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6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018

PAVEMENT ENGINEERING
INTRODUCTION

The main purpose of the road structure is to provide a means of reducing the stress or
pressure due to a wheel load to a value which the ground under that structure can
support. A vehicle standing on a road structure exerts a direct load (static stress) on the
small area of contact between its tires and the road surface. When the vehicle is
moving, there is additional dynamic stressing due to the up and down movements of
the vehicle, caused by slight unevenness of the surface, gusting wind, etc. This has the
effect of ‘hammering’ the surface as the vehicle travels along the road.
The intensity of the static and dynamic stress is greatest at the surface of the road and
spreads in a pyramidal shape throughout the depth of the structure. As the spread of
the load increases, so the stress is reduced, until at the formation level, the stress is low
enough for the natural ground to support it without distortion or damage.
For simplicity, the pyramidal spread of the load can be considered to be at 450 to the
horizontal and this gives an approximately correct stressing figure. In reality, the spread
is slightly greater in the upper layers of the road structure.

1 Prepared by: Eng. Chamil Duminda Mahagamage


International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018

The structure of the Road

Subgrade
The term ‘subgrade’ is used to define the natural foundation or fill which
directly receives the loads from the pavement. Hence, the top surface of the subgrade is
the formation. On new construction, a capping layer is used to protect the subgrade
from damage.

Sub base
The sub-base, which
1. assists in load spreading
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International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018

2. assists subsoil drainage (if a free drainage material is used)


3. acts as a temporary road for construction traffic.

Road base
The road base, which is the main load-spreading layer of the structure.

Binder course
The binder-course, which supports the wearing course and also assists in
protecting the road

Surface course
The surface course, which
1. provides a skid resistance surface
2. waterproofs the pavement
3. withstands the direct loading of the traffic

3 Prepared by: Eng. Chamil Duminda Mahagamage


International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018

Design of Flexible Pavements


Highway pavements are divided into two main categories: rigid and flexible. The
wearing surface of a rigid pavement usually is constructed of concrete such that it acts
like a beam over any irregularities in the underlying supporting material. The wearing
surface of flexible pavements, on the other hand, usually is constructed of bituminous
materials such that they remain in contact with the underlying material even when
minor irregularities occur. Traffic loads are transferred by the wearing surface to the
underlying supporting materials through the interlocking of aggregates, the frictional
effect of granular materials, and cohesion of fine materials.

Subgrade
The subgrade is usually the natural material located along the horizontal alignment of
the pavement and serves as the foundation of the pavement structure. It also may
consist of a layer of selected borrow materials. It may be necessary to treat the
subgrade material to achieve certain strength properties required for the type of
pavement being constructed.
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International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018

Sub-base
Located immediately above the subgrade, the sub-base component consists of material
of a superior quality to that which is generally used for subgrade construction. The
requirements for sub-base materials usually are given in terms of the gradation, plastic
characteristics, and strength. When the quality of subgrade material meets the
requirements of the sub-base material, the sub-base component may be omitted. In
cases where suitable sub-base material is not readily available, the available material
can be treated with other materials to achieve the necessary properties. This process of
treating soils to improve their engineering properties is known as stabilization.

Base course
The base course lies immediately above the sub-base. It is placed immediately above
the subgrade if a sub-base is not used. This course usually consists of granular materials
such as crushed stone, crushed or uncrushed slag, crushed or uncrushed gravel and
sand. The specifications for base course materials usually include more strict
requirements than those for sub-base materials, particularly with respect to their
plasticity, gradation, and strength. Materials that do not have the required properties
can be used as base materials if they are properly stabilized with Portland cement,
asphalt, or lime.

5 Prepared by: Eng. Chamil Duminda Mahagamage


International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018

Surface course
The surface course is the upper course of the road pavement and is constructed
immediately above the base course. The surface course in flexible pavements usually
consists of a mixture of mineral aggregates and asphalt. It should be capable of
withstanding high tire pressures, resisting abrasive forces due to traffic, providing a skid
resistant driving surface, and preventing the penetration of surface water into the
underlying layers. The thickness of the wearing surface can vary from 75mm to more
than 150mm, depending on the expected traffic on the pavement. The quality of the
surface course of a flexible pavement depends on the mix design of the asphalt
concrete used.

