
3. Measurement of impedance by bridge methods
4. Measurement of loss and current at rated voltage and ambient temperature
5. Isolation test

Type Test ( To confirm the design criteria)


1. Temperature rise test along with DGA before and after test
2. Full wave lighting impulse voltage withstanding test at 550 KVp on neutral terminal
3. Measurement of zero sequence reactance
4. Measurement of acoustic noise level
5. Magnetizing curve test / knee voltage measurement
6. Measurement of capacitance and tan delta between winding and tank

Dielectric Test ( To confirm the dielectric strength of the insulation)


1. Separate source voltage withstand test at 230 KV for one minute
2. Induced over voltage withstand test with PD indication at 364 KV AC (1.5/√3 PU ) for
30 minutes during which the PD level shall not exceed 500pc
3. Full wave lighting impulse voltage withstand test at 1300 KVp on line terminal
4. Switching impulse voltage withstand test at 1050 KVp on line terminal

Special Test ( To confirm design and operating criteria )


1. FRA test
2. DGA test before and after electrical test
3. Jacking test on reactor tank
4. Vacuum test on reactor tank
5. Oil leak test
6. Snap back test on HV bushing
Measurement of WR
Purpose - To measure DC resistance per phase of coil for calculating I2R
loss in the coil, which in turns decides the temperature rise. The
measurement also shows whether the winding joints are in order and the
windings are correctly connected.

N R Y B Voltage lead

Current lead

Resistance
measuring Kit

Measuring methods -

1. Only at the stable value of current (I), corresponding voltage (V) value is
taken for measuring the value of resistance ( R = V/I).
2. Applied current must not be higher than 15% of the rated current
3. % error in measurement increases with increases of applied current due
to increases in I2R loss at higher current.
4. Value to be measured between (R – N) , (Y-N), and (B-N), and all the
measured value must be equal.
Measurement of IR
Purpose - To ascertain minimum insulation strength (IR Value) and dryness
level (PI Value) of the winding required to charge the reactor.

N R Y B

5 KV IR measuring
Kit (Megger)

Procedure – Measure IR and PI value between (R-E),(Y-E),(B-E) and


(R+Y+B) – (Tank + E) with 5 KV Megger and confirm the minimum IR and PI
value as per the table given below.

Minimum IR
Below 6.6 KV 6.6 - 11KV 22 – 33 KV Above 66 KV
value
K = 1.00 30 Deg C 200 MΩ 400 MΩ 500 MΩ 600 MΩ
K = 1.65 40 Deg C 121 MΩ 242 MΩ 303 MΩ 363 MΩ
K = 2.60 50 Deg C 77 MΩ 153 MΩ 192 MΩ 230MΩ
K = 4.20 60 Deg C 47 MΩ 95MΩ 119 MΩ 142 MΩ
K = 6.6 70 Deg C 30 MΩ 60 MΩ 75 MΩ 90 MΩ
K = 10.5 80 Deg C 19 MΩ 38 MΩ 47 MΩ 57MΩ
(Polarization Index) PI Value = (15 minutes IR / 60 minutes IR )
Less than 1 Dangerous
Above 1 to 1.1 Poor
Above 1.1 to 1.25 Questionable
Above 1.25 to 2.0 Fair
Above 2 Good
Isolation test
Purpose - To ascertain that the reactor core is insulated from the tank and
core frame.

CL – connected to core lamination


CC – Connected to core clamp
G – Connected to tank ( Earth )

CC
G
CL Core clamp Core Bolt Core Tank

Procedure :
1.Disconnect the closing link that connects the two terminals CL-G.

2.Connect the tank with earth

3. Use a Megger and measure IR value between CL and CC + G by applying


3.5 KV for 1 minute

4. The measured IR value shall be minimum 1000 kohms ( 1 M Ohms)

5. There is no general requirement on the insulation level CC-G .


Measurement of impedance by bridge methods

Purpose : To measure the per phase impedance ( AC resistance) of the


winding which controls the flow of current through the windings.
Impedance (Z) = √[(Resistance) 2 + ( Reactance)2] = 420KV / 86Amps

Reactor
windings

U1 CT Ratio 100/5A
M3 Mutual Inductance 1.0032mH
CN standard Capacitor
C4 Bridge capacitance
R4 Bridge Resistance
Lx Inductance (H) of (M3/U1)X(C4/CN) 8.92 H
the winding
Z Impedance ( Ohms) 2 fLx 2800 Ohms
of the winding
Measurement of loss and current at rated voltage and
ambient temperature

Purpose: To measure the loss ( core & copper loss) in reactor at rated
operating condition.

