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Lab procedures in cast

partial denture fabrication

• Introduction.
• Preparation of master cast
• Blockout And Relief Of Casts
• Wax Contouring.
• Spruing , Investing, Burnout And Casting Of The
Frame Work.
• Finishing And Polishing Of Partial Dentures.
• Attachment Of Wrought Wire Clasp Arms.
• Conclusion
• References
• The removable partial denture framework should
be constructed in such a manner requiring a high
level of communication between clinician and
technician if a quality denture is to be achieved.
• Knowledge of the laboratory phase of partial
denture construction is essential for the clinician,
who must assume total responsibility for the
design and the quality control of all aspects of its
Laboratory procedures
• Dentist should provide the lab with the
1. A written work authorization describing the
desired prosthesis
2. Surveyed diagnostic cast
3. An articulated master cast with exact
reproduction of hard and soft tissues
Preparing the master cast
• Retripoding the master cast

• Heights of contour

• Design transfer

• Blockout and relief

• Retripoding Of The Cast:
• Three widely separated marks
are placed on the master cast
with the dental surveyor vertical
• These marks must be placed in
areas that are not involved with
design outlines
• Marks are placed on the lingual
surfaces of the cast such that all
three can be seen from the same
• Height of Contour: With the master cast
positioned on the survey table by the three
tripod marks, carbon rods are used to mark
height of contour line on the involved teeth
and soft tissue areas.
• Vertical carbon rod in
surveyor used to place
the mark on the cast.
Design Transfer
• Without removing the master
cast from the survey table by
changing the tilt, the design is
transferred from the diagnostic
• Metallic brown
• Rest, tripod,tissue stops,
terminal end of the clasp  red
• Resin outline blue
• Height of contour  black
Block Out And Relief
• Elimination of undesirable undercuts on the
master cast “ block out”.
• Before this the maxillary cast is beaded –
outlining of the master cast with no 2
diamond bur.
• Depth and width of 0.5 mm
• Bead line kept short of gingival margin by 3-4
Beading of maxillary cast
• Prevents food
particles from
• Positive contact
against the palate
• Not done on
mandibular –thin
attached gingiva
• Cast treated with a surface
• Mixture of acetone, diethyl
phthalate, and cellulose
• Impermeable seal that
protects the drawn design
• multiple layer should not be
• Dry for 5 mins and block out
Types of blockout

– Paralell
– Shaped
– Arbitrary
– Relief
Paralell blockout
Zero degree taper

Two degree taper

Six degree taper

• Parallel blockout is made by using different

styli in the surveyor to establish 0degree,2
degree or 6degree taper in the blackout wax
• Extends from the survey line to the
• Used
– Beneath minor connectors
– Soft tissue undercuts that
may be crossed by
rigid connectors
Shaped blockout or ledging
• Shaped blockout or ledging
is used on buccal or lingual
surfaces to facilitate
accurate placement of
plastic or wax patterns for
clasp arms.

• The blockout wax may be

placed in the undercut and
trimmed flush with the
survey line using the proper
stylus or wax trimmer.
• Ledging may be done only in the area of the
tip of the clasp; this is the most desirable

• It permits more flexibility in the waxing

procedure, and, if the refractory cast is well
made, there is no difficulty in placing the
bracing portion of the clasp.
Arbitrary blockout
• Used in areas to prevent the encroachment of
metal on the soft tissues and areas critical to
withdrawal of the blocked out cast from the
duplicating material.

• Soft wax ,clay and mortite (titanium dioxide

• Gingival Crevices

• Undercut areas not

involved with framework
 to minimize distortion
during dupilication
• Clay used block areas
of gross undercut

• Palatal clefts and other


• Any addition of wax intended to make the

framework stand away from the master cast is
termed relief

• Relief is used beneath framework extensions, in

edentulous area to provide for attachment of
denture base resins and to form internal finish
• 1 mm space  between the struts and master
• Relief is usually used beneath lingual bars and
in other area where major connectors will
contact thin soft tissue such as maxillary and
mandibular tori.

Wax sheet sealed at

finish line about 1.5
mm away from
abutment teeth
2 mm square of wax
removed from relief pad
to place tissue stops
• Relief is usually required when altered cast
impression procedures will be used

• Relief is used when ridge to be covered by

denture base is not well healed
Relief – Where not to use
• Under Metal Complete Denture Bases

• Bead or Nailhead Retention

• Open Retention when the outer support is

against the cast
Sprue Guide Placement
• Some partial denture alloys need an overjet sprue
former and reservoir .

