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Perimeter Security

A Holistic Approach
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

GOALS
• Why Perimeter Security?
• Review the Basics
• Consider site specific needs
• Evaluate Risks
• Review Technology
• Discuss Best Value Analysis
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

Why Perimeter Security?


• Financial
• Efficiency
• Effective
• Response
How is this accomplished:

 Physical Security is accomplished by performing an assessment of


the facility/building and the surrounding premises.

 Physical security enhancements should be considered during the


budget process. Consideration of alternative funding sources should
be taken into account such as Homeland Security Grant Funding,
“One Shot Appropriations” from governing bodies and Capital
Improvement Projects (CIP)

– During new construction Physical security should be taken into


account during the budgeting process

– Physical security designs should be performed by a qualified


professional regarding the topology and architecture of the
systems and how they will integrate

– Physical security installations should be performed by a


manufacturer certified/authorized dealer
Physical Security Assessments

 Examples of questions to ask when performing a Physical


Security Assessment:

– What are you protecting? Determining what you are protecting


will determine the amount of “security” you will place on the
information and/or facility

– Is the facility located in a high crime area?

– Do you own or lease/rent the facility?

– Is the facility a multiunit or multiple tenant facility?

– Is the facility designed for the type of environment the work


will be performed? (IE. Power, structure, communications, HVAC
and fire suppression)
Evaluation of Assets and Data

 What is the net worth of the assets to be guarded

 How much would it cost your organization to overcome a


catastrophic loss of data or property

 Implementing physical security measures worth the cost of the data


or property

 Perform an impact statement to determine if the cost of


implementing physical security measures is cost effective or
prohibitive.
Security assessment
• The base is located in an insurgent active area
with high probability of attack.
• The base is located in a remote Jungle
inaccessible region.
• The base has both operational command and
civilian population.
• The base is thus open to counter-force and
counter value strike with Insurgents and
enemy special forces and organised mafia
acting as mercenaries.
Security assessment
• The surrounding area will have tribal
population and any wrong use of force is
politically sensitive and will be of high
propaganda value to the insurgent.
• Base my be surrounded by high mountains
from where the insurgents can keep watch
and track the movement of the forces and
families and plan and coordinate attacks.
• The base will need supplies and provisions
and munitions where infiltration and attacks
can come.
Security assessment

• The base will be visited by local workers and


civilian populations where be can have
insurgents, lone attacks and reconnaissance
activity by the enemy
Physical Security Domains

There are a number of ways to subdivide physical security, to


simplify we have divided Physical Security into five parts.

 Part I: Perimeter protection and outer structure

 Part II: Access Control & Closed Circuit Television (CCTV)

 Part III: Power

 Part IV: Heating, ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

 Part IV: Life safety


Part I: Perimeter protection and
outer structure
 Facility may require a perimeter fencing:

– Chain link fence should be at least 11 gauge steel. Common


installation, easy to climb or cut for entry

– Concrete masonry unit (CMU), One of the strongest


installations, offers privacy, very expensive

– Wrought iron fencing, offers great protection, very expensive.

– Box steel welded fence construction, Architecturally acceptable,


offers great protection, offers very little privacy and expensive
Perimeter protection

 Are barriers located onsite of the facility:

– Physical barriers such as fences and walls deter intruders and


restrict visibility into the premises

– Inspect barriers for deterioration


Outer Structure

 Windows are conducive to forced entry:

– Windows have the highest vulnerability to forced entry

– The location and characteristics of windows needs to be


inspected

– Doors that have windows should not be within a 40” proximity


to the door lock

– Windows that are less than 18 feet from the ground are the
most vulnerable since they are easily accessible from the
building exterior
Outer Structure

 Facility doors should be constructed of material that will


discourage breakage:

– Steel or Solid wood doors, not hollow core doors

– Doors that are constructed of glass, should be inspected for


glass type such as tempered glass, wire mesh or safety glass
Outer Structure

 Ensure door strikes and strike plates are adequate and


properly installed:

– Door strikes should be secured and properly fastened

– Door strike protectors should be installed on doors that require


protectors or exterior doors

 Inspect doors with exterior hinges that may be in a sensitive


area of exposure:

– Normally doors that open out are the issue

– Door that open out are easier to compromise


Outer Structure

 Door frames should be strong and tight to prevent


forcing/spreading:

– Inspect door frame to ensure the frame is plumb and level

– Ensure fasteners are tight and properly installed

 Door locks should be in good repair:

– Inspect for rust or deterioration

– Inspect for proper operation


Outer Structure

 Door locks should include a dead bolt with 1-inch throw:

– Measure the depth of the deadbolts

– Inspect door frames to ensure frame can support deadbolt force

 Exterior areas should be free from concealing structures or


landscaping:

– Inspect for "pony walls"

– Inspect for over grown landscaping next to external windows


Outer Structure

 visitor’s should be required to sign in:

– Require a visitor’s log

– Require visitor’s identification badges

– Have an attendant oversee the visitor’s log

– Review the visitor’s log periodically


Outer Structure

 Escort facility visitor’s:

– Create a policy on escorted and unescorted visitor’s

– Provide different color identification badges for escorted


and unescorted visitor’s

– Require visitor’s to turn in identification badges after visit


Part II: Security Access Control
and Closed Circuit Television
Access control systems are typically a
scalable management solution
encompassing complete access
control, advanced event monitoring
and administration auditing. Access
control systems typically involve a
central server or host for control and
monitoring.
Basic Access Control:

