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What is preliminary hazard analysis
Preliminary hazard analysis (PHA) is semi-
quantitative analysis that is performed to:

 Identify all potential hazards and accidental events that

may lead to an accident
 Rank the identified accidental events according to their
 Identify required hazard controls and follow-up actions
What is the purpose of PHA?
The purpose of PHA is:

1. Often used to evaluate hazards early in the life

of a process
2. Generally applied during the conceptual design
or R & D phase of a process plant
3. Commonly used as a design review tool before
a process P&ID is developed
P&ID (Piping and Instrumentation Diagram) is a schematic illustration
of functional relationship of piping, instrumentation, and system
equipment components
What is the benefits of PHA?

The benefit of PHA is:

1. The final product must be “safe” . A PHA helps
designer to identify and deal with hazards.
2. Modifications that are made in the earlier
design stages are less costly and easier to
implement than modifications that are made in
the later design stage.
3. Helps the designers to anticipate hazards,
thereby reducing the number of surprises that
occur during the design process.
PHA Scope
 The PHA shall consider the following factors:
◦ Hazardous plant equipment and materials (fuels, highly
reactive chemical, toxic substances, explosive, high pressure
system, etc)
◦ Safety related interfaces between plant equipment items and
materials (material interactions, fire/explosions initiation and
propagation, and control/shutdown systems
◦ Environmental factors (earthquake, vibration, flooding,
extreme temperatures, electrostatic discharge, and humidity)
◦ Operating, test, maintenance, built-in tests, diagnostics, and
emergency procedures
◦ Facilities support (storage, testing equipment, training,
◦ Safety related equipment (mitigating systems, fire suppression
and personal protective equipment)
Information available for hazard review
Information Available

Conceptual Construction Routine Demolition

Design operation,
Start-up modifications Decommi
Research & Detailed
Development Engineering and ssioning
expansions Destroyed

New Projects Existing Facility Records

Shutdown and Required
Process Life Cycle Facility Removal
Typical HE objectives at different stages of a
process lifetime
Process Phase Example Objectives
Research and Development •Identify chemical interactions that
could cause runaway reactions, fire,
explosions, or toxic gas releases.
•Identify process safety data needs
Conceptual Design •Identify opportunities for inherent
•Compare the hazards of potential
Detailed Engineering •Identify ways for toxic gas to be
released to the environment
•Identify ways to deactivate the
•Identify how a reportable spill might
•Identify which process control
malfunctions will cause runaway
Process Phase Example Objectives
•Identify to reduce hazardous material
•Identify safety-critical equipment that
must be regularly tested, inspected, or
Construction and Start-up •Identify error-likely situations in the start-
up and operating procedures
•Verify that all issues from previous hazard
evaluations were resolved satisfactory and
that no new were issues introduced
•Identify hazards that adjacent units may
create for construction and maintenance
•Identify hazards associated with the
vessel-cleaning procedure
•Identify any discrepancies between the as-
built equipment and the design drawings
Routine Operation •Identify employee hazards associated with
the operating procedures
•Identify ways an overpressure transient
might occur
•Identify hazards associated with out-of-
Process Phase Example Objectives
Process Modification or Plant Expansion •Identify whether changing the feedstock
composition will create any new hazards or
worsen any existing ones
•Identify hazards associated with new
Decommissioning •Identify how demolition work might effect
adjacent units
•Identify any fire, explosion, or toxic
hazards associated with the residues left in
the unit after shutdown

Source: CCPS, 1992

PHA Steps
PHA Steps:
1. PHA prerequisites
2. Hazard identification
3. Frequency and consequence estimation
4. Risk ranking and follow-up actions
PHA prerequisites

 Develop PHA team

 Define and describe the system to be analyzed
◦ System boundaries
◦ System description (lay out drawings, process flow diagrams,
block diagrams, etc)
◦ Use and storage of energy and hazardous material in the
◦ Operational and environmental conditions to be considered
◦ System for detection and control of hazards and accidental
events, emergency system, and mitigation actions
 Collect risk information from previous and similar system
(form accident data bases)
PHA Team

 PHA team shall be consisted of:

◦ Team Leader, who has experience in the
method to be used
◦ Team members, who have knowledge and
adequate experiences on the system being

The number of team will depend on the complexity of study

System function
 What is the system dependent upon (inputs)?
 What activities are performed by the system
 What services does the system provide (output)
System breakdown

 To be able to identify all hazards and events, it is

often necessary to split the system into
manageable parts, for example, into three

◦ System parts (process unit)

◦ Activities
◦ Exposed to risk (who, what are exposed?)
Hazard Identification (HAZID)

 Hazard is a physical or chemical

characteristic of a material, system, process,
or plant that has the potential for causing
(Center for Chemical Process Safety, Hazard evaluation
Using Hazard Evaluation Techniques to
Identify Hazards

 The common techniques have been used

◦ Checklist analysis
◦ What-if analysis
◦ What-is/Checklist analysis
◦ HAZOP analysis
Common sources of hazards
 Sources and propagation paths of stored energy in electrical,
chemical, or mechanical form
 Mechanical moving parts
 Material or system incompatibilities
 Nuclear radiation
 Electromagnetic radiation (infra red, ultra-violet, laser, and radio
 Collisions and subsequent problems of survival and escape
 Fire and explosion
 Toxic and corrosive liquid and gases escaping from containers or
being generated as a result of other incidents
 Deterioration in long-term storage
 Noise
 Biological hazards
 Human error in operating of the system
 Software error that cause accidents
Checklist questions

 Is the material’s flash point below 100oF?

