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NUTRITION AND

FITNESS
So, what is Nutrition
Nutrition is the process by which the body nourishes itself
by transforming food into energy and body tissues.
Ok, lets have a look at the basic
parts of nutrition
United
Vitamer chemical
Vitamin generic States Recommended Upper Intake Level
name(s) (list not Solubility Deficiency disease Overdose disease Food sources
descriptor name dietary allowances (UL/day)[8]
complete)
(male, age 19–70)[8]

Retinol, retinal, and


Liver, orange, ripe yellow fruits, leafy
four carotenoids Night blindness, hyperkeratosis,
Vitamin A Fat 900 µg 3,000 µg Hypervitaminosis A vegetables, carrots, pumpkin, squash,
including beta and keratomalacia[9]
spinach, fish, soy milk, milk
carotene

Drowsiness or muscle relaxation with large Pork, oatmeal, brown rice, vegetables,
Vitamin B1 Thiamine Water 1.2 mg Beriberi, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome N/D[10]
doses.[11] potatoes, liver, eggs

Ariboflavinosis, glossitis, angular Dairy products, bananas, popcorn,


Vitamin B2 Riboflavin Water 1.3 mg N/D
stomatitis green beans, asparagus

Niacin, niacinamide, Ni Liver damage (doses > 2g/day)[12] and other Meat, fish, eggs, many vegetables,
Vitamin B3 Water 16.0 mg Pellagra 35.0 mg
cotinamide riboside problems mushrooms, tree nuts

Vitamin B5 Pantothenic acid Water 5.0 mg[13] Paresthesia N/D Diarrhea; possibly nausea and heartburn.[14] Meat, broccoli, avocados

Pyridoxine, pyridoxamin Impairment of proprioception, nerve damage


Vitamin B6 Water 1.3–1.7 mg Anemia[15] peripheral neuropathy 100 mg Meat, vegetables, tree nuts, bananas
e, pyridoxal (doses > 100 mg/day)

Raw egg yolk, liver, peanuts, leafy


Vitamin B7 Biotin Water 30.0 µg Dermatitis, enteritis N/D
green vegetables

Megaloblastic anemia and deficiency


during pregnancy is associated May mask symptoms of vitamin Leafy vegetables, pasta, bread,
Vitamin B9 Folates Water 400 µg 1,000 µg
with birth defects, such as neural B12deficiency; other effects. cereal, liver
tube defects

Cyanocobalamin, hydr
oxocobalamin, methylc Acne-like rash [causality is not conclusively
Vitamin B12 Water 2.4 µg Pernicious anemia[16] N/D Meat, poultry, fish, eggs, milk
obalamin, adenosylcob established].
alamin

Vitamin C Ascorbic acid Water 90.0 mg Scurvy 2,000 mg Vitamin C megadosage Many fruits and vegetables, liver

Cholecalciferol (D3