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Identification of skin type :

1. Normal skin : has an equal balance between water and oil, medium
sized pores, well hydrated, smooth and firm to touch.
2. Dry skin : dull, rough to touch, flaky, small pores, lack of hydration.
TEWL: Transepidermal water loss, which kept to a minimum in by
NMF, inters cellular lipids, keratinized cells. Alteration in TEWL can
cause dry skin and it is affected by factors like central heating, wind ,
cold, contact with water, nutrition, surfactants.
3. Oily skin : results from hyper production of sebum, skin looks
as orange peel; large hair follicle, slight shine prone to black
head, and acne.
- Sebum production are controlled and affected by the
following factors cause:
- Genetic, hormonal, stress, diet .. Etc.
- Factors may cause temporarily sebaceous gland activity :
Menstrual cycle, contraceptive, pregnancy.

-Sebum composed of : triglcerides, free fatty acids, wax
esters, cholesterol.
- Max secretion at puberty at about 20 years then
decreased by 28% after each decade.
4. Combination skin :
Mixture of dry and oily skin.

Types of skin:

• Skin is often classified into four types according to the activity of the
oil producing sebaceous glands. This classification is commonly used
for facial skin because the skin type can vary in the individual
depending on age, body site, season and state of health.
1. Dry skin.
2. Oily skin.
3. Normal skin is not particularly oily or dry. It is smooth and firm
to touch and the skin pores are barely noticeable.
4. Combination: this type of skin has a tendency to be greasy in
the central T-zone of the forehead, nose, central cheeks and chin.
The skin on the other areas is normal or dry.

Dry skin
• It has been established that water keeps the horny
layer supple and ensures neutralization of acids and
alkalis. A water content of 10-20% in the stratum
corneum is said to be required to keep it soft and
• An alteration of the barrier (by repeated exposure to
surfactants for instance) can cause an increase in TEWL
to the extent that water is lost faster than it can be
replaced from the underlying tissues. This results in the
horny layer drying out, precipitating dry skin

Dry skin

• Dry skin feels taut, rough and itchy. Closer observation

reveals the presence of very fine wrinkles and, at a
more advanced stage, large scales.
• The surface of severe dry skin is cracked and is
reddened (erythema) as a result of the dilated
peripheral blood capillaries in the dermis.
Environmental factors, sunlight and ageing, plus
numerous skin diseases and dietary deficiencies, all
produce dry skin.

Oily skin

• Oily skin results from, the excessive activity of sebaceous glands

which produce the lipid secretions known as sebum.
• There are several factors which can cause and/or contribute to oily or
greasy skin; genetic inheritance, hormonal changes, diet, stress and
external agents (chemicals, ultraviolet light). Changes in hormone
levels which occur during puberty, the menstrual cycle, use of oral
contraceptives and pregnancy tend to influence the activity of the
sebaceous glands which can result in a flare-up of oily skin.