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A Presentation

on
Welding procedure of SA 335 P91 Material

Presented by
Siddhartha Sankar Bharali
Assistant Engineer
Emp Code : M6B194

Siddhartha Sankar Bharali


M6B194 1
WELDING BASE MATERIALS
P.No Group Common Tubes Pipes
No. Name
P1 1 Carbon Steels SA192 SA106GRB

P1 2 Carbon Steels SA210GRC SA106GRC

P3 1 Carbon-Moly SA209T1 SA335P1


Steels
P3 1 ½Cr½Mo SA213T2 SA335P2
Steels
P4 1Cr½Mo/ SA213T12/ SA335P12/
1¼Cr½Mo SA213T11 SA335P11
Steels
P5A 1 2¼Cr1Mo SA213T22 SA335P22
Steels
P5B 2 9Cr1MoV SA213T91 SA335P91
Steels
Siddhartha Sankar Bharali
M6B194 2
HIGH TEMPERATURE STEAM
PIPING MATERIAL BEFORE P91
 Material used for high
temperature piping before the
use of P91 was X20.
Composition of P91 Composition of X20
9 Cr 1MoV 12 Cr 1Mo 1/4V

Siddhartha Sankar Bharali


M6B194 3
BREIF HISTORY OF X20
 X20 was introduced in the 1950s in Germany and used in steam lines
operating at temperatures of 530 0C and higher for power generating sets of
150MW and more.
 X20 material was first used in India for high-temperature steam piping
around 1970.
 The use of X20 allowed wall thickness reductions of about 50%. These
reductions resulted in easier handling; less energy needed for preheating
and postweld heat treatment , faster start-up and shutdown of the unit.
 However, two factors limited its use:
- The extreme care needed for its fabrication and welding.
- Its noninclusion in the American Society of Mechanical
Engineers (ASME).

Siddhartha Sankar Bharali


M6B194 4
INTRODUCTION OF A NEW
MATERIAL:P91
 U.S. had been trying to develop a new material since the
middle 1970s to bridge the gap between ferritic P22 and
austenitic steels with respect to creep rupture strength for high-
temperature service from 540 to 600 0C.
 As a result of these developmental efforts, a new material,
designated P91, was introduced in the U.S. in the 1980s by Oak
Ridge National Laboratory.
 It has very high strength at elevated temperatures and good
fabrication properties. These features have made P91 the
material of choice for high-temperature steam piping.

Siddhartha Sankar Bharali


M6B194 5
P91 DETAILS
P NO. COMPOSITION FILLER USED ELECTRODE

P 5A GR 2 9 Cr 1 MoV 90 S- B9 E9018- B9

Siddhartha Sankar Bharali


M6B194 6
SA 335 P91 welding steps

Edge
preparation GTAW SMAW Cooling
& fit up

Purging Preheating PWHT Soaking

Siddhartha Sankar Bharali


M6B194 7
EDGE PREPARATION & FIT-UP
 Cutting of P-91 material shall be done by band saw /
hacksaw / machining / grinding only. Edge preparation
(EP) shall be done only by machining.
 The weld fit-up shall be carried out properly to ensure
proper alignment and root gap . Neither tack welds nor
bridge piece shall be used to secure alignment. Partial root
weld of minimum 20mm length by GTAW and fit-up by a
clamping arrangement is recommended. Use of site
manufactured clamps for fit up is acceptable .

Siddhartha Sankar Bharali


M6B194 8
The fit-up shall be as per drawing. Root gap shall be 2 to 4
mm; root mismatch shall be within 1-mm.

