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Physical Origins

and

Rate Equations

Chapter One

Sections 1.1 and 1.2

Heat Transfer and Thermal Energy

difference.

Thermal energy is associated with the translation, rotation,

vibration and electronic states of the atoms and molecules

that comprise matter. It represents the cumulative effect of

microscopic activities and is directly linked to the temperature

of matter.

Heat Transfer and Thermal Energy (cont.)

and Heat Transfer

Quantity Meaning Symbol Units

Thermal Energy+ Energy associated with microscopic

U or u J or J/kg

behavior of matter

amount of thermal energy stored in matter

T K or °C

temperature gradients

over a time interval t 0

J

and surface area

+

U Thermal energy of system

u Thermal energy per unit mass of system

Modes of Heat Transfer

the random motion of its constituent atoms, molecules and /or

electrons.

random motion for fluid flow over a surface.

configurations of its atoms or molecules and is transported as

electromagnetic waves (or photons).

medium.

• Although radiation originates from matter, its transport does not require a material

medium and occurs most efficiently in a vacuum.

Heat Transfer Rates: Conduction

Conduction:

General (vector) form of Fourier’s Law:

q k T

W/m K

2

W/m °C/m or K/m

Application to one-dimensional, steady conduction across a

plane wall of constant thermal conductivity:

dT T T

qx k k 2 1

dx L

T1 T2

qx k

L

Heat Transfer Rates: Convection

Convection

Relation of convection to flow over a surface and development

of velocity and thermal boundary layers:

q h Ts T

Heat Transfer Rates: Radiation

Radiation Heat transfer at a gas/surface interface involves radiation

emission from the surface and may also involve the

absorption of radiation incident from the surroundings

(irradiation, G ), as well as convection if Ts T .

Energy outflow due to emission:

E Eb Ts4

E : Emissive power W/m2

: Surface emissivity 0 1

Eb : Emissive power of a blackbody (the perfect emitter)

: Stefan-Boltzmann constant 5.67 10-8 W/m 2 K 4

Gabs G

Gabs :Absorbed incident radiation (W/m 2 )

: Surface absorptivity 0 1

G : Irradiation W/m 2

Heat Transfer Rates: Radiation (cont.)

Irradiation: Special case of surface exposed to large

surroundings of uniform temperature, Tsur

G Gsur Tsur4

surface due to exchange with the surroundings is:

Eb Ts G Ts4 Tsur4

qrad

Heat Transfer Rates: Radiation (cont.)

Alternatively,

hr Ts Tsur

qrad

hr : Radiation heat transfer coefficient W/m2 K

hr Ts Tsur Ts2 Tsur2

qrad

Process Identification

Schematic:

qrad,1 Net radiation exchange between room walls and inner surface of first pane

qcond,1 Conduction through first pane

qconv ,s Convection across airspace between panes

qrad,s Net radiation exchange between outer surface of first pane and inner surface of second pane (across airspace)

qcond,2 Conduction through a second pane

qconv,2 Convection from outer surface of single (or second) pane to ambient air

qrad,2 Net radiation exchange between outer surface of single (or second) pane and surroundings such as the ground

qs Incident solar radiation during day; fraction transmitted to room is smaller for double pane

Problem: Electronic Cooling

of 85C and in an enclosure whose walls and air are at 25C for

(a) free convection and (b) forced convection.

Schematic:

Assumptions: (1) Steady-state conditions, (2) Radiation exchange between a small surface and a large enclosure, (3)

Negligible heat transfer from sides of chip or from back of chip by conduction through the substrate.

Analysis:

Pelec qconv qrad hA Ts T A Ts4 Tsur4

A L2 0.015m 2.25×10-4 m 2

2

qconv CA Ts T = 4.2W/m 2 K 5/4 2.25 10-4 m 2 60K = 0.158W

5/4 5/4

Pelec 0.158W 0.065W = 0.223W

qconv hA Ts T 250W/m 2 K 4 2.25 10-4 m 2 60K 3.375W

Pelec 3.375W 0.065W 3.44W

Relationship to Thermodynamics

Chapter One

Section 1.3

Alternative Formulations

CONSERVATION OF ENERGY

(FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS)

• An important tool in heat transfer analysis, often

providing the basis for determining the temperature

of a system.