• A small tapered cylinder needs to be placed on

master cast (wax ,plastic , metal )

• Exact position as main sprue

• Overjet sprue placement is governed by

recommendation by alloy manufacturer.
Duplicating procedure
• Materials
– Colloids – agar

– Silicones
Investment material
• Gypsum bonded
– Low heat investment
– Used to cast type 4 partial denture gold and
ticonium can be heated upto 7040 C(1300F)
• Phosphate bonded
– High heat investment
– Used for vitallium,nobilliumother co –cr alloys
titanium and its alloys
– Temparature 10370 C
• Investment cast after setting drying oven at
93 0 C for half to one hr

• Dry cast trimmed to within 6 mm of proposed

design (to ensure escape of gases )

• Bees wax dip  to ensure dense smooth

surface (138-149 0 C for 15 sec )
Waxing and spruing

• The outline of the framework transferred

from the master cast to refractory cast
(wax pencil).
• The relief, blockout, and beading can be
easily seen on the refractory cast.
• The ledges reproduced from the blockout
permit outlines of the clasps to be drawn
exactly as they are on the master cast
• Both wax and plastic patterns
can be purchased in a large
variety of shapes, sizes, and

• When waxing the framework

for a gold casting, the patterns
should be slightly heavier than
those used for cobalt-
chromium castings.

• Tacky liquidstick pattern to

• Sprue channel acts as a an opening from
crusible to cavity in which framework cast

• Two basic types of sprues, single and


• Multiple sprues are used if the metal must get

to a thicker section by passing through a thin
• All metals shrink during solidification
• A heavy sprue is an additional aid for
offsetting this shrinkage.
• It acts as a reservoir for the casting because its
bulk remains molten longer than the rest of
the casting and supplies molten metal to
those areas which solidify and shrink first.
• Main sprues should always be
attached to bulky sections of
the wax patterns

• Mandibular partial dentures

are usually sprued through a
hole in the centre of the
refractory cast (easier to
attach sprue leads).

• Maxillary casts are sprued the

same way if the shape of the
castings permits, other wise,
they are sprued from above
• The hole in the base of the cast should be 7mm in
diameter and should be as near as possible in the
centre of the casting.
• The central sprue is made by rolling baseplate
wax to a diameter of 7mm. It is inserted through
the hole until it extends 10mm onto the pattern
• Main and auxillary sprues are attached to the
central sprue approximately 7 mm below the tip
of the central sprue. This method of spruing takes
advantage of the overjet principal.
Hamda et al Investigation of the effect of three sprue design
on the porosity and the completeness of titanium cast
removable partial denture frameworks.

•Three types of designs were used tree circular and ball

• The results of this study indicated that the ball-sprue design
produced better castings than the tree and circular sprues
J Prosthet Dent. 1999;82(1):15–21
• It can be divided into:
– ► Investment cast on which the pattern is

– ► The outer investment surrounding the cast and

the pattern
• Investment cast on which the pattern is
formed is confined within the metal ring
which may or may not be removed after the
outer investment is set

• So the inside layer is lined with a layer of

cellulose , asbestos or ceramic fiber paper for
thermal and setting expansion compensation
in all directions.
First layer painted onto
cast to ensure complete
adaptation and reduce air

Once the first layer sets the ivestment cast is placed

into the investment ring amd covered with investment

• ► Strength necessary to hold the forces exerted

by entering stream of molten metal till it hardens.
► Provides a smooth surface for the mold cavity
so that final casting requires less finishing and
• ► Acts as an avenue of escape for most of the
gases entrapped in the mold cavity.
• ► Provides necessary compensation for the
dimensional changes of the alloy from the molten
to solid , cold state.

► It serves three purposes :

(i) Absorbs moisture from the

within the mold.
(ii) It vaporizes the gases and
eliminates the pattern
creating a vacuum cavity in
the mold.
(iii) Expands the mold to
compensate for contraction
of the metal on cooling.
• For the investment to heat uniformly moist
at the start of burnout cycle .

• If burnout not on same day mold should be

kept in water for few minutes before .

• Mold must be placed in the oven with the

sprue hole down and the orientation mark
forward .
• Burnout furnaces can be
either electric or gas and
must be vented to allow
the noxious fumes that
result from the burnout to
escape the work area.

• Modern furnaces permit

electronic control of both
time and temparature
• Method of casting will vary depending on
alloy and eqiupment used .

• All methods use force to quickly inject the

molten metal into the mold cavity. This force
may be centrifugal (common)or air pressure.

• Induction casting method of choice for RPD.

•Induction casting is based on the
electric currents in a metal core
caused by induction from a
magnetic field.
•A heating coil of copper tubing is
shaped to fit closely around the
casting crucible and is attached to
an alternating current source.
• The alternating current in the coil
sets up eddy currents of electrons
in the crucible and the alloy in it
thus melting it
• Co-cr alloy is a commonly used investment material for
casting of partial
• Not ductile
• Light in weight, strong and corrosion resistant.
• Superheating the alloy before casting can increase the
ductility of the alloy.