Soil stabilization
Soil stabilization is the treatment of natural soil to improve its engineering properties.
Soil stabilization methods can be divided into two categories, namely, mechanical and
chemical. Mechanical stabilization is the blending of different grades of soils to obtain a
required grade. Chemical stabilization is the blending of the natural soil with chemical
agents.

6 Prepared by: Eng. Chamil Duminda Mahagamage


International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018

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International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018

General Principles of Flexible Pavement Design


In the design of flexible pavements, the pavement structure usually is considered as a
multilayered elastic system, with the material in each layer characterized by certain
physical properties that may include the modulus of elasticity, the resilient modulus,
and the poison ratio. It is assumed initially that the subgrade layer is infinite in both the
horizontal and vertical directions, whereas the other layers are finite in the vertical
direction and infinite in the horizontal direction.

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International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018

The design of pavement generally is based on strain criteria that limit both the
horizontal and vertical strains below those that will cause excessive cracking and
excessive permanent deformation. These criteria are considered in terms of repeated
load applications because the accumulated repetitions of traffic loads are of significant
importance to the development of cracks and permanent deformation of the pavement.

AASHTO Design Method


The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO)
method for design of highway pavements is based primarily on the results of the
AASHTO road test.

Design Considerations
The factors considered in the AASHTO procedure for the design of flexible pavement
are,
• Pavement performance
• Traffic
• Roadbed soils (subgrade material)
• Materials for construction
• Environment
• Drainage
• Reliability
9 Prepared by: Eng. Chamil Duminda Mahagamage
International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018

 Pavement Performance
The primary factors considered under pavement performance are the
structural and functional performance of the pavement. Structural performance is
related to the physical condition of the pavement with respect to factors that have a
negative impact on the capability of the pavement to carry the traffic load. These
factors include cracking, faulting, raveling, and so forth. Functional performance is an
indication of how effectively the pavement serves the user. The main factor considered
under functional performance is riding comfort.
Serviceability Indices for Design

Initial serviceability Terminal serviceability


index (pi) index (pt)

pi -more reliable levels should be determined based on existing conditions and the
recommended value is 4.2

pt - Recommended values are 2.5 or 3.0 for major highways and 2.0 for highways with
a lower classification.
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International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018

 Traffic Load
The traffic load is determined in terms of the number of repetitions of an
80kN (18000lb or 18kips) single-axle load applied to the pavement on two sets of dual
tires. This is usually referred to as the equivalent single-axle load (ESAL). The dual tires
are represented as two circular plates, each 11.46cm (4.51in.) radius, spaced 34.47cm
(13.57in.) apart.

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International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018

The equivalence factors used in this case are based on the terminal serviceability index
to be used in the design and the structural number (SN). To determine the ESAL, the
number of different types of vehicles such as cars, buses, single-unit trucks, and
multiple-unit trucks expected to use the facility during its lifetime must be known. The
distribution of the different types of vehicles expected to use the proposed highway can
be obtained from results of classification counts that are taken by state highway
agencies at regular intervals. These can then be converted to equivalent 80kN loads
using the equivalency factors.

The total ESAL applied on the highway during its design period can be determined only
after the design period and traffic growth factors are known.
Design life for the flexible pavements = 20 Years

Growth Factor

r= growth rate (%)


n= design life (yrs)

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International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018

Accumulated ESAL

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International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018

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International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018

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International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018

Example 01
Computing Accumulated Equivalent Single-Axle Load for a Proposed Eight-Lane Highway
Using Load Equivalency Factors

An eight-lane divided highway is to be constructed on a new alignment. Traffic voulme


forecasts indicate that the average annual daily traffic (AADT) in both directions during
the first year of operation will be 12,000 with the following vehicle mix and axle loads.
Passenger cars (4.44kN/axle) = 50%
2-axle single-unit trucks (26.7kN/axle) = 33%
3-axle single-unit trucks (44.4kN/axle) = 17%
The vehicle mix is expected to remain the same throughout the design life of the
pavement. If the expected annual traffic growth rate is 4% for all vehicles, determine
the design ESAL, given a design period of 20 years. The percent of traffic on the design
lane is 45%, and the pavement has a terminal serviceability index (pt) of 2.5 and SN of 5.

16 Prepared by: Eng. Chamil Duminda Mahagamage


International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018

 Roadbed Soils (Subgrade Material)


Resilient modulus (Mr) of the soil uses to define its property. The method allows for the
conversion of the CBR or R(resistance value of Hveem Stabilometer Test) value of the
soil to an equivalent Mr value using the following conversion factors.