• Alternative Formulations

Time Basis:

At an instant

or

Over a time interval

Type of System:

Control volume

Control surface

CV at an Instant and over a Time Interval

• At an Instant of Time:

Note representation of system by a

control surface (dashed line) at the boundaries.

Surface Phenomena

E in E out :

, rate of thermal and/or mechanical energy transfer across the control

surface due to heat transfer, fluid flow and/or work interactions.

Volumetric Phenomena

Eg : rate of thermal energy generation due to conversion from another energy form

(e.g., electrical, nuclear, or chemical); energy conversion process occurs within the system.

Conservation of Energy

dEst

E in E out E g dt

E

st

Ein Eout Eg Est

Each term has units of J.

Closed System

(i) Transient Process for a Closed System of Mass (M) Assuming Heat Transfer

to the System (Inflow) and Work Done by the System (Outflow).

Q W Esttot

For negligible changes in potential or kinetic energy

Q W Ut

Internal thermal energy

At an instant

dU t

q W

dt

Example 1.4

heating (generation):

dU t dT

Mc

dt dt

• Generation may be viewed as electrical work done on the system (negative W )

Example 1.6

Latent Heat

of Fusion

U t U lat Mhsf

Open System

(ii) Steady State for Flow through an Open System without Phase Change or

Generation:

At an Instant of Time:

2

m ut pv V gz q m ut pv V 2 gz W 0

2 •

2 in out

• pv flow work

• ut pv i enthalpy

• For an ideal gas with constant specific heat:

iin iout c p Tin Tout

• For an incompressible liquid:

uin uout c Tin Tout

pv in pv out 0

V

2

2 in

V

2

2 out

0

gz in gz out 0

Surface Energy Balance

A special case for which no volume or mass is encompassed by the control surface.

Conservation of Energy (Instant in Time):

Ein Eout 0

• With no mass and volume, energy storage and generation are not pertinent to the energy

balance, even if they occur in the medium bounded by the surface.

Consider surface of wall with heat transfer by conduction, convection and radiation.

qconv

qcond qrad

0

k

T1 T2

L

h T2 T 2 T24 Tsur

4

0

Methodology

• On a schematic of the system, represent the control surface by

dashed line(s).

by labeled arrows on the schematic.

Problem: Silicon Wafer

Determine (a) the initial rate of change of the wafer

temperature and (b) the steady-state temperature.

KNOWN: Silicon wafer positioned in furnace with top and bottom surfaces exposed to hot

and cool zones, respectively.

FIND: (a) Initial rate of change of the wafer temperature from a value of Tw,i 300 K, and (b)

steady-state temperature. Is convection significant? Sketch the variation of wafer temperature

with vertical distance.

SCHEMATIC:

•

Problem: Silicon Wafer (cont.)

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Wafer temperature is uniform, (2) Hot and cool zones have uniform

temperatures, (3) Radiation exchange is between small surface (wafer) and large enclosure

(chamber, hot or cold zone), and (4) Negligible heat losses from wafer to pin holder.

ANALYSIS: The energy balance on the wafer includes convection to the upper (u) and lower

(l) surfaces from the ambient gas, radiation exchange with the hot- and cool-zones and an energy

storage term for the transient condition. Hence, from Eq. (1.12c),

E in E out E st

or, per unit surface area

d Tw

h qrad,

qrad, c qcv,

u qcv,

l cd

dt

4

Tsur, 4

4 4

h Tw Tsur,c Tw hu Tw T hl Tw T cd

d Tw

dt

(a) For the initial condition, the time rate of change of the wafer temperature is determined

using the foregoing energy balance with Tw Tw,i 300 K,

0.65 5.67 108 W / m 2 K 4 15004 3004 K 4 0.65 5.67 108 W / m 2 K 4 3304 3004 K 4

Problem: Silicon Wafer (cont.)

(b) For the steady-state condition, the energy storage term is zero, and the energy balance can

be solved for the steady-state wafer temperature, Tw Tw, ss .

0.65 15004 Tw,ss

4

K 4 0.65 3304 Tw4, ss K 4

8 W / m 2 K Tw,ss 700 K 4 W / m 2 K Tw,ss 700 K 0

To assess the relative importance of convection, solve the energy balances assuming no

convection. With dTw / dt i 101 K/s and Tw, ss 1262 K , we conclude that the radiation

exchange processes control the initial rate of change and the steady-state temperature.