Reactors
windings

U1 CT Ratio 100/5A
M3 Mutual Inductance 1.0032mH
CN standard Capacitor
C4 Bridge capacitance
R4 Bridge Resistance

Inductance (Lx) (M3/U1)X(C4/CN) 8.92 H


Impedance (Z) 2 fLX 2800 Ohms
Tan delta ( D) 1 / ( C4 R4)
Loss at rated voltage (P) (U2/Z) x D x 10-3 kW
Loss at rated Current (Rated Amp / Test Amp)2 x P kW
Purpose of dielectric test
Normally reactors are operated at the rated operating voltage. During its
operation it is exposed to various transient over voltages like power
frequency over voltage (1.5 x BIL, due to system over voltage), Lighting
impulse (due to lighting), switching impulse (due to switching off). To
avoid abrupt failure of insulation due to these transients, insulation is
designed considering all the aspect. Dielectric test confirms the capability
of the insulation to withstand these transient overvoltage which is
subjected to the reactor during its service life.

Voltage level as per IS 2072


Operating Highest system Power frequency Switching Lighting
voltage voltage (BIL) voltage Impulse impulse
(KV rms) (KV Peak ) (KV Peak )
KV rms KV rms
0.415 1.1 3 - -
3.3 3.6 10 - 20/40
6.6 7.2 20 - 40/60
11 12 28 - 60/75
15 17.5 38 - 75/95

24 50 - 95/125
33 36 70 - 145/170
52 95 - 250
66 72.6 140 - 325
123 185/230 - 450/550
145 230/275 - 550/650
170 230/275/325 - 550/650/750
230 245 325/370/395 - 750/850/950
300 395/460 750/850 950/1050
362 460/510 850/950 1050/1175
400 420 570/360 950/1050 1300/1425
Separate source voltage withstand test
at 230 KV for one minute
PURPOSE : To verify the operating voltage withstanding capacity of the
minor insulation ( paper ) used in line terminals and windings.

R Y B N KV

50 Hz, AC
Generator

Method Test voltage from a 50 Hz, sinusoidal source is


applied at neutral terminal through a step up
transformer keeping the phase under test open
and other two phases & tank grounded.
Maximum test ( 400 KV /1.732) or 230 KV rms
voltage
Duration of test 60 sec
Measurement of Direct reading for RMS type voltmeter or
test voltage (Reading / √2) for Peak type voltmeter (KV)
Confirmation The test is declared to be successful if the test
voltage does not collapse during the test.
Induced over voltage withstand test with PD indication
at 364 KV AC (1.5/√3 PU ) for 30 minutes during which the
PD level shall not exceed 500pc ( Method 2)
PURPOSE : To verify the power frequency voltage withstanding capacity of the minor
insulation (Paper ) used in line terminals & windings and the maximum level of PD observed
during the test.

R Y B N KV

50 Hz, AC
Generator

Method Test voltage from a 100Hz ( to avoid saturation of core), sinusoidal


source is applied at line terminals through a step up transformer
keeping neutral terminal open and tank grounded..
Maximum test voltage ( 1.5 x 420KV /1.732) or 364 KV rms

Duration of test 30 minutes in steps at various voltages level as shown below


Measurement of test Direct reading for RMS type voltmeter or (Reading / √2) for Peak type
voltage voltmeter (V)
Confirmation The test is declared to be successful if the test voltage does not collapse
during the test. and the PD level is observed within 500pC

5 Sec

30 Minutes
5 Minutes

420KV 364KV
364KV
Full wave lighting impulse voltage withstand
test at 1300 KVp on line terminal
PURPOSE : To verify the impulse voltage withstanding capacity of the major
insulation ( pressboard) used between the windings, line terminals caused by lighting
strike.

-
N R Y B
Impulse
Generator

+
5
0
0
Ώ

Recorder

Method Test voltage from an impulse generator is applied at line terminals keeping
neutral grounded through 500 Ώ resister and other terminals directly
grounded. The sequence for applying impulse is - one impulse of a voltage
between 50% and 75 % of the full test voltage, and three subsequent
impulses at full voltage
Test voltage 1300 KV peak with Front time
Duration of test T1 = 1,2μs ± 30% and Time to half-value T2 = 50 μs ± 20%
Confirmation The test is successful if the test voltage does not collapse during the test.
Switching impulse voltage withstand test at
1050 KVp on line terminal
PURPOSE : To verify the impulse voltage withstanding capacity of the major insulation
(Pressboard) between the winding ,line terminals caused by switching operation.