Siddhartha Sankar Bharali


M6B194 9
ELECTRODE NOMENCLATURE
 Prefix ‘E’ : Arc Welding Electrode
 First two or three digits : Strenght in ksi
For example : E-90xx is 90ksi
 Second last digit: Welding position
For example : E-xx1x = All positions
: E-xx2x = Horizontal and Flat
: E-xx3x = Flat
 Last digit : E-xxx1: Type of Coating and other Characteristics
For example : E-xxx3 = Rutile Coated
: E-xxx8 = Basic Coated (Low hydrogen)
 Suffix ‘A-1,B-2,B-3 etc.’ : Alloying Element
For example : E-xxxx A-1 = 0.5Mo
: E-xxxx B-2 = 1.25Cr & 0.5Mo
: E-xxxx B-3 = 2.25Cr & 1.0Mo
Siddhartha Sankar Bharali
M6B194 10
PURGING
Reason for purging
 It is generally carried out on the backside of the weld to
eliminate oxygen and other atmospheric gases from mixing
with hot metal.
 Oxygen have a stronge tendency to combine with hot metal
which will lead to the formation of thin films of oxide layers on
the weld surface. It prevents the joining of two pieces by
welding.
 Argon is commonly used as purging gas.

Siddhartha Sankar Bharali


M6B194 11
WHY ARGON ?
 Argon is chemically inert, heavy, monatomic gas available in
large quantity at reasonable cost.
 Argon is used for shielding and backing purpose.

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ARRANGEMENT FOR PURGING

Siddhartha Sankar Bharali


M6B194 13
Purging Details
 Purging should be start from inside of the pipe when root
temperature reaches 2200C .
 Adequate amount of Argon should be purged in the root area.
 Minimum pre-flushing time for purging before the start of
welding is 5 min irrespective of pipe thickness.
 The min flow rate to be maintained during purging is 10-26
litres/min. For shielding during GTAW welding, flow rate is 8-
14 litres/min.

Siddhartha Sankar Bharali


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PREHEATING
 Prior to the start of
preheating the surface should
be clean from oil, grease and
dirt.
 Preheating temperature
should be maintained at
2200C.

Siddhartha Sankar Bharali


M6B194 15
WELD PREHEAT & PWHT FOR PIPES(OD>102mm)
P No. of Thickness Butt Weld
Material (mm)
Preheat °C PWHT °C

P1 Gr 1 & ≤ 19 NIL NIL


SA106 > 19≤ 25 NIL 595- 625
Gr C
> 25 ≤ 75 150 595- 625
> 75 150 595- 625
P1 Gr 2 & ≤ 19 Nil Nil
SA 106 > 9≤ 19 Nil 620-650
Gr C
> 19 150 620-650
P4 Gr 1 ≤ 75 125 640- 670
> 75 150 640- 670
P5 A 150 680- 750

Siddhartha Sankar Bharali


M6B194 16
Contd.
P No. of Material Thickness Butt Weld
(mm)
Preheat °C PWHT °C

P5B Gr2 All 220 750-770


+
P5B Gr2
P5B Gr2 All 220 730- 760
+
P5 A

Siddhartha Sankar Bharali


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Preheating Methods
3 common methods of preheating:

 Electrical resistance heating.


 Induction heating.
 Oxy- acetylene heating.

Siddhartha Sankar Bharali


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GTAW WELDING PROCESS

Siddhartha Sankar Bharali


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TIG WELGING BENIFITS
 Superior weld quality.
 Precise control of welding variables.
 Free of spatter.
 Low Distortion.
 Weld can be made with or without filler material.

Siddhartha Sankar Bharali


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SMAW WELDING PROCESS

Siddhartha Sankar Bharali


M6B194 21
POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT (PWHT)
 The method shall be by locally heating a circumferential band
including the entire weld and adjacent area of base metal, by
induction or electrical resistance heating.

Siddhartha Sankar Bharali


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DETAILS OF PWHT
 PWHT temperature for P91 : (760±10)0 C
 Soaking time : 2.5 minutes/ mm of weld thickness
subjected to minimum of two hours.