– Remote capability to lock and unlock doors

– Audit log of who and when personnel utilized a door

– Audit log when a door has been forced or help open

– Capability to restrict or remove access to specific person or


group

– Monitoring of room occupancy by intrusion-detection systems


Access Control Selection
Criteria:
– What manufacture of system to purchase

– How many facilities attached to the access control system

– How do you communicate with the access control system

– How many card holders will you have

– Who will administrate the system

– What type of card technology to use (FIP 201 compliance)


Access Control and Access
System (NAS)
 Security Access Control System for the State of :

– Software House C•CURE 800

– Infinite facilities as required world wide

– TCP/IP preferred and main communication utilized, RS232/485,


Modem and cellular

– 250,000 cardholders (Expandable to 5000,000)

– Facility based administration or global administration

– Card technology is proximity (FIPS 201 compliance migration)


Access System (AS)

 NAS is a scalable security management solution encompassing


advanced access control and high scale event monitoring

 Access System’s main hub or server is a Software House C•CURE


800 which provides users with scalable access control solution that
allows functionality and increased capacity as the system needs
grow

 C•CURE 800 is a complete integration solution with unlimited


application
Access System (NAS)

 C•CURE 800 is a complete integration solution that reaches beyond


traditional security, it provides integration with critical business
applications including: Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) and Digital
Video Management systems (DVMS) other integration applications
include:

– Fire Alarms

– Intercoms

– Burglar alarms

– Environmental building controls

– Crystal reporting

– Time management or time tracking software


Access System (AS)

 Network capabilities for the C•CURE 800 client work stations and
iSTAR controllers can be placed directly an existing networks and
transmitted across SilverNet and multiple WAN’s statewide

 Open Architecture Support. The C•CURE 800 ensures universal


support and enormous flexibility. As such, C•CURE 800 interacts
with industry standards database, video recorders and cameras, and
networks

 C•CURE 800 is a complete integration solution with unlimited


application
Access System (AS)

C•CURE 800 Foundation Security Features:

– Event and Alarm Monitoring

– Database Partitioning

– Windows 2000 professional, Windows server 2003, Window XP


Professional for servers

– Open journal data format for enhanced reporting

– Automated personnel import

– Wireless reader support


Access System (AS)

C•CURE 800 advanced Security Features:

– CCTV Integration

– Enhanced monitoring with split screen views

– Escort management

– Card holder access events

– Single subscriber Email and paging

– Open journal data format for enhanced reporting

– ODBC support
Benefits of the Access System (NAS)

Benefits of the Access System:

 Access control, audit, and convenience through the use of one


access control card

 Computer workstations, technical systems and door locks will have


access control with audit capabilities, and convenience with a single
access control card or state issued identification card. This approach
eliminates the need for quantities of mechanical keys and a
reduction of passwords an individual has to carry or memorize
Benefits of the Access System (AS)

 Standardizing of employee identification, recognition and


verification statewide

 NAS will provide a mainstay for access control support and technical
assistance through out career and life cycles of systems

 C•CURE 800 based users groups statewide to provide support


among Departments, Agencies, Counties and other Municipalities
Closed Circuit Television and Digital
Video Management Systems

Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) and Digital Video Management


System (DVMS) has taken many advances over the years. The
evolution of CCTV is an interesting history that combines the
entertainment industry, consumer electronics and CCTV. None of
the three are a combination we put together, but there is a strong
parallel that has moved the industry to where it is today
History of Closed Circuit Television
Systems
 The original CCTV systems were built using equipment intended for
the use of the broadcast industry and industrial television

– Cameras were large

– Expensive

– Required high energy consumption

– Required frequent maintenance


History of Closed Circuit Television
Systems
 As a result of the high expense and the need to change tubes in the
equipment coupled with the heat generated by the equipment,
service calls and service technicians made for a lucrative business.
The high expense of CCTV installation and the cost of servicing the
equipment made it possible for only the wealthy to afford such
systems since the cost of installation and maintenance out weighted
the cost of the assets to be protected for most

 In the mid-60’s, CCTV started to evolve as an industry. Two


inventions facilitated this change and allowed the cost of installation
and the maintenance of CCTV systems to become an affordable
option. The Pan, Tilt and Zoom (PTZ) was invented along with the
motorized lens. The PTZ function allowed the camera to move up,
down and side to side. The motorized lens allowed remote control
of zoom. Focus and iris adjustment. These inventions reduced the
number of cameras required to cover an area
History of Closed Circuit Television
Systems
 In the consumer electronic market, amateur video taping, movie
rentals and the mass production and use of the video cassette
recorder (VCR) become less expensive and lightweight. Soon the
two technologies merged creating the camera and recorder or what
we know today as the “Camcorder”

 In the late 80’s a mass market of products began to dramatically


reduce prices and improvements in quality and availability. What
was once enjoyed by the wealthy was now made affordable and
available to the general public and industry
Designing a Closed Circuit television
Systems
When designing a usable Closed Circuit Television System (CCTV) it
does not take an “expert” to design a system. Some of the most
usable CCTV system have been designed by individuals that said
time and time again “I do not know anything about this, but
shouldn’t we….”. If you take a common sense approach based on
specific applications and needs of your organization the basic
placement of cameras can be accomplished keeping in mind
cameras are like “people” they only can see what “people” can see
Designing a Closed Circuit television
Systems
 System use, Security or surveillance:

– Security is defined as watching objects or items

– Surveillance is defined as watching people

 Will operators manage the system:

– Operators will be required for surveillance

– The potential for “large” storage may be required for security or


the watching of objects or items (recommended seven days of
storage)
Designing a Closed Circuit television
Systems
 Cameras selection and locations, indoors or outdoors:

– PTZ or fixed cameras

– Indoor cameras are used, are they covert or in plain site

– Outdoor cameras are used, what is your outdoor climate

 Storage of video:

– Hard drive storage or the network storage

– Video cassette recorder


Closed Circuit Television Systems
Designs
 Common short comings of many CCTV systems

– Not enough cameras

– Cameras installed incorrectly or incorrect cameras installed for


application

– No operator

– Not enough storage or improper media for storage

– Improperly trained personnel

– Neglected or improperly maintained systems to include


cameras, power supplies, VCR’s, DVR’s, software application and
network connection
IT concerns for Closed Circuit
Television Systems
– Network traffic for IP cameras

– Network traffic with the Integration of CCTV and access control

– Improperly trained personnel

– Storage of video on site with specific hard drives or network


storage

– Transfer of video files via email

– The downloading of updates for windows based DVR’s

– The potential of viruses on windows based DVR’s


Part III: Power
 Does the facility have multiple services from the power
company

– Primary and secondary service in case of power loss

– Secondary services (if available) require a device called “Tie-


breaker” in the electrical service main
Power Conditioning
– One to one transformer for power conditioning

– Main service(s) over-current protection, is it fused or


manual/auto reset breaker

– Main service should be protected by adequate Ground Fault


protection

– Electrical systems dedicated to computer systems the main


electrical service and distribution panels should have an
isolated ground (IE. Orange receptacles)

– Are the use of “K” rated transformers for harmonics instituted


within your facilities
Back Up Power Generators

– What is the intended use of the generator (emergency lighting,


Computers or back up of the facility)

– Generator should be sized for the load

– Back up generators should be tested weekly, monthly or


annually

– All generator should have strict maintenance schedules with


work performed by generator mechanics/specialist
Back Up Power Uninterrupted
Power Supply (UPS)
– What is the intended use of the UPS

– Is the UPS sized for the load

– UPS 5 KVA or great are they Standby or in use type (Standby UPS’s
usually do not have power conditioners)

– What is the maintenance schedule for the UPS

– Is the UPS surge factor greater than 1.15


– UPS should include a feature to alarm when a low battery
condition exists

– UPS should have remote alarm panels located in server rooms and
security/maintenance office
Part IV Heating, ventilation and
Air Conditioning (HVAC):
 Is the facility equipped with the proper HVAC system

– Is the HVAC system sized for the current occupancy and


heat/cooling load

– Was the HVAC system designed with electronic equipment in


mind (heat load and humidity)

– Does the HVAC system connect to an environmental control


system or direct digital control (DDC)

– Who provides programming and support for the HVAC


application if the system is controlled by DDC

– Is the HVAC application on the network and is it network


dependant to operated
Heating, ventilation and Air
Conditioning in server rooms:
 Server rooms and remote communication closets should
have proper and separate HVAC Systems:

– Inspect HVAC system to ensure separate heating and cooling


controls are within server rooms and telecommunications
closets

– Within server rooms and telecommunication closets are high


and low temperature warning mechanism present

– Are HVAC filters changed on a regular basis

– Is the HVAC system serviced on a periodic basis

– Is the HVAC system for server rooms and telecommunications


closets on a back up generator
Part V Life Safety: Fire Alarms

– Does the facility have a fire alarm system

– Fire alarm system are required by law to be periodically test


(Annually)

– Manual pull stations and horn/strobes must be located near the


exits

– Fire alarm system should attached to a UL approved monitoring


service

– A representative from your organization should be for the


administration of the fire alarm system
Fire Suppression:

– Does the facility have a fire sprinkler system

– Fire sprinkler system are required by law to be periodically


tested (Annually, inspection tag looped on main valve)

– Fire sprinkler system spray heads shall not have any object
within eighteen inches (18”) from the spray head vertically and
two (2) feet horizontally

– Server rooms should have an emergency power shut off switch


at the exit doors to shut down power in the event a water fire
suppression system is activated within the room
Fire Extinguishers:

– Does the facility have fire extinguishers

– Fire extinguishers should be periodically tested (annually


licensed and certified personnel)

– Where are the fire extinguishers located and are they depicted
on an emergency evacuation plan

– Personnel should receive training on fire extinguisher use. A


quick reference below would be the word PASS

• Pull
• Aim
• Squeeze
• Sweep
Integrator Challenges and IT
Resources:
Challenges that face many security integrators is the lack of
administrative authority on a network (for good reason) and the
lack of understanding of a network or the dynamics of an
organizations network
Key questions to ask an integrator when a system is to be
installed:

– Will the system and application require administrative rights on


a machine or the network

– How does the system communicate. (TCP/IP, RS 232/485,


modem etc.)

– Does the system require a software application? If so, how


many client/nodes are allowed

– Who will retain the software and software license


Integrator Challenges and IT
Resources:
– How much bandwidth will be consumed by the system or
application

– How much data storage will be required for the system

– Is the system capable of running if the application loses


communication

– Will the integrator retain an administrative account on the


system

– Will the integrator have an remote connection to the system,


during and after the project

– What is the recommended specifications of the host or server


machine
Management and Planning of IT
Based Physical Security
Discussing the challenges ahead:

 The challenges that face many organizations currently, is finding a


balance between Physical Security personnel with knowledge of IT
systems and physical security solutions that are IT based dependant.