-
N R Y B
Impulse
Generator

+
5
0
0
Ώ

Recorder

Method Test voltage from an impulse generator is applied at line terminals keeping
neutral grounded through 500 Ώ resister and other terminals directly
grounded. The sequence for applying impulse is - one impulse of a voltage
between 50% and 75 % of the full test voltage, and three subsequent
impulses at full voltage
Test voltage 1050 KV peak
Duration of Front time Tp> 100μs , Time above 90% Td> 200μs and Time to the first
test zero passage T0> 500μs ( preferably 1000 μs )
Confirmation The test is successful if the test voltage does not collapse during the test.
Type Test

1. Temperature rise test along with DGA before and


after test
2. Full wave lighting impulse voltage withstanding test
at 550 KVp on neutral terminal
3. Measurement of zero sequence reactance
4. Measurement of acoustic noise level
5. Magnetizing curve test / knee voltage measurement
6. Measurement of capacitance and tan delta between
winding and tank
Temperature rise test

The purpose of the measurement is to check that the temperature rises of


the oil and the windings do not exceed the limits agreed on or specified by
the standards.
Temp rise

Steady state temp

(T1)Hot / top oil temp


Time

Cold winding resistance at T deg C R1

Hot winding resistance after switched off (to R2


be derived from graph)
Ambient temperature after switched off Ta

Calculated winding temp Tw = {R2(235+T)R1} – 235

Average steady state hot oil temp T1

Hot oil temp after switch off T2

Drop in average oil temp Td = (T1 - T2)

Corrected winding temperature Tc = (Tw + Td)

Winding temperature rise (Tc – Ta)


Full wave lighting impulse voltage withstanding
test at 550 KVp on neutral terminal
PURPOSE : To verify the impulse voltage withstanding capacity of the major and
minor insulation (Pressboard and paper) used in neutral terminals and side of the winding
caused by switching operation.

N
-
R Y B
Impulse
Generator

+
5
0
0
Ώ

Recorder

Method Test voltage from an impulse generator is applied at neutral terminals


keeping other terminals grounded through 500 Ώ resister and tank
directly grounded. The sequence for applying impulse is - one impulse of a
voltage between 50% and 75 % of the full test voltage, and three
subsequent impulses at full voltage
Test voltage 550 KV peak
Duration of T1 = 1,2μs ± 30% and Time to half-value T2 = 50 μs ± 20%
test
Confirmation The test is successful if the test voltage does not collapse during the test.
Measurement of zero sequence
reactance

Purpose : To measure the AC resistance (Impedance) of neutral path which


controls the earth fault current (zero sequence current) through neutral during
internal or external earth fault.

N R Y B

50 Hz, AC
Generator

Method •Two phase AC supply is applied between line


terminals and neutral through a step up
transformer which is fed by a generator.
•Applied voltage is increased till rated current flow
through the line terminals.
•At this voltage current through the neutral is
measure.
Zero seq impedance (3 x Applied voltage) / Neutral current.
Measurement of acoustic noise level
and vibration
The purpose of the sound level measurement is to check that the sound level
of the reactor meets the specification requirements given in relevant standards
.

1 Meter

Microphone for 2 Meter


picking up noise

A sound spectrum analyses is used for measuring sound level. The sound
spectrum indicates the magnitude of sound components as a function of
frequency. The sound pressure level is the measured at various points
around at a distance (D) of 30 cm for ONAN or 2 m for ONAF cooling
system spaced at an interval (X) of 1 meter.

Limit
Sound level Within 81db
Vibration level Within 200 microns
Magnetizing curve test / knee voltage
measurement

Test procedure
• Each phase of the reactor is charged one by one with direct current.

• When the maximum test current reached, supply is switched off and the reactor
winding is short-circuited simultaneously by DC current breaker.

• The decaying current in the circuit is registered by a computer assisted data


acquisition system.

• The saturation curve Flux (Ø) / Flux (Ø) nom. versus I/Inom is then determined
using the formula.

Maximum value of decaying current Imax


Minimum value of decaying current Imin
Measured value I(t)
Measurement of capacitance and tan delta
between winding and tank
Purpose : To ascertain the condition of the solid insulation of the windings.