Mr (kN/m2) = 10,350 CBR (for fine-grain soils with soaked CBR of 10 or less)
Mr (kN/m2) = 145 + 80.4R (for R<20)

 Materials of Construction
Sub-base Construction Materials
The quality of the material used is determined in terms of the layer coefficient, a3,
which is used to convert the actual thickness of the sub-base to an equivalent SN.

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International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018

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International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018
Base course construction materials (layer coefficient a2)

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International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018
Surface course construction materials (layer coefficient a1)
The most commonly used material is a hot plant mix of asphalt cement and dense-
graded aggregates with a maximum size of 25mm.

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International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018

 Environment
Temperature and rainfall are the two main environmental factors used in evaluating
pavement performance in the AASHTO method. The effects of temperature on asphalt
pavements include stresses induced by thermal action, changes in the creep properties,
and the effect of freezing and thawing of subgrade soil.
The effect of rainfall is due mainly to the penetration of the surface water into the
underlying material. If penetration occurs, the properties of underlying materials may
be altered significantly.

 Drainage
The effect of drainage on the performance of flexible pavements is considered with
respect to the effect water has on the strength of the base material and road bed soil.
The approach used is to provide for the rapid drainage of the free water (non capillary)
from the pavement structure by providing a suitable drainage layer, and by modifying
the structural layer coefficient. The modification is carried out by incorporating a factor
mi for the base and sub-base layer coefficients (a2 and a3).

21 Prepared by: Eng. Chamil Duminda Mahagamage


International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018

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International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018

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International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018

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International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018

 Reliability
The cumulative ESAL is an important input to any pavement design method. However,
the determination of this input is usually based on assumed growth rates which may not
be accurate. Therefore AASHTO guide proposes the use of a reliability factor that
considers the possible uncertainties in traffic prediction and performance prediction.

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International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018

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International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018

 Structural Design
The objective of the design using the AASHTO method is to determine a flexible
pavement structural number (SN) adequate to carry the projected design ESAL. It is left
to the designer to select the type of surface used which can be either asphalt concrete,
a single surface treatment, or a double surface treatment. This design procedure is used
for ESALs greater than 50,000 for the performance period. The design of ESALs less than
this is usually considered under low-volume roads.

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International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018

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International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018

Example 02
Designing a Flexible Pavement Using the AASHTO Method

A flexible pavement for an urban interstate highway is to be designed using AASHTO


guide procedure to carry a design ESAL of 2x106. It is estimated that it takes about a
weak for water to be drained from within the pavement and the pavement structure
will be exposed to moisture levels approaching saturation for 30% of the time. The
following additional information is available.

Resilient modulus of asphalt concrete at 680F = 3,105,000 kN/m2


CBR value of base course material=100
CBR value of sub-base course material=22
CBR value of subgrade material = 6
Determine a suitable pavement structure.

Cont’d

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International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018

Design of Rigid Pavements


Rigid highway pavements are normally constructed of Portland cement concrete and
may or may not have a base course between the subgrade and the concrete surface.
When a base course is used in rigid pavement construction, it is usually referred to as a
sub-base course. Rigid pavements have some flexural strength that permits them to
sustain a beamlike action across minor irregularities in the underlying material. Properly
designed and constructed rigid pavements have long service lives and usually are less
expensive to maintain than flexible pavements.
Thickness of highway concrete pavements normally ranges from 150mm - 350mm. The
Portland cement concrete commonly used for rigid pavements consists of Portland
cement, coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, and water. Steel reinforcing rods may or may
not be used, depending on the type of pavement being constructed.

Joints in Concrete Pavement


Different types of joints are placed in concrete pavements to limit the stresses induced
by temperature changes and to facilitate proper bonding of two adjacent sections of
pavement when there is a time lapse between their construction. These joints can be
divided into four basic categories.
• Expansion joints
• Contraction joints
• Hinge joints
• Construction joints 30 Prepared by: Eng. Chamil Duminda Mahagamage
International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018

• Expansion joints
When concrete pavement is subjected to an increase in temperature, it will expand,
resulting in an increase in length of the slab. When the temperature is sufficiently high
the slab may buckle or “blow up” if it is sufficiently long and if no provision is made to
accommodate the increased length. Therefore, expansion joints are usually placed
transversely, at regular intervals, to provide adequate space for the slab to expand. The
joints are placed across the full width of the slab and are 19-25mm wide in the
longitudinal direction. They must create a distinct break throughout the depth of the
slab. The joint space is filled with a compressible filler material that permits the slab to
expand. Filler materials can be rubber, bituminous materials, bituminous fabric.
A means of transferring the load across the joint space must be provided since there are
no aggregates that will develop and interlocking mechanism. The load-transfer
mechanism is usually a smooth dowel bar that is lubricated on one side.