 The relationship of physical security IT systems requiring IT


knowledge and background verse physical security is eighty/twenty
(80/20). Eighty percent physical security and twenty percent IT
system based background knowledge.

 Many IT organizations assume the responsibility of an IT based


physical security system understanding approximately twenty
percent of the system.
Access Control

Challenges for the State:


 Through shared resources such as the Access System IT
organizations on a statewide level can assume the responsibility of
an IT based physical security system with greater understanding and
support .

 Challenges ahead such as Federal Identification Process Standard


201 (FIPS 201) and the Real ID Act, shared resources will become
invaluable to the success of our statewide programs.

 Currently no one person or organization has the answers, with


constant changing standards and never ending technology it is
nearly impossible to keep up. I invite each of you to join together to
assist in the progress of physical IT security allowing for consistency
statewide.
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

DETECTION
FOUR
TENETS
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

ASSESSMENT
FOUR
TENETS
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

DELAY
FOUR
TENETS
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

RESPONSE
FOUR
TENETS
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

RESPONSE
FOUR
TENETS
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

FOUR • Detection
TENETS • Assessment
• Delay
• Response

The Holistic Approach


Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

SITE • Environmental
– Five year weather history
ANALYSIS – Data
• Daily Temperature
• Daily Precipitation
• Snowfall
• Wind
• Ice
• Fog (anecdotal)
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

SITE
DATA

December 2007 to December 2008


Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

Environmental Summary
SITE •
(of 5 years - 1825 days)
Precipitation Events – 461
• Events above 1” – 1
ANALYSIS • Average Precipitation - .124 Inches
• Greatest Precipitation – 1.41 Inches
• Snow Events – 101
• Events above 1” – 36
• Average Daily Depth – 1.08 Inches
• Greatest Daily Depth – 4.1 Inches
• Wind Events
• Highest Wind Event – 103 MPH
• 43% of wind events above 20 MPH
• Ice – 138 days w/precip and temps 32 and below
• Fog - Anecdotal
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

– Length of Perimeter
– Patrol Road at perimeter
SITE – Terrain
– Perimeter Barriers
ISSUES – Curved fences
– Single Fences in perimeter
– Obstacles
– Buildings in perimeter
– Structures near perimeter
– Sources of False Alarms
– Recreation near inner perimeter
– Wildlife
– Condition of fence
– Configuration of fence
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

• Physical - Barriers
SITE
ISSUES
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

• Physical - Terrain
SITE
ISSUES
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

• Physical - Obstacles
SITE
ISSUES
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

• Threats
ASSESS –

Aggressive Attempt
Stealthy Attempt
RISKS –

Cut
Tunneling
– Bridging
– Vaulting/Stilts
– Assisted Attempts
• Cost of Failure
– Forms of Failure
– Confidence Factor
– Addition of manpower
– Risk to the public
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

• Buried Ported Coax (Leaky Cable)


TECH
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

• Buried Ported Coax (Leaky Cable)


– Concept
TECH • Transmit/Receive parallel buried cables
establish magnetic field. Disturbance in
field is detected. Approx 3’ height field.
– Pros
• Very adaptable to terrain
• High probability of detection
• Detects surface and tunneling threats
– Cons
• Running and Standing Water
• Erosion
• Moderately susceptible to EMI/RFI
– Cost
• Moderate First Costs
• Low TCO
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

• Electrostatic Field (E Field, X Field)


TECH
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

• Electrostatic Field (E Field, X Field)


TECH – Concept
• Electrostatic field established between
wires, disturbance of field is detected
– Pros
• Very flexible mounting options
• No high tensioned cable
– Cons
• Highly susceptible to EMI/RFI
• Snow builds disables
• Maintenance (re-tensioning)
– Cost
• Moderate First Costs
• Moderate TCO
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

• Bi-Static Microwave Detection


TECH
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

• Bi-Static Microwave Detection


– Concept
TECH • Transmit and receive head establish cigar
shaped microwave beam – movement that
breaks or partial blocks beam is detected
– Pros
• Visible Deterrence
• Covert Beam
• High Probability of detection
– Cons
• Multi-stack to avoid snow builds
• Must have level, clear field of view
• Generally after fence barrier
– Cost
• Moderate First Costs
• Low TCO
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

• Passive Infrared
TECH
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

• Passive Infrared
TECH – Concept
• Heat sources in the field of view are
detected and evaluated as targets
– Pros
• Compares full view with small changes to
moderate FAR/NAR from environmental
sources
– Cons
• Temperature masking
• Small targets at the end of field of view
– Costs
• Moderate First Costs
• Low TCO
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

• Active Photo Elec, Laser, Infrared


TECH
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

• Active Photo Beam, Laser, Infrared


TECH – Concept
• Break Beam Detectors
– Pros
• Visible Deterrence
• Covert Beam
• Variety of mounting options
– Cons
• Snow builds disables
• Alignment Issues
• High Maintenance
– Cost
• Moderate First Cost
• High TCO
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

• Ground Surveillance Radar


TECH
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

• Ground Surveillance Radar (passive)


TECH – Concept
• Reflected back energy from activity in
shaped millimeter wave radar beam is
detected
– Pros
• Precise end of field of view cut-off
• Curtain wall beam pattern available
– Cons
• Freeze over blockage (rare)
– Cost
• Moderate First Costs
• Low TCO
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

• Monostatic Microwave and Hybrid


TECH (Doppler MW and Passive IR)
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

