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Topic : File Management

Construction By:-
Suman Zyotei*Bindas

What is File
• A file is a collection of related information
defined by its creator.
• Files represent programs (both source and
object forms) and data.

Naming Convention
The absolute file name consists of:
• drive name
• directory name(s)
• file name
• Extension

For example : d:/network/LAN.doc

Information structure of a file
• the file’s type (plain file, directory, etc),
• the file’s size, in bytes and/or blocks,
• any limits set on the file’s size,
• the primary owner of the file,
• information about other potential users of this file,
• access constraints on the owner and other users,
• dates and times of creation, last access and last modification,
• dates and times of last backup and recovery, and
• event triggers when the file changes

File Management
• The term computer file management refers to the
manipulation of documents and data in files on a computer.
Specifically, one may create a new file or edit an existing file
and save it; open or load a pre-existing file into memory;
or close a file without saving it. Additionally, one may group
related files in directories.

‾ File creation and deletion.

‾ Directory creation and deletion.
‾ Support for manipulating files and directories.
‾ Mapping files onto secondary storage.
‾ File backup on stable (nonvolatile) storage media.
Purpose of File Management
• to identify the numerous files by giving unique names
to them
• maintain a list telling where exactly each file is stored,
how many sectors on the medium it occupies, and in
which order those sectors make up the file
• provide simple and fast algorithms to read and write
• give and deny access rights on files to users and
• allocate and de-allocate files to processes
• provide users and programs with simple commands for
file handling
• A file is a collection of data that is stored on disk and that can
be manipulated as a single unit by its name.

• A directory is a file that acts as a folder for other files. A

directory can also contain other directories (subdirectories); a
directory that contains another directory is called
the parent directory of the directory it contains.

• A directory tree includes a directory and all of its files,

including the contents of all subdirectories. (Each directory is
a "branch" in the "tree.") A slash character alone (`/') is the
name of the root directory at the base of the directory tree
hierarchy; it is the trunk from which all other files or
directories branch. 7


File Naming Convention in DOS
Legal characters for DOS filenames include the following:
• Upper case letters A–Z
• Numbers 0–9
• Space (though trailing spaces in either the base name or the extension are
considered to be padding and not a part of the filename, also filenames with
spaces in them could not be used on the DOS command line because it lacked a
suitable escaping system)
• !#$%&'()-@^_`{}~
• Values 128–255

This excludes the following ASCII characters:

• "*/:<>?\[]|
Windows/MS-DOS has no shell escape character
• Lower case letters a–z
stored as A–Z on FAT12/FAT16
• Control characters 0–31
• Value 127 (DEL) 10
File Types
File Type Description

regular Stores data (text, binary, and executable).

directory Contains information used to access other files.

special Defines a FIFO (first-in, first-out) file or a physical device.

• Regular files are the most common. When a word processing program is used to create a document, both
the program and the document are contained in regular files. They contain either text or binary
information. Text files are readable by the user. Binary files are readable by the computer. Binary files can
be executable files that instruct the system to accomplish a job. Commands, shell scripts, and other
programs are stored in executable files.

• Directories contain information the system needs to access all types of files, but they do not contain the
actual file data. As a result, directories occupy less space than a regular file and give the file-system
structure flexibility and depth. Directories are created and controlled by a separate set of commands.

• Special files define devices for the system or temporary files created by processes. There are three basic
types of special files: FIFO (first-in, first-out), block, and character. FIFO files are also called pipes. Pipes are
created by one process to temporarily allow communication with another process. These files cease to
exist when the first process finishes. Block and character files define devices.

Internal & External Commands in DOS
The internal commands reside in COMMAND.COM, which loads into memory when
the computer system is started; these commands do not reside on disk.

The external commands are files that do reside on disk and have an extension of
.COM, .EXE, or .BAT. Both command types are executed from the MS-DOS
prompt.Internal Commands

System Files

• A system file in computing is a critical computer file without which a

computer system may not operate correctly.

• These files may come as part of the operating system, a third-party device
driver or other sources. Microsoft Windows and MS-DOS mark their more
valuable system files with a "system" attribute to protect them against
accidental deletion. (Although the system attribute can be manually put
on any arbitrary file, these files do not become system files.)

• Specific example of system files include the files with .sys filename
extension in MS-DOS and Windows, the System suitcase on Mac OS and
the files located in sys, the root folder of the Linux file system, sysfs.