 Is the material shock sensitive?
 Does the material polymerize?
 Does the material react with water?
 Which material spills are reportable?
 Is the material toxic if inhaled?
 Does the process operate above any materials
auto ignition temperature?
 Is the vapor space of any vessel in the
flammable range?
Source: Center for Chemical Process Safety,
Hazard Evaluation Procedures
Format for a PHA Worksheet

Area : Meeting Date:

Drawing Number: Analyst:

Hazard Cause Major Hazard Corrective/Pre

Effects Category ventive
Hazard Categories
Description Category Environment al, Safety and Health Result
Catastrophic I Could results in death, permanent total disability,
loss exceeding $1 M, or irreversible severe
environmental damage that violates law or
Critical II Could result in permanent partial disability , injuries
or occupational illness that may result in
hospitalization of at least three personnel , loss
exceeding $200 K but less than $ 1 M, or reversible
environmental damage causing a violation of law or
Marginal III Could result in injury or occupational illness resulting
in one or more loss work day(s), loss exceeding $10
K but less than $ 200 K, or mitigatible
environmental damage without violation of law or
regulation where restoration activities can be
Negligible IV Could result in injury or occupational illness not
resulting in loss of work day, loss exceeding $2 K but
less than $ 10 K, or minimal environmental damage
not violating of law or regulation

Source: MIL-STD-882D
Hazard Identification Results
 List of flammable materials
 List of toxic materials and by-products
 List of hazardous reactions
 List of chemical and quantities that would be
reportable if released to the environment
 List of hazards (toxicity, flammability) associated
with a system
 List of contaminants and process conditions that
lead to runway reaction
Source: Center for Chemical Process Safety,
Hazard Evaluation Procedures
Frequency and consequence
Identification of specific undesirable

Adverse Consequence
Human Environmental Economic
Impacts Impacts Impacts

Consumer Off-site
injuries contamination Property
(Air, water, soil) damage
injuries On-site Inventory loss
(Air, water, soil) Production
injuries outage
Lost market
Unit personnel share
Legal liability
Lost of
employment Negative
Frequency classes
Description Level Specific individual item Inventory

Frequent A Likely to occur often in the life Continuously

of an item, with a probability of experienced
occurrence greater than 10-1 in
that life
Probable B Will occur several times in the Will occur
life of an item, with a frequently
probability of occurrence less
than 10-1 but greater than 10-2
in that life
Occasional C Likely to occur some times in Will occur
the life of an item, with a several times
probability of occurrence less
than 10-2 but greater than 10-3
in that life
Description Level Specific individual item Inventory

Remote D Unlikely but possible to occur Unlikely, but

in the life of an item, with a can reasonably
probability of occurrence less be expected to
than 10-3 but greater than 10-6 occur
in that life
Improbable E So unlikely, it can be assumed Unlikely to
occurrence may nor be occur, but
experience d, with a probability possible
of occurrence less than 10-6 in
that life
Risk Ranking and Follow-up actions

Frequency/ Improbable Remote Occasional probable Frequent





Acceptable, only ALARP actions considered

Acceptable, use ALARP principle and consider further


Not Acceptable, risk reducing measures required

Risk levels and actions

Level Name Description

H High High risk, not acceptable. Further analysis should be

taken to give a better estimate of the risk. If the
result of further analysis is unacceptable, redesign
or other changes should be performed to reduce the
M Medium The risk maybe acceptable, but redesign and other
change should be considered if reasonably practical.
L Low The risk is low, nothing is required
Hazard checklist based on BS EN 1050-1997

 Mechanical Hazard due to:

◦ Crushing hazard
◦ Shearing hazard
◦ Cutting or severing hazard
◦ Entanglement hazard
◦ Impact hazard
◦ Friction or abrasion hazard
◦ High pressure fluid injection or ejection hazard
 Electrical hazard due to:
◦ Contact of persons with live parts (direct
◦ Contact of persons with live parts which have
become live under faulty conditions(indirect
◦ Approach to live parts under high voltage
◦ Electrostatic phenomena
◦ Thermal radiation or other phenomena such as
the projection of molten particles and
chemicals effect form short circuits, overloads,
Thermal hazard, resulting in

 Burns, scalds, and other injuries by a possible

contact of persons with objects or materials with
an extreme high or low temperature, by flames
or explosions and also by the radiation of heat
 Damage to health by hot or cold working
Hazard generated by noise, resulting in:

 Hearing loss, other physiological disorders

(loss of balance, loss of awareness)
 Interference with speech communication,
acoustic signals, etc
Hazard generated by vibration, resulting in:

 Use of hand-held machines resulting in a

variety of neurological and vascular
 Whole body vibration, particularly when
combined with poor postures
Hazard generated by material and

 Hazard from contact with or inhalation of

harmful fluids, gases, mists, fumes and
 Fire or explosion hazard
 Biological or microbiological hazards
Hazard generated by neglecting ergonomic
principles in machinery design

 Unhealthy postures or excessive efforts

 Inadequate consideration of hand-arm or foot-leg
 Neglected use of PPE
 Inadequate local lighting
 Stress, mental overload and underload
 Human error, human behaviour
 Inadequate design or location of visual display
Unexpected start-up, over-run and
over-speed from

 Failure/disorder of the control system

 Restoration of energy supply after an
 External influence on electrical equipment
 Other external influences (gravity, wind,
 Error in the software
 Error made by the operator

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