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GENERIC FRAMING PROCEDURE

GENERIC FRAMING PROCEDURE


• Method to adapt diverse
packet protocols at link
layer to be transported
over SONET/SDH or the
OTN.
• Facilitates interoperability
of equipment of different
vendors.
• Packet protocols can have variable length packets such as
Ethernet , IP or fixed length packets such as fibre channel.

• For clients with variable length packets , GFP can combine


with SONET/SDH VCAT And LCAS to provide packet links.

• For fixed length packets, a GFP Link can resemble a CBR


link.

• GFP has common aspects and client specific aspects.


• GFP common aspects are common to all clients – includes frame

delineation, multiplexing, frame scrambling and client management.

• GFP client specific aspects have adaptation features depending upon

client signal – includes mapping of client signal into GFP frames.

• Two types of mapping:

– Frame mapped GFP (GFP-F)

– Transparent mapped GFP (GFP-T).


• FRAME MAPPED GFP- encapsulates each
client packet into a GFP frame – variable
length packets.
• TRANSPARENT MAPPED GFP- fixed length
packets encoded by (8,10) line codes require
very low transmission latency.
GFP FRAME
• CLIENT FRAMES

– CLIENT DATA FRAME(CDF): carries client data

– CLIENT MANAGEMENT FRAME(CMF): carries management info. or GFP

connection

• CONTROL FRAMES:

– The GFP Control frame currently consists only of a core header field with no

payload area. This frame is used to compensate for the gaps between the

client signal where the transport medium has a higher capacity than the client

signal, and is better known as an idle frame.

– GFP connection is always carrying a frame.


• Core header: 4 bytes long
– PAYLOAD LENGTH INDICATOR(PLI) – 2 bytes –length of
GFP frame or indicates that frame is a control frame
– CYCLIC REDUNDANCY CHECK (CRC)- 2 bytes- to protect
itself.
• Payload area carries information about client
payload can vary in length with a max of 65,535
bytes.
• Composed of
– payload header (4 to 64 bytes): indicates structure of
payload.
• 2 byte type field
• 2 byte CRC check to protect type field
• Optional extension filed ( up to 60 bytes)
– payload Information fields : client signal
– optional Frame check sequence: 4 byte CRC to protect
PIF.
GFP COMMON ASPECTS
• FRAME DELINEATION:
– Done with Core header of the frame. Core header
comprises of PLI and CRC.
– End of a frame indicates beginning of next.
– Due to error, receiver can loose track of length of
current frame. Looses frame delineation.
– Receiver will search start of a subsequent GFP frame
using CRC of frame’s core header.
– If CRC’s check works out, then the receiver knows the
beginning of frame.
– This technique is called HEADER ERROR CHECK based
frame delineation.
• Scrambling
– GFP scrambles core header to ensure high rate of
bit transitions and scrambles payload to ensure
that it does not repeat scrambled core head.
• Multiplexing
– Frame : frames from multiple GFP processes i.e.
client and control frame
– Client : supported with linear and ring extensions.
GFP Client SPECIFIC aspects
• Mapping of client signals to GFP frame using GFP-
F or GFP-T.
• GFP-F is encapsulation of client packet.
• GFP-T is applicable to fixed length packets
encoded by (8,10) line codes.
• Since GFP frames have their own frame
synchronization. So GFP-T first extracts data bytes
and control characters. Then blocks are formed
using 8 bytes and super blocks from 8 blocks. And
Super blocks are then transmitted