System Files: Examples
It is the filename of the default operating system shell for DOS and the
default command line interpreter on Windows 95, Windows 98 and Windows Me. It
has an additional role as the first program run after boot, hence being responsible for
setting up the system by running the AUTOEXEC.BAT configuration file, and being the
ancestor of all processes.

It is a system file found originally on DOS-type operating systems. It is a plain-
text batch file that is located in the root directory of the boot device. The name of the
file is an abbreviation of "automatic execution", which describes its function in
automatically executing commands on system startup.

CONFIG.SYS is the primary configuration file for the DOS, OS/2 as well as
similar operating systems. It is a special ASCII text file that contains user-accessible
setup or configuration directives evaluated by the operating system during boot.
CONFIG.SYS was introduced with DOS 2.0. 14
Introduction To Internet

• What is the Internet?

The internet in simple terms is a network of the interlinked computer
networking worldwide, which is accessible to the general public. These
interconnected computers work by transmitting data through a special
type of packet switching which is known as the IP or the internet

Internet Use
- Online Communication - Customer support service
- Feedback about the products - Online shopping
- Product promotion - Online banking
- Online journals and magazines

• Email, sometimes written as e-mail, is simply the shortened form of “electronic
mail,” a system for receiving, sending, and storing electronic messages.
• It has gained nearly universal popularity around the world with the spread of the
Internet. In many cases, email has become the preferred method for both personal
and business communication

- Information exchange
- Staying in touch professionally, socially
- Transmitting documents
- Publishing online newsletters
- Publicize new events or special promotions
- Make personal announcements
- Access to infotainment etc.

Application Program
• Application software is all the computer software that causes a computer
to perform useful tasks (compare with Computer viruses) beyond the
running of the computer itself. A specific instance of such software is
called a software application, application or app.

• Examples include enterprise software, accounting software, office

suites, graphics software and media players. Many application programs
deal principally with documents. Applications may be bundled with the
computer and its system software or published separately, and can be
coded as university projects.

• Application software applies the power of a particular computing

platform or system software to a particular purpose

Word Processing Packages:
Word processor is application software that helps in the creation of a document. It
facilitates the creation of documents through computerized text editing, formatting,
storing and printing. It allows the user to type text, make corrections without retyping
the entire matter and has the feature to make the text look attractive. It can enhance
documents in many ways such as: user can add image and animation, link different
documents together, use of speller and thesaurus. With the word processor user can:
- Create a document
- Read and revise a document on screen
- Change the formatting to get the desired visual effect
- Increase productivity by automating.
- Improve proof reading
- Produces as many copies as needed
- Save a document and work on it later.
Examples: Ms-Word, Word Star, Word Perfect, Lotus Notes, MultiMate, Perfect Writer
Examples: Contd.
Spread Sheet Packages:
By using spreadsheet program user can insert data, process them, sort them, filter
them and create chart from the data. In this program user can perform various kinds
of mathematical, financial, statistical, engineering calculations by using mathematical
relationship between rows and columns. Using this program user can create bill,
voucher, salary sheet, income and expenses statement, mark sheet, purchase book,
sales book, balance sheet etc.

Ms-Excel, Simple Spreadsheet, WikiCalc, Gnumeric, Google Spreadsheets, Lotus 1-2-3, Calc, TABULUS etc.

Examples: Contd.
Presentations Software:
It is the practice of showing and explaining the content of a topic to an audience or
learner. A presentation is supposed to help both: the speaker with an easier access to
his ideas and the participants with visual information which complements the talk.
There are many different types of presentation including professional, educational,
entertainment, and for genera communication. The can either supplement or replace
the use of older visual aid technology such as pamphlets, handouts, chalkboards, flip
charts, posters etc.

Ms-Powerpoint, SimpleSlides, IBM Lotus, Kpresenter, MagicPoint, AppleKeynote,
Powerdot, Freelance Graphics, Pera Show Format etc.

Computer Viruses & Their Types
• Computer virus is a harmful software program written intentionally to
enter a computer without the user's permission or knowledge. It has the
ability to replicate itself, thus continuing to spread. Some viruses do little
but replicate, while others can cause severe harm or adversely affect the
program and performance of the system. A virus should never be assumed
harmless and left on a system.

There are different types of viruses which can be classified according to their
origin, techniques, types of files they infect, where they hide, the kind of
damage they cause, the type of operating system, or platform they attack. Let
us have a look at few of them.

Memory Resident Virus

These viruses fix themselves in the computer memory and get activated
whenever the OS runs and infects all the files that are then opened.