• Monostatic Microwave and Hybrid


TECH (Doppler MW and Passive IR)
– Concept
• Reflected back energy from IR source or
MW energy is detected
– Pros
• Only responds if both detectors are
activated (“anded” together)
– Cons
• Very short range
– Not Recommended for primary sensor
• Good product for portals and difficult
terrain area
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

• Acoustic Fence Mounted Sensors


TECH (copper) – Fiber Fence Sensors
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

• Acoustic Fence Mounted Sensors


(copper) – Fiber Fence Sensors –
TECH Magnetic Polymer Strain Sensors
– Concept
• Vibrations on fence are detected in the
sensor as acoustic energy, disturbance of
electromagnetic fields or disturbance of
light modes
– Pros
• Terrain friendly, large sensitivity adjustment
– Cons
• Subject to NAR/FAR sources on fence
– Cost
• Low to Moderate First Costs
• Potentially High TCO
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

• Acoustic and Fiber sensors on/in


TECH Razor/Barbed Wire
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

• Acoustic and Fiber sensors on/in


Razor/Barbed Wire
TECH – Concept
• Vibrations on razor/barbed wire are detected
in the sensor as acoustic energy, disturbance
of electromagnetic fields or disturbance of
light modes
– Pros
• Easy install, highly configurable
• Better shielded from UV
– Cons
• Subject to NAR/FAR sources on fence
– Cost
• Low to Moderate First Costs
• Moderate TCO
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

• Fiber Mesh Sensor


TECH
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

• Fiber Mesh Sensor


TECH – Concept
• Fiber mat covers the fence surface, cuts in
the mat are detected
– Pros
• Easy install
• Very low NAR/FAR
– Cons
• Subject to UV damage
• Very difficult to troubleshoot and repair
– Cost
• Low First Costs
• High TCO
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

• Taut Wire Sensor


TECH
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

• Taut Wire Sensor


TECH – Concept
• Array of high tension wires are attached to
anchor/sensor posts. Deflection or cut of
wire is detected.
– Pros
• Very High Probability of Detection
• Very Low NAR/FAR
• Very difficult to defeat
– Cons
• Moderate Maintenance
– Cost
• High First Costs
• Low TCO
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

• Video Motion Detection


TECH
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

• Video Motion Detection


TECH – Concept
• Changes in pixels on a video image
consistent with desired target is detected
and tracked
– Pros
• Combines detection and assessment
– Cons
• High FAR/NAR from environmental issues
• Heavy rain, fog, snow obscures view and
impedes detection
– Cost
• Moderate First Costs
• Moderate TCO
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

• Thermal Video Motion Detection


TECH
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

• Thermal Video Motion Detection


TECH – Concept
• Changes in pixels on a thermal video image
consistent with desired target is detected
and tracked
– Pros
• Combines detection and assessment
• Targets high contrast images (eliminates
most environmental FAR/NAR issues)
– Cons
• Somewhat susceptible to fog
– Costs
• Moderate First Costs
• Low TCO
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

• Seismic Detectors
TECH
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

• Seismic Detectors
TECH – Concept
• Seismic disturbances on fence or in the
ground activate a “geophone” – signal is
interpreted as consistent with target
– Pros
• High Probability of Detection
• Flexible Deployment
– Cons
• Subject to FAR/NAR from vehicles
• Reduced sensitivity in frozen ground (buried)
– Costs
• Moderate First Costs
• Potentially High TCO
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

• Point Sensors
TECH
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

• Point Sensors
TECH – Concept
• Mechanical action is detected when it
activates shock sensor, accelerometer,
piezo or mercury switches
– Pros
• Very low initial cost
– Cons
• Potentially high FAR/NAR
– Costs
• Low First Costs
• Moderate to High TCO (depending on
technology)
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

• Fluid Filled Pressure Sensors


TECH
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

• Fluid Filled Pressure Sensors


TECH – Concept
• Two pressurized fluid filled tubes are buried
parallel - micro pressure changes are
detected
– Pros
• Buried sensor detects tunneling and surface
targets
– Cons
• Reduced sensitivity in frozen ground
• No deterrence
– Cost
• Moderate First Costs
• Moderate TCO
Chain linked security system
Mesh fencing
Palisade security fences
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

• Lethal and Stun Fence


TECH
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

• Lethal and Stun Fences


– Concept
TECH • Lethal or Stun pulses of electrical current are
present on horizontal wire array. Contact
between wires or to ground is lethal or
disabling
– Pros
• Very high deterrence
– Cons
• Lethal requires additional protective fence
• High nuisance wildlife kills
• Stun fence potential liability
– Cost
• Moderate to High First Costs (depending on
product)
• Low to High TCO (depending on product)
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

ANALYSIS • Best Value Analysis


Cat Wt Weight Taut Wire Fence Sensor Buried Sensor Area Detectors Video Sensor
COST 0 0 0 0 0 0
First Costs
Cost of Failure (Risk)
TCO
POD 0 0 0 0 0 0
Hi POD increase NAR
Failure Potential
Factor 8
FAR/NAR 0 0 0 0 0 0
Environmental
EMI/RFI
Discriminates non-threats
DETERRANCE 0 0 0 0 0 0
Overt
Intimidating
Factor 8
INTERFERENCE 0 0 0 0 0 0
EMI/RFI
Weather
Terrain (Soils, Water etc)
VULNERABILITY 0 0 0 0 0 0
Stealthy attack
Aggressive attack
Assisted attack
Avoidance
MAINTENANCE 0 0 0 0 0 0
Staff perform PM
Staff perform CM
Cost of Maintenance
RELIABILITY (MTBF) 0 0 0 0 0 0
Field Components
Head End

Total 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0


Supervision & Control System
TARGETS

Supervision and integrated Control of:

• Anti-intrusion systems
• Fire Detection systems
• Access Control
• Video-surveillance
• Technological controls
• Intelligent video analysis

Security Solution
FEATURES

• Plant configuration
Manual and self-learning.