• Superheating the alloy can cause the metal to react with

the mold and a close adhering green scale is formed. this
green scale is very hard to be removed and requires a lot
of machining.
• After the casting is
complete the mold is
allowed to cool and at
the approximate time
the mold is broken by
tapping it with a
wooden mallet to break
off the outer layer of
• First layer of investment if removed by sand

• It can be divided into:

• rough finishing and polishing.
• fitting of the frame work.
• rubber wheeling and final
• sectioning and resoldering of
the frame work.
• occlusal adjustment.
Sprue leads are removed using an abrasive disk
Rough finishing and polishing
• Areas of major connector must be
shaped and rubber wheeled to a
satin surface , surfaces contacting
the tooth only positive blebs are
• Areas of rest and rest seats ,
retentive clasp tips, guiding plane
of minor connectors must be
minimally polished , cast clasp arm
should not be polished too much
as it will distort .
Fitting the framework
• Framework seated on
duplicate master cast
• Retentive undercut areas
are removed to accomplish
complete seating
• Powdered sprays and
liquid disclosing agents are
used to show areas of
interference and removed
by spot grinding .
Rubber wheeling and final polishing
• It is done after the casting
completely seats the master
cast without rocking or
• Use of rag and felt wheels are
used at high speeds lathe to
give a smooth and shining
surface to the framework,
ultrasonic cleaning is finally
done to remove the traces of
polishing materials
Electrolytic polishing

• Electropolish unit used for the final surface

polish of frameworks in a heated polishing
• Electrolytic polishing is a kind of electrolytic
• Atoms of metal from rough projections go into
solution before those in smooth areas

• Results in a consistent satin like surface

The unit pictured in is the
Ti-Lectro Polisher (CMP Industries).
The polishing occurs in a bath of
85% orthophosphoric acid, which is
heated t o 49 ° C to 60 °C.

The anode is attached to the cast

and the cast is immersed in the
solution. Each square inch of metal
surface area requires 2 amperes of
current for 6 minutes. The average
setting is 6 amperes f o r 6 mins.
Sectioning and resoldering of the
• It is done only when the final framework
appears to rock or does not fit to the master
cast or in the patients mouth
• Sectioning is done to seat the sections and
solder the parts together, minor connectors
and some of the major connectors are
sectioned and soldered with precious metal
solder or non precious brazing alloys which is
done by electro soldering device.
Occlusal adjustment
• Occlusal and incisal rests are waxed heavily to
allow them to cast completely
• Minimum clearance of less than 1.5 mm is
kept for rest and embrasure clasps
• If interferences still exist  marked onto the
opposing cast with red pencil and brought into
the clinicians notice.
Wrought wire retentive clasp
• Retentive clasp arms can be constructed of wrought
wire as well as cast alloy.
• wire claspgreater degree of control in adapting and
adjusting the clasp.
• Since wrought wire is normally round, it will flex
equally in all directions. This uniform flexibility is
thought to be "kind" to the abutment tooth.
• Wires available for removable partial dentures
normally run from 17 to 20 gauge and can be made of
either precious metal alloys (gold, palladium, platinum,
silver) or non precious alloys (stainless steel, nickel
chromium, nickelchromium-cobalt).
• Wrought wire clasps are almost
universally used as repair
additions for fractured or
distorted cast clasps and on a
variety of temporary and
transitional prostheses as well. It
is essential that the clinician
develop and maintain skill in the
manipulation of the wrought
wire clasp.
• Wrought wire can be attached to
the framework in 4 ways:
• Embedding of the wire piece into
the acrylic denture part(repair)
• Induced in the wax up of the
framework and the metal is cast to
the wire
• soldering of the wrought wire on to
the frame meshwork well away
from the area were it flexes
• Laser welding
• Although it is certainly impractical and
perhaps impossible for the clinician to be
actively involved with the construction phases
of the removable partial denture framework,
so the dentist must keep himself update to
the newer techniques developed for the
processing of the prosthesis in turn to achieve
a harmonious and effective prosthesis keeping
patients needs in mind .
• Applegate O. C. :Alloys for removable partial dentures; Factors considered
choosing an alloy; Dent Clin North Am; 4: 583-590;1960.
• Asgar K. A.: New alloy for partial dentures. J Prosthet Dent 23:36-43; 1970.
• Blatterefein L. et al.: Minimum acceptable procedures for satisfactory
removable partial denture service. J Prosthet Dent. 27:84-87;1972.
• Clinical removable partial prosthodontics: Kenneth L. Stewart D.D.S ,
Kenneth D. Rudd and William A. Kuebker-fourth edition
• Hamda et all. Investigation of the effect of three sprue design on the
porosity and the completeness of titanium cast removable partial denture
frameworks. J Prosthet Dent. 1999;82(1):15–21.
• Brudvik JS, Lee S, Croshaw SN, Reimers DL. Laser Welding of Removable
Partial Denture Frameworks. Int J Prosthodont. 2008;21(4):285–92.
• Stewart’s clinical removable partial prosthodontics. Rodney D.
phoenix.4th edition.
• Dental laboratory procedures vol 3;Rudd KD 2nd edition.
• Mc Cracken’s removable partial prosthodontics, ninth edition