N R Y B 10 KV
+ - Tan
Delta
+ - Kit

+ Ir -
+ -

I = total current drawn by the capacitor formed


between winding and tank and the value of
Ic I capacitance is [(I/2 f V π) x Cos δ ] (pF)
Ic = Capacitor charging current
δ Ir = Current flow through the capacitor due to
impurities / disintegration of the insulation between
Φ winding and tank. As this current is in phase with
applied voltage, it is dissipated in heat.
Ir V
Capacitance (pF) Condition of the
Angle δ Tan δ = Sin δ =Cos Φ(PF)
[(I/2 f V π) x Cos δ ] insulation
0.0 Deg (I / 3140) x 1.000 0 Pure capacitor
0.5 Deg (I / 3140) x 0.999 0.002 Very good
0.5 Deg (I / 3140) x 0.999 0.004 Good
0.5 Deg (I / 3140) x 0.999 0.006 Fairly good
0.5 Deg (I / 3140) x 0.999 0.007 Acceptable
0.5 Deg (I / 3140) x 0.999 0.008 Not acceptable
90.0 Deg 0 1.0 Pure resistance
Special Test

1. FRA test
2. DGA test before and after electrical test
3. Vacuum test on reactor tank
4. Oil leak test
5. Snap back test on HV bushing
FRA test
Purpose- Frequency Response Analysis (FRA) is carried out to
detect displacement (or movement) of the windings. Usually the
first measurement in the factory is used as a fingerprint. Results of
later measurements are compared with the first one in the factory.

The software controlled sine wave generator produces output


voltage of max. 4 Vrms with frequency range of 50 Hz to 1 MHz. It
has 75 Ω output impedance. Input impedance is 75 Ω.

Voltage from the generator is applied to the one transformer


terminal (one winding end) and response voltage is measured on
another terminal (the other winding end).
FRA test report
Impedance value Z in kΩ versus frequency is plotted on the diagram with
indication of terminals with applied and response voltage.

Or attenuation A (or damping) in dB (20 log (Uoutput / Uinput ) versus


frequency is plotted on the diagram with indication of terminals with applied
and response voltage.

The reactor is said to be healthy if no deviation is observed


between the results taken in factory and field
DGA test
Chemical analysis of gas : The gas analyser loaded with these solution is
connected to the top pet cock. Small quantities of gas collected in the gas
relay (Bucholtz relay) is allowed to pass through the two solutions.

5 gms of silver nitrate


(AgNO3) dissolved in
100 ml distilled water

A week solution of ammonia in water is


slowly added to 100 ml of solution 1,
until a white curdled precipitate which
forms first disappears in the mixture.
Vacuum test on reactor tank

Oil leak test


Snap back test on HV bushing
Purpose : Snap back test was carried out on the above bushing to determine
the natural frequency and damping factor.
Following equipment were used to conduct this test.
1: Piezoelectric accelerometer B & K 4371.
2: PL 202 Real Time FFT Analyzer

X
FFT

Methods : Two nos. Piezoelectric accelerometer were mounted 90 degree


apart at the bottom of the bushing, one in the direction of applied force (X)
and other 90 degree to the applied force (Y). A force of 250 Kg was applied
at the top and then it was cut-off. The resulting vibrations were recorded on
the FFT. The recorded signals were analyzed on FFT Analyzer to determine
the natural frequency and damping factor of the bushing.
X Y
direction direction
Natural From FFT reading 3.25 3.25
frequency
Damping [(100 / 2 π n) * log (Y 1 / Yn+1)] Where: n = No. of cycle 1.421% 2.03%
factor Y n+1 = Amplitude of (n+1) cycle peak Y1 = Amplitude of
1st cycle peak

The test is successful if no evidence of physical damage is observed on


the bushing after the test
Final
Observations
Though oil immersed, shunt reactor and power transformer are
viewed alike, there are distinct differences between construction
and operating characteristics of these two devices.

As NLC is going to install two numbers 63 MVAR bus reactor for
the first time in TS II and the operating and maintenance staffs
are not properly exposed to its operating data, following
information need to be collected from any southern grid thermal
power plant ( not from substation) presently operating with
similar capacity bus reactors for successful and trouble free
operation of reactor in TS II –

Average number of switching operation of the reactor per day


Numbers of operating hours achieved since commissioning
Numbers of forced / planned shutdown taken after
commissioning
Protection co-ordinations and its settings
Number of false/actual tripping, if any, since commissioning and
its reasons
Maximum & minimum bus voltage for switching in and out of
reactors
Reduction in leading MVAR and bus voltage after switching in of
the reactor
Any abnormalities observed in generator excitation during
switching in/out
 Average reactor current, winding and oil temperature
Any failure of parts like bushings, LA, gaskets etc since
commissioning
Remarks of the operating staff on the performance of the
reactors
Thank you