Siddhartha Sankar Bharali


M6B194 23
HEATING & COOLING RATES
Thickness of Material Maximum Heating Rate Maximum Cooling
Above 300°C Rate Upto 300°C

≤25 mm 220°C/hour 220°C/hour

> 25 ≤ 50 mm 110°C/hour 110°C/hour

> 50 ≤ 75 mm 75°C/hour 75°C/hour

> 75mm 55°C/hour 55°C/hour

Siddhartha Sankar Bharali


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GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF SA 335 P91
WELDING PROCRESS

Siddhartha Sankar Bharali


M6B194 25
SL NO OPERATION TEMPERATURE RATE OF COOLING/
HEATING
1 PREHEAT 220 100

2 WELDING BY 220-350
GTAW/ SMAW
3 COOLING 80-100 100

4 HOLDING AT 80-100 FOR MIN 1 HR . HOLDING SHALL CONTINUE TILL


THE START OF PWHT
5 HEATING TO PWHT 760 +/- 10

6 SOAKING at PWHT 760 +/- 10 at 2MIN /


mm

7 COOLING COOLING TO 350

8 COOLING COOLING TO ROOM


TEMPERATURE

Siddhartha Sankar Bharali


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PREVENTIVE MEASURES DURING POWER
FAILURE
No interruption is allowed during welding & PWHT.
Following alternative arrangements should be made
available:
 Diesel generator for power supply.
 Gas burner arrangement for maintaining temperature.

Siddhartha Sankar Bharali


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PREVENTIVE MEASURES OF POWER
FAILURE DURING PREHEATING

Siddhartha Sankar Bharali


M6B194 28
PREVENTIVE MEASURES OF POWER
FAILURE DURING GTAW/SMAW
 Gas burner arrangement is used to maintain the
temperature at 80 to 100°C up to a length of 50 mm on
either side from weld centre line along the complete
circumference of the pipe.
 Root welding shall be continued after power is restored
and preheating temperature is raised to 220°C.

Siddhartha Sankar Bharali


M6B194 29
Siddhartha Sankar Bharali
M6B194 30
PREVENTIVE MEASURES OF POWER
FAILURE DURING PWHT HEATING CYCLE
During post weld heat treatment; The following shall be
followed:
 During heating cycle : the whole operation to be repeated
from the beginning.
 During soaking : Heat treat (soak) subsequently for the
entire duration. (complete period)
 During cooling (above 350°C ) : Reheat to soaking
temperature and cool at the required rate.
* Temp should not be allowed to fall below 80 to 100°C. Gas
burner arrangement shall be used to maintain the temperature.

Siddhartha Sankar Bharali


M6B194 31
Siddhartha Sankar Bharali
M6B194 32
PREVENTIVE MEASURES OF POWER
FAILURE DURING PWHT SOAKING CYCLE

Siddhartha Sankar Bharali


M6B194 33
Do’s and Don’t’s during P91 welding
Do’s
 Cutting by Band saw/Hack saw/Machining .
 Pipes Edge Preparation by machining. Machining shall be
done without excessive pressure to prevent heating up of
pipe.
 Adequate Argon Gas should be ensured for complete
purging of air inside the pipe before starting GTAW root
welding.
 Preheating to 220°C minimum before GTAW root
welding.
Siddhartha Sankar Bharali
M6B194 34
Contd.
 Argon purging should be continued until the GTAW root
welding followed by minimum two filler passes of SMAW,
is completed.
 GTAW wires are kept in absolutely clean condition and
free from oil , rust, etc.
 SMAW electrodes are baked to proper temperature.
 Interpass temperature should be less than 350°C.
 Argon purging arrangements should be removed after
welding.

Siddhartha Sankar Bharali


M6B194 35
Contd.
Don'ts
 No Tack welding or Bridge piece welding is permitted.
 Argon purging is continued till the completion of GTAW
root welding and two layers of SMAW.
 Oxy-Acetylene flame cutting is avoided.
 Do not allow moisture, rain, water, cold wind, cold draft
etc. to come in contact with the weld zone or heating zone
during the entire cycle from preheat to PWHT.
 Use unidentified TIG wires or electrodes is not permitted.

Siddhartha Sankar Bharali


M6B194 36
THANK YOU

Siddhartha Sankar Bharali


M6B194 37