If the wafer were elevated above the present operating position, its temperature would

increase, since the lower surface would begin to experience radiant exchange with

progressively more of the hot zone. Conversely, by lowering the wafer, the upper surface

would experience less radiant exchange with the hot zone, and its temperature would decrease.

The temperature-distance relation might appear as shown in the sketch.

Problem: Cooling of Spherical Canister

Determine (a) the initial rate of change of the canister temperature,

(b) the steady-state temperature, and (c) the effect of convection

on the steady-state temperature.

535 J/kg·K

KNOWN: Inner surface heating and new environmental conditions associated with a spherical

shell of prescribed dimensions and material.

FIND: (a) Governing equation for variation of wall temperature with time and the initial rate of

change, (b) Steady-state wall temperature and, (c) Effect of convection coefficient on canister

temperature.

Problem: Cooling of Spherical Canister (cont.)

SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Negligible temperature gradients in wall, (2) Constant properties, (3) Uniform,

time-independent heat flux at inner surface.

PROPERTIES: Table A.1, Stainless Steel, AISI 302: = 8055 kg/m3, c p = 535 J/kgK.

ANALYSIS: (a) Performing an energy balance on the shell at an instant of time, Ein Eout Est .

Identifying relevant processes and solving for dT/dt,

4

qi 4 ri2 h 4 ro2 T T ro3 ri3 c p

3

dT

dt

dT

3 q r 2 hr 2 T T .

dt c r r

3 3 i i o <

p o i

Problem: Cooling of Spherical Canister (cont.)

W W

3 105 0.5m 500

2

0.6m 500 300 K

2

dT

m2 m2 K

J

0.6 0.5 m3

kg

dt i 8055 535 3 3

m3 kg K

dT

0.084 K/s <

dt i

qi 4 ri2 h 4 ro2 T T

2 2

qi ri 105 W/m2 0.5m <

T T 300K 439K

h ro 2

500W/m K 0.6m

(c) Parametric calculations show a sharp increase in temperature with decreasing values of h < 1000

W/m2K. For T > 380 K, boiling will occur at the canister surface, and for T > 410 K a condition known

as film boiling (Chapter 10) will occur. The condition corresponds to a precipitous reduction in h and

increase in T.

Problem: Cooling of Spherical Canister (cont.)

Although the canister remains well below the melting point of stainless steel for h = 100 W/m2K, boiling

should be avoided, in which case the convection coefficient should be maintained at h > 1000 W/m2K.

COMMENTS: The governing equation of part (a) is a first order, nonhomogenous differential equation

with constant coefficients. Its solution is S/ R 1 e Rt i e Rt , where T T ,

S 3qi ri2 / c p ro3 ri3 , R 3hro2 / c p ro3 ri3 . Note results for t and for S = 0.

Second law

• An important tool to determine how heat transfer affects

the efficiency of energy conversion.

For a reversible heat engine neglecting heat transfer effects between the

heat engine and large reservoirs, the Carnot efficiency is

W Q T

C 1 out 1 c

Qin Qin Th

where Tc and Th are the absolute temperatures of large cold and hot reservoirs,

respectively.

For an internally reversible heat engine with heat transfer to and from the

large reservoirs properly accounted for, the modified Carnot efficiency is

W Qout qout Tc,i

m 1 1 1

Qin Qin qin Th,i

temperatures seen by the internally reversible

heat engine. Note that qout and qin are heat

transfer rates (J/s or W).

Second law (cont.)

• Heat transfer resistances associated with, for example, walls separating the

internally reversible heat engine from the hot and cold reservoirs relate the

heat transfer rates to temperature differences:

Th Th,i qin Rt ,h

Tc,i Tc qout Rt ,c

according to the rate equations, for any temperature difference only a

finite amount of heat may be transferred.

The modified Carnot efficiency may ultimately be expressed as

Tc

m 1 where Rtot Rt , h Rt ,c

Th qin Rtot

m nC only if Rtot could be made infinitely small.

For realistic situations (Rtot 0),m nC .

Good heat transfer engineering is a key

to improve the efficiency of heat engines.

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