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Lymphoid and Immune

Systems

Department of Histology FK UNSRI


In this chapter, the following are
examined:

1.Overview of Immune System


2.General organization of a
lymphatic organ.
3.Structure and function of the
thymus, lymph nodes and spleen.
The Immune Response
Immunity: “Free from burden”. Ability of an
organism to recognize and defend itself
against specific pathogens or antigens.

Immune Response: Third line of defense.


Involves production of antibodies and
generation of specialized lymphocytes
against specific antigens.

Antigen: Molecules from a pathogen or


foreign organism that provoke a specific
immune response.
The Immune System is the
Third Line of Defense
Against Infection
Immune System
contents:
1. Immune Cells
2. Lymphoid Tissues
3. Lymphoid Organs
Components of Human
Immune System
1. Immune Cells:

a. Lymphocytes.

a. Monocytes derived cells:


- Cells of mononuclear
phagocyte system
(macrophage, etc.)
- Antigen- presenting cells
(APC)
2. Lymphoid tissues:
a. diffuse lymphoid tissue
b. lymphoid nodule

3. Lymphoid organs
a. central lymphoid organs
(thymus, bone marrow)
b. peripheral lymphoid
organs (lymph nodes, spleen
and tonsils)
Functions:

a. immunologic defense: recognizing


and removing antigens that invade into
the body.
b. Immunologic surveillance:
removing body cells with changed
surface antigens.
c. Immunologic homeostasis:
removing aging, dead and damaged
cells.
1. Immune
cells
(will be discussed in Blood and
Bone Marrow topic)
2. Lymphoid
Tissue
2. Lymphoid tissue
Contain: Connective tissue (reticular tissue) + lymphocytes

a. Diffuse lymphoid tissue – loosely


packed lymphocytes within
connective tissue (CT)

b. Lymphoid nodules – densely


packed lymphocytes within loose CT
- tonsils
- aggregated lymphoid nodules
(Peyer’s patches)
a. Diffuse lymphoid
tissue
 Diffuse collection of lymphocytes (T or
B cells), no clear boundary.
 Lymphoid nodules appear after antigen
stimulation.
b. Lymphoid nodules
(Lymphoid follicles)
Spherical
collections of
densely packed
lymphocytes
(mainly B cells).
Peyer’s patches

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings


Tonsils

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings


After antigen
stimulation, the
primary nodule
becomes larger with
germinal center, called
the secondary nodule.
The Germinal center
divides into dark zone
and light zone, the
latter is covered by a
cap.
3. Lymphoid
Organs
3. Lymphoid organs
a. Central or primary
lymphoid organs (thymus,
bone marrow)
b. Peripheral lymphoid organs
(lymph nodes and spleen)
3.a. Thymus
 a central lymphoid organ

Cortex
Capsule

Medulla
Capsule
connective tissue
interlobular septa

Thymic lobules .
Each lobule has a
peripheral dark
zone(cortex) and a
central light
zone(medulla).
Cortex

Thymic epithlial cells


or epithelial
reticular cells form a
meshwork.
 Numerous, densely
packed lymphocytes,
termed thymocytes
Thymic epithelial cells

These cells are


large and
branched, and
desmosomes
between adjacent
cells.
Thymocytes
 These are densely packed
and do not form nodules.
 They arise by division of
stem cells which come
from the bone marrow.
 Most degenerate and are
removed by
macrophages, only a
small number will mature
and leave the thymus.
Medulla

 Rich in epithelial cells,


fewer lymphocytes.
 Hassall’s or thymic
corpuscles
 These composed of
concentrically arranged
epithelial reticular cells
that degenerate.
Blood-thymus barrier
 A continuous capillary
endothelial layer.
 The basal lamina of the
endothelial cells.
 A pericapillary space
containing
macrophages.
 A continuous layer and
the basal lamina of the
epithelial reticular cells.
Functions

Microenvironment for bone


marrow- derived lymphocytes
(stem cell) to proliferate into T
cells.
Secretion (by the epithelial
reticular cells) of thymosin and
thymopoietin.
3.b. Lymph nodes
Cortex
peripheral
lymphoid organs,
lying along the
course of
lymphatic vessels
Capsule
Cortex
Medulla
Capsule Medulla
Capsule
 Connective tissue
 several afferent
lymphatic vessels .
 Trabeculae extend
from the capsule into
the parenchyma.
 One or two efferent
lymphatic vessels
leave at the hilum
Cortex
Beneath the capsule,
three structural
components
Superfacial cortex

Cortical lymphoid
sinuses
b.1 Superfacial cortex
 Contains lymphoid
nodules and diffuse
lymphoid tissue in
between.
 It is mainly populated
by B cells.
 When stimulated by
antigen, a lymphoid
nodule responds by
forming a germinal
center.
b.2 Paracortical zone

 Diffuse lymphoid
tissue with T cells
( thymus dependent
area ).
 Numerous
postcapillary venules
b.3 Cortical lymphoid
sinuses
Include
subcapsular sinus
and
peritrabecular
sinuses .
Contain reticular
cells and fibers,
macrophages and
lymphocytes.
c.  Medulla – 2
components
Medullary cords are
lymphoid tissue
cords with many B
cells and plasma
cells.
Medullary lymphoid
sinuses are similar
to the cortical
sinuses.
Functions

Serve as a filter for lymph--


lymph percolate slowly.
Sites for immune responses –
under stimulation of antigens,
both B and T cells proliferate
and produce antibodies and
effector T cells causing humoral
and cellular immunity.
lymph percolating
Recirculation of
lymphocytes
Definition: Lymphocytes circulate
repeatedly from lymphoid tissue and
organs through the lymphatic vessels
and into the bloodstream. The most
actively recirculating cells are
memory cells of both T and B cells.
Recirculation of lymphocytes

lymphoid tissue /organs

postcapillary lymphatic
venules vessels

bloodstream
Significance: to increase the probability
of meeting antigens, distribute
information concerning antigens, and
unite the different parts of the immune
system.
3.b. Spleen
A thick capsule of dense connective tissue,
covered by mesothelium and containing
smooth muscle cells. Trabeculae extend
from capsule into the parenchyma.
The parenchyma is made up of the white
pulp and red pulp.
capsule

trabecula

White pulp

red pulp

Spleen
a. White pulp

Periarterial
lymphatic sheath

Lymphoid nodules
(1) Periarterial lymphatic sheath
 Diffuse lymphoid tissue sheath encircling a
central artery.
 Mainly contains T cells (thymus-dependent area),
some macrophages.
(2) Lymphoid nodules
 Appended to the sheath and rich in B cells.
 Have germinal centers when stimulated by
antigens.
(3) Marginal zone
Lies between the white and red pulps,
consisting of many marginal sinuses
The marginal zone harbours an
abundance of blood antigens and thus
plays a major role in the immunologic
activity of the spleen.
Lymphocytes in the white pulp enter the
marginal sinuses to take part in
recirculation.
Marginal
sinuses

White pulp

Red pulp

Marginal
zone
b. Red
pulp

Splenic
Cords

Splenic
Sinus
(1) Splenic cords
a. Diffuse lymphoid tissue organized in
cords, containing B cells, plasma cells.
b. Most capillaries open and pour blood
into the cords, so rich in erythrocytes.
(2) Splenic sinusoids
a. Lined by elongated endothelial cells with
wide spaces between them.
b. Flexible blood cells pass from splenic cords
to the lumen of the sinus.
 Functions
Blood filter – removal of aged
erythrocytes and platelets in splenic
cords.
Immune responses – similar to lymph
nodes.
Production of lymphocytes.
Blood storage.
Thanks for your
kindly patient and
attention!