Hideout: This type of virus hides in the RAM and stays there even after the
malicious code is executed. It gets control over the system memory and
allocate memory blocks through which it runs its own code, and executes the
code when any function is executed.

Target: It can corrupt files and programs that are opened, closed, copied,
renamed, etc.

Examples: Randex, CMJ, Meve, and MrKlunky

Protection: Install an antivirus program.

Direct Action Viruses
The main purpose of this virus is to replicate and take action when it is executed.
When a specific condition is met, the virus will go into action and infect files in the
directory or folder that are specified in the AUTOEXEC.BAT file path. This batch file
is always located in the root directory of the hard disk and carries out certain
operations when the computer is booted.

FindFirst/FindNext technique is used where the code selects a few files as its
victims. It also infects the external devices like pen drives or hard disks by copying
itself on them.

Hideout: The viruses keep changing their location into new files whenever the
code is executed, but are generally found in the hard disk's root directory.

Target: It can corrupt files. Basically, it is a file-infecter virus.

Examples: Vienna virus

Protection: Install an antivirus scanner. However, this type of virus has minimal
effect on the computer's performance. 23
Overwrite Viruses

A virus of this kind is characterized by the fact that it deletes the information
contained in the files that it infects, rendering them partially or totally useless
once they have been infected.

Hideout: The virus replaces the file content. However, it does not change the
file size.

Examples: Way, Trj.Reboot, Trivial.88.D

Protection: The only way to clean a file infected by an overwrite virus is to

delete the file completely, thus losing the original content.

However, it is very easy to detect this type of virus, as the original program
becomes useless.

Boot Sector Virus

This type of virus affects the boot sector of a hard disk. This is a crucial part of
the disk, in which information of the disk itself is stored along with a program
that makes it possible to boot (start) the computer from the disk. This type of
virus is also called Master Boot Sector Virus or Master Boot Record Virus.

Hideout: It hides in the memory until DOS accesses the floppy disk, and
whichever boot data is accessed, the virus infects it.

Examples: Polyboot.B, AntiEXE

Protection: The best way of avoiding boot sector viruses is to ensure that
floppy disks are write-protected. Also, never start your computer with an
unknown floppy disk in the disk drive.

Macro Virus

Macro viruses infect files that are created using certain applications or
programs that contain macros, like .doc, .xls, .pps, .mdb, etc. These mini-
programs make it possible to automate series of operations so that they are
performed as a single action, thereby saving the user from having to carry
them out one by one. These viruses automatically infect the file that contains
macros, and also infects the templates and documents that the file contains.
It is referred to as a type of e-mail virus.

Hideout: These hide in documents that are shared via e-mail or networks.

Examples: Relax, Melissa.A, Bablas, O97M/Y2K

Protection: The best protection technique is to avoid opening e-mails from

unknown senders. Also, disabling macros can help to protect your useful data.

Directory Virus

Directory viruses (also called Cluster Virus/File System Virus) infect the
directory of your computer by changing the path that indicates the location of
a file. When you execute a program file with an extension .EXE or .COM that
has been infected by a virus, you are unknowingly running the virus program,
while the original file and program is previously moved by the virus. Once
infected, it becomes impossible to locate the original files.

Hideout: It is usually located in only one location of the disk, but infects the
entire program in the directory.

Examples: Dir-2 virus

Protection: All you can do is, reinstall all the files from the backup that are
infected after formatting the disk.

Worms & Trojans

1. Worms
A worm is a program very similar to a virus; it has the ability to self-replicate
and can lead to negative effects on your system. But they can be detected and
eliminated by an antivirus software.
Hideout: These generally spread through e-mails and networks. They do not
infect files or damage them, but they replicate so fast that the entire network
may collapse.
Examples: PSWBugbear.B, Lovgate.F, Trile.C, Sobig.D, Mapson
Protection: Install an updated version of antivirus.

2. Trojans

Another unsavory breed of malicious code are Trojans or Trojan horses, which
unlike viruses, do not reproduce by infecting other files, nor do they self-
replicate like worms. In fact, it is a program which disguises itself as a useful
program or application.

How to get rid of computer viruses

1. Choosing antivirus software

2. Using online antivirus software and rescue disks
3. Using anti spyware software
4. Using anti adware software
5. Using firewall to get rid of computer viruses
6. Intelligent Browsing

• Generally an antivirus software is a part of your system as it is pre

installed. But the market offers you better choices always. Some of the
leading antivirus software include:
Norton (A Symantec product)