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International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018

• Contraction joints
When concrete pavement is subjected to a decrease in temperature, the slab will
contract if it is free to move. Prevention of this contraction movement will induce
tensile stresses in the concrete pavement. Contraction joints therefore are placed
transversely at regular intervals across the width of the pavement to release some of
the tensile stresses that are so induced. It may be necessary in some cases to install a
load-transfer mechanism in the form of a dowel bar when there is doubt about the
ability of the interlocking gains to transfer the load.

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International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018

• Hinge joints
Hinge joints are used mainly to reduce cracking along the center line of highway
pavements.

• Construction Joints
Construction joints are placed transversely across the pavement width to provide
suitable transition between concrete laid at different times. For example, a construction
joint is usually placed at the end of a day’s pour to provide suitable bonding with the
start of the next day’s pour. An expansion joint can be used in lieu of a transverse
construction joint in cases where the construction joint falls at or near the same
position as the expansion joint.

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International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018

Types of Rigid Highway Pavements


Jointed Plain Concrete Pavement
Plain concrete pavement has no temperature steel or dowels for load transfer.
However, steel tie bars often are used to provide a hinge effect at longitudinal joints
and to prevent the opening of these joints. Plain concrete pavements are used
mainly on low-volume highways or when cement-stabilized soils are used as sub
base.

 Simply Reinforced Concrete Pavement


Simply reinforced concrete pavements have dowels for the transfer of traffic loads
across joints, with these joints spaced at larger distances, ranging from 9 to 30m.
Temperature steel is used throughout the slab, with the amount dependent on the
length of the slab. Tie bars also are used commonly at longitudinal joints.

 Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement


Continuously reinforced concrete pavements have no transverse joints, except
construction joints or expansion joints when they are necessary at specific positions,
such as at bridges. Theses pavements have a relatively high percentage of steel, with
the minimum usually at 0.6% of the cross section of the slab. They also contain tie
bars across the longitudinal joints.

34 Prepared by: Eng. Chamil Duminda Mahagamage


International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018

Stresses in Rigid Pavements

Stresses are developed in rigid pavements as a results of several factors, including the
action of traffic wheel loads, the expansion and contraction of the concrete due to
temperature changes, yielding of the sub-base or subgrade supporting the concrete
pavement, and volumetric changes. These different factors that can induce stress in
concrete pavement have made the theoretical determination of stress rather complex,
requiring the following simplifying assumptions.
1. Concrete pavement slabs are considered as unreinforced concrete beams.
Any contribution made to the flexural strength by the inclusion of reinforcing steel is
neglected.
2. The combination of flexural and direct tensile stresses will inevitably result
in transverse and longitudinal cracks. The provision of suitable crack control in the form
of joints, however, controls the occurrence of these cracks, thereby maintaining the
beam action of large section of the pavement.
3. The supporting sub-base and/or subgrade layer acts as an elastic material in
that it deflects at the application of the traffic load and recovers at the removal of the
load.

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International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018

Thickness Design of Rigid Pavement

The main objective in rigid pavement design is to determine the thickness of the
concrete slab that will be adequate to carry the projected traffic load for the design
period.

AASHTO Design Method


The AASHTO method for rigid pavement design is mainly based on the results obtained
from the AASHTO road test. The design procedure provides for the determination of the
pavement thickness and the amount of steel reinforcement when used, as well as the
design of joints.

Design Considerations
Pavement Performance
Pavement performance is considered in the same way as for flexible pavement. The
initial serviceability index (Pi) may be taken as 4.5, and the terminal serviceability index
may also be selected by the designer.
Sub-base Strength
The guide allows the use of either graded granular materials or suitably stabilized
materials for the sub-base layer.