• Supervision
Maps, icons, trees, tables, live pictures, MACROS, …

• Warning Report
Events of interest: alarms, failures , …

• History
Events memory, data and camera recorded pictures.

• Control
Areas Activation-deactivation, alarms switching off, sensors exclusion, MACRO activation, … .

Security Solution
CONFIGURABILITY

• Scalability and modularity


From the isolated unit to the small office, from the commercial centre to the airport.

• Extendibility
New and/or existing hardware full integration.

• Connectivity
LAN, Internet, Wireless, PSTN.

• Multi-user and privacy


Multilanguage, authentication, encryption, privileges.

Security Solution
SOFTWARE ARCHITECTURE
• Client • Command Server/DataBase
It represents the plant. It receives data and sends
User Interface: it allows to visualize, configure and to control commands to one or more DataLoggers. It
one or more plants. It has got a player of 36 viewers for live, authenticates and serves the Clients. It executes
pre-post alarm and from storage movies. automatic reactions and scheduled actions

• Player
it is a module (HW + SW) that allows to view a large number of
images on a monitor

• DataLogger
It allows the system to reach the different hardware types.

• Video Store
It is used for the storage of images coming from cameras

• Web Server
It allows the access from mobile phones and smart phones
Smart Surveillance: Features & Benefits

• Video intelligence software that detects, identifies and tracks objects


within existing CCTV systems
– Monitors events in real time to insure activities are limited to specific
tasks & within authorized areas of authority
– Automatically detects suspicious behaviors and other violations of
established security policies and procedures
– Distinguishes between objects: person(s), bag(s), vehicles, etc.
– Sounds alerts & alarms according to user escalation procedures
– Supports incident analysis and forensic search (in real time or via
preserved archives)
– Maintains confidentiality through restricted user and role based
access
The New Face of Physical Security

Then New Focus


• Reduce people cost with smart
• Reliance upon semi-skilled
technology
guards with 90-100%
• Integrate systems with advanced
turnover and whose costs
surveillance technology
exceeds that of products &
• Prevent actions of those who pose a
systems
threat while facilitating actions of
• A highly fragmented, the honest majority
unstable industry • Elevate operational effectiveness &
• Products typically passive, efficiency
standalone sensors • Deploy human-centric framework
• Thinking in terms of borders, that can associate actions with
fences & doors identity, behavior and credentials
Human Costs of Security

Total Security Market Guard Cost


(staff one post, 24/7 at one facility)

In-House
Guard Annual Annual
$11B
Position Staff Salary Cost
Security
Contract
Guard Guard 5 X $26,628 = $133,140
$11B Security
Director 1 X $64,133 = $64,133
Your
Current
Products & Costs $197,273
Systems
$19B

Source : JP Freeman, GE, Security magazine, OnGuard.Net


System Overview
Central Matrix Switch

Live Camera ALERTS


Feeds SmartCatch
Vision
RULES

Card Reader
signal

Card Reader Biometrics


Door Alarm

Card Reader Biometrics Door Alarm


Database Database Database
HARDWARE ARCHITECTURE
HARDWARE SUPPORTED

Cameras
• Samsung Analogic Cameras
(linked to SCS through GPS DVRS4 or Samsung SHR)
• Samsung IP Cameras
• HIK Vision IP cameras

Intrusion Sensors
• GPS Standard unit CEN2100
• GPS Standard unit Defender

Access Control
• GPS Access Control system

Fire Sensors
• AM6000 Notifier
CONTROL ROOM
SFO requirements
• Detect tailgating: more than one person
enters the door with one card swipe.
• Detect piggybacking: one person swipes
the card and another person enters the
door.
• Detect abnormal behaviors:
– Person swiping the card many times.
– Person loitering in front of the door.
Output from SFO

ALARM ALARM

ALARM ALARM
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
4/
8
4/4/9
4/10
4/11
4/12
4/13
4/14
4/15
4/16
4/17

Violations
4/18
4/19
4/20
4/21
4/22
4/23
4/24
4/25
4/26
4/29
3
5/0
5/1

Suspicious events
5/2
5/3
5/4
5/5
5/6
5/7
58
5/ /9
5/10
5/11

False Alerts
5/12
5/13
5/14
SmartCatch SFO Airport Results

5/15
5/16
5/17
5/18
SFO Airport Results

5/19
5/20
5/21
5/22
5/23
5/24
No. of Card Swipes

5/25
5/26
5/27
28
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
SmartCatch Algorithms

Background
modeling
Card reader
Palm reader

Object Motion
detection detection

Object Event
tracking detection
SmartCatch Differentiators
Limitations of the current systems
• Difficulties of human tracking: non-rigid motion, changing
image size, occlusion and intersections
• Unable to handle changing shape in relation to camera angle
• Generates very high false alerts
• Cannot handle cluttered environment with multiple objects

SmartCatch Approach
• Neural Network that handles both humans and non-humans in
cluttered envionrments
• Tight Integration of Object detection & tracking resulting in very
high system accuracy
• Robust object classification engine
• Background modeling that automatically adjusts to changing
lighting conditions
• Real-time processing speed
SmartCatch: Benefits

• Provides a quantifiable increase in security


• Increases public/employee confidence
• Provides 24x7 protection without delays or
inconvenience to customers or employees
• Reduces risks of liability
• Increases operational efficiency
ENTRY LEVEL SOLUTIONS
ACCESS TO THE SYSTEM / SECURITY

Privileges Assignment Authentication


• For each operative mode •Login
(Connection / Graphical Maps…)
•Password
• View
• Insert
• Delete
• Modify
• Command execution

Archive (history)
•Events
GRAPHICAL MAPS

•Background (imported from file: .jpg, .bmp, .gif, …)


•Icons for object representation (sensors, …)
•Icon shape / color represents the object status
(active, alarm, fault, not connected, …)
•Navigations Icons (unlimited level number)
•Immediate description of the object pointed by the
mouse

•Command activation (right click of the mouse when it


is on the icon of the object you need to control)
• Area Activation/Deactivation
• Sensors exclusion
• Output activation
• Interaction with TVCC system …
•…
MAPS CONFIGURATION

An icon editor, integrated in the system, allows to:


• Associate to each object type (sensors, input, output, cameras …) the graphical files (.ico, jpg, …) that
represent it .
• Define different status (inactive, alarm, active, fault, …) that can be assumed by the objects of an
adequate representation.
• Define different icon families for the same Object type

A graphical map editor, integrated in the system, allows to:


• Build the tree of the graphical representation inserting as many “maps” as necessary for the plant
representation.
• Import the map background file (.jpg, .bmp, .gif, …).
• Select a specific icon for different object types (sensors, areas, input, output, cameras, …)
• Insert, in the preferred position of the map, icons that represent objects and build the associations icons
 objects.
• Accurately move the icons (pixel by pixel), to the desired position.
PLANT CONFIGURATION - Physical
The physical configuration of the plant allows to
• Insert the subset that forms the plant
• Modules for data acquisition (data logger)
• Burglar alarm
• Peripherals / Input / Output / …
• Fire detector
• Loop / Sensors / Modules
• Video recorders (Codec MPEG4)
• Access Control
• Badge Reader / In-Out part
• Set operating parameters for a video recorder i.e.:
• Format (D1, CIF, QCIF, SIF, …)
• 485 Dome address
• Frame Rate
• Video loss / masking
• Image quality
• Bit Rate
PLANT CONFIGURATION - Logical
The logical configuration of the plant allows to:
• Insert logical groups for an easier system
management.

For example, a multinational organization,


with offices Worldwide, could be managed
with logical tree-structure with
• National
• Regional
• Local
•…
VIDEORECORDING : LIVE
Live pictures management
The supervision software integrates functions
of pictures control among which:
• Display format choice.
•Full screen / 4 / 6 / 8 / 9 / 16 / 25 images.
• Camera drag & drop directly on desired
display area.
• Automatic and programmable activation of
the display of pictures coming from the alarm
scene.
• Cyclic pre-post alarm display .
• Direct management of big format display
monitors (Players) linked to Lan network.
• Direct control of pictures quality.
• PTZ control / preset / path / iris / focus
• Recording activation command (according to
users privileges)
• State display: Live/Rec/Play.
• Title (enable / disable).
VIDEO RECORDING : PLAY
Recorded pictures replay
The registration can be implemented on
following supports:
•MPEG4 Codec HD / Server HD / Client HD
•HD of any other computer that carries out
system function (Player, Data logger)
Available functions:
•Synchronous play of up to 4 cameras
•Freeze-frame / Scan Forward - Backward
•Single camera Stop / Start
•Multi camera Stop / Start
•Chromatic time bar to show the recording
type
•Automatic / Alarm / Motion / Oper.
•Automatic recording selection from events
with pictures (see)
•Temporal zoom
•Source image selection
•MPEG4 Codec HD / Server HD / Client
HD
GRAPHICAL MAPS / PICTURES INTEGRATION
FIRE DETECTION

• AM6000 unit and its components


(sensors, input and output modules) are
represented in the centre physical map
and can be inserted in graphical maps

• Auto-learning mechanism: acquisition of


the list of devices linked to AM6000

• Available actions to the devices : off duty,


in service, general acknowledge, general
reset, exit reset, alignment, activation,
deactivation
INTRUSION SENSORS MANAGEMENT

The supervision and Control System manages the GPS Standard alarm control units UC4-96 , CEN2100 and
Defender

• Alarm control units and


components (concentrators,
keyboards, input, output, groups)
are represented in the physical
tree and can be inserted in
graphical maps.

• Auto-learning mechanism:
automatic acquisition of the list of
devices linked to the units.
ACCESS CONTROL

•SCS manages “Solicited” and


“Unsolicited” commands from/to
Brain devices

• Remote users master data


defined in SCS :
• users list
• user badge number
• user profile
• time slot
• list of readers enabled
ALARM MANAGEMENT
What happens in case of alarm
• Automatically (if this option is active) the system shows the map with the object which caused the alarm
(i.e. an intrusion sensor).
• The icon associated to the object blinks, to recall operator attention.
• If programmed, an audio file is played.
• In the events list (at the bottom) the new event is displayed (compatibly with the event priority level in
regards to other events still in queue to be accepted).
• The system activates the “MACRO” associated to the event, that can, for example:
• Activate one or more output (to light the alarm scene and/or emit an acoustic signal and/or send an
audio message).
• Send preset commands to one or more dome camera.
• Activate the recording where requested (on Codec MPEG4, and/or Server)
• Request live pictures from cameras that are framing the alarm scene (or, as an alternative, the
pre/post alarm buffer pictures).
• Send to the player(s) the display format command (full screen/quad/…) followed by the command to
display the desired cameras.
EVENTS
Complete events list
• Everything is archived
• To simplify the events analysis a very
effective filter mechanism has been
developed …

Filter by
• Object (sensor, peripheral, ...)
• Operator / Action
• Date/time
• Event type (alarm, failure …)
• To be confirmed / confirmed
• …
MACROS
SCS allows to create very complex Macros: the sequence of actions can be made up with more commands
toward different devices.