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International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018

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International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018

subgrade Strength
The strength of the subgrade is given in terms of the Westergaard modulus of subgrade
reaction (k), which is defined as the load on a loaded area, divided by the deformation
in inches. Values of k can be obtained by conducting plate bearing test. Estimates of k
values can also be made either from experience or by correlating with other tests.
The guide also provides for the determination of an effective modulus of subgrade
reaction, which depends on
- the seasonal effect on the resilient modulus of subgrade
- the type and thickness of the sub-base material used
- the effect of potential erosion of the sub base
- whether bed rock lies within 3m of the subgrade surface.
Since different types of sub-base materials have different strengths, the type of material
used is an important input in the determination of the effective modulus of subgrade
reaction. In estimating the composite modulus of subgrade reaction, the sub-base
material is defined in terms of its elastic modulus ESB. It is also necessary to consider the
combination of material types and the required thicknesses because this serves as a
basis for determining the cost-effectiveness of the pavement.

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International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018

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International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018

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International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018

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International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018

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International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018
Example 03
Computing Effective Modulus of Subgrade Reaction for a Rigid Pavement Using the
AASHTO Method
A 150mm layer of cement-treated granular material is to be used as sub base for a rigid
pavement. The monthly values for the roadbed soil resilient modulus and the sub base
elastic resilient modulus are given as follows. If the rock depth is located 1.5m below
the subgrade surface and the projected slab thickness is 225mm, estimate the effective
modulus of subgrade reaction, using the AASHTO method.

(1) Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
(2) 1.38 1.38 17.25 27.6 27.6 48.3 48.3 48.3 48.3 48.3 27.6 1.38
Roadbed
Modulus
MR
(kN/m2)x10
3

Subbase 345 345 103.5 103.5 103.5 138 138 138 138 138 103.5 34.5
ModulusESB
(kN/m2)
x103

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International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018

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International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018

Traffic
The treatment of traffic load is similar to that presented for flexible pavements, in that
he traffic load application is given in terms of the number of 80kN equivalent single axes
loads(ESALs). ESAL factors depend on the slab thickness and the terminal serviceability
index of the pavement. Since the ESAL factor depends on the thickness of the slab, it is
therefore necessary to assume the thickness of the slab at the start of the computation.
This assumed value is used to compute the number of accumulated ESALs, which in turn
is used to compute the required thickness. If the computed thickness is significantly
different from the assumed thickness, the accumulated ESAL should be recomputed.
This procedure should be repeated until the assumed and computed thicknesses are
approximately the same.

Concrete properties
The concrete property is given in terms of its flexural strength (modulus of rupture) at
28 days.

Drainage
The drainage quality of the pavement is considered by introducing a factor (Cd) into the
performance equation. This factor depends on the quality of the drainage and the
percent of time the pavement structure is exposed to moisture levels approaching
saturation.
45 Prepared by: Eng. Chamil Duminda Mahagamage
International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018

46 Prepared by: Eng. Chamil Duminda Mahagamage


International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018

47 Prepared by: Eng. Chamil Duminda Mahagamage


International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018

48 Prepared by: Eng. Chamil Duminda Mahagamage


International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018

49 Prepared by: Eng. Chamil Duminda Mahagamage


International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018
Example 04
Designing a Rigid Pavement using the AASHTO Method

Select the suitable thickness for concrete slab of rigid pavement with following
parameters.

Effective modulus of subgrade reaction k = 19440 kN/m3


Mean concrete modulus of rupture Sc’ = 4485 kN/m2
Load transfer coefficient, J = 3.2
Drainage coefficient, Cd = 1.0
Design serviceability loss = 2.0
Reliability, R% = 95%
Overall standard deviation, S0 = 0.29
Cumulative 80kN ESAL = 5x106

50 Prepared by: Eng. Chamil Duminda Mahagamage


International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 11 1/26/2018
Example 05
Evaluating the adequacy of a Rigid Pavement using the AASHTO Method

Using the data and effective subgrade modulus obtained in Example 03 above,
determine whether the 9inch pavement will be adequate on a rural expressway for a 20
year analysis period and the following design criteria.

Pi = 4.5
Pt = 2.5
ESAL on design lane during first year of operation = 0.2 x 106
Traffic growth rate = 4%
Concrete elastic modulus, Ec = 34.5 x 106 kN/m2
Mean concrete modulus of rupture = 4830 kN/m2
Drainage coefficient, Cd = 1.0
R = 0.95 (ZR = 1.645)
S0 = 0.3
Growth factor = 29.78
k = 45200 kN/m3
Assumed D = 22.5cm
ESAL over design period = 0.2 x 106 x 29.78 = 6 x106

51 Prepared by: Eng. Chamil Duminda Mahagamage


International College of Business and Technology
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)