Macros activation:
• by the operator
• automatically executed as a
consequence of a particular event
• automatically executed as a
consequence of a particular event on a
particular device

Examples:
• launch of movie recording on one or
more camera on an alarm event on any
sensor
• launch of live visualization from one or
more cameras on an alarm event on a
particular sensor
• activation of the anti-intrusion alarm
on more areas with a single click made
by the operator
• activation of the anti-intrusion alarm
on more areas on the badge passage
INTELLIGENT IMAGES ANALYSIS

• Motion detection
• Unattended objects
• Removed objects
• Perimeter crossing

Coming soon:
• License plates recognition
• Tracking
• Panic detection
INSTALLATIONS

SCS has been installed in:

• Private museum
• Explosive bunker
• Stadium
• Chemical industry
• Harbor
• Urban surveillance
• Hospital
• Power station
• Airport
UNIQUE SELLING PROPOSITION

• SCS is an off-the-shelf solution that manages all aspects of


physical security: video surveillance, fire detection, intrusion
detection, access control

• It can adapt to plants of every complexity and dimension

• It has been entirely developed by us so we can completely


customize it and add every requested features

• It can be integrated with all kinds of hardware


HYDRAULIC BOLLARD SYSTEM
HYDRAULIC BOLLARD SYSTEM
HYDRAULIC BOLLARD SYSTEM
THE ACCESS CONTROL PRINCIPLE
DBT deterrence and access control systems
are comprised of:
One or several retractable bollards made of
treated anti-corrosion and painted steel.
A control system for long-distance bollard control
Magnetic detection loops
Posts with signalling lights
Bollard controlling devices
Further options
CONTROL UNIT
• The technical control unit is the bollard’s
indispensable control instrument. It contains
all automation components necessary for
operating the bollard.
• The technical unit can control several bollards
simultaneously or individually. How the
control unit is made up thus depends on the
general configuration of the system and the
chosen options (number of managed entries,
signalling lights, operating mode, clock,etc…).
CONTROL UNIT
• According to the topography of the site, the
unit can be offset:
– in a wall box, the size of which varies depending
on the system characteristics (number and type of
bollards).
– in an external terminal made out of anti-corrosion
treated and painted steel, which allows for a good
integration in the urban environment.
– in a totem that enables interface elements to be
received on the front (badge reader, signalling
lights, keyboards, etc…)
EXTRA SECURITY
• access control systems can be fitted with magnetic detection
loops placed in front of and behind the bollard. They enable
the presence of a vehicle in range of the bollard to be
detected so that it does not go back up whilst the vehicle is
passing. What is more, they enable an automatic rising and
exit for the vehicle to be set.
• The security whilst the bollard is in motion can also be
reinforced by light and sound devices (luminous bollard head,
signalling lights, buzzer …).
• There is also a device of automatic descent in case of
absence of tension which, in emergencies, enables the way to
be freed for emergency
Features

• Defence solution against all forms of attack


(terrorism, theft…).
• Specially adapted for the protection and
security of vulnerable sites.
• Very high shock resistance: can stop a vehicle
going at 95km/h.
• Fixed caisson reinforced by a system of
anchor fittings.
Features
Hydraulic barricades
Guillotine gates
Guillotine gates
Structural points
• First layer with motion detectors, infrared cameras and
seismic sensors invisible laser trips with wire fence with
stainless steel mesh upto height of 10 meters with concertina
razor wire three layers with intrusion warning signs
• Second layers ceramically insulated Fence with conducting 1"
mesh and fine mesh reinforced every meter with pipes and
angle wire insulated charged with 11 KV electricity with
electrical zap zone with crowd control stunners ( high voltage
and multi wire and probes)
Structural points
• Third military grade border fencing with claymor mines
crossed obstruction, fences and ditches and trank traps and
electric fences and making civil embankments for machine
guns posts for hedge covers with cross firing kill zones high
beam lights tower posts with sniper nests hardened barriers.
• In addition we propose and arial regular survey by miltiple
quadrucopter drones and with vegetation penetrating visions.
• UCAVs to have stealth and tracing and advance warning to
the base of enemy formations.
Structural points
• Hidden infrared cameras deep out of the base barriers to
monitor the formations at least 5 To 6 depth around the base.
• Access to have hydraulically engaged barriers one one or to
access gateway to we monitored and protected by heavy 30
mm chain machine guns high access cameras and x- ray
machines.
• access to be protected by drop down guillotine heavy gates
with external spikes which can be electrified.
• Internal generators of High voltage and adequate capacities to
be installed.
Enhanced domain awareness
Enhanced domain awareness
When all fails- escape?
When all fails- escape?
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

SUMMARY
The Holistic Approach

Perimeter Security is a marriage of


technology, the environment and
an understanding of the human
element
Perimeter Security
A holistic approach

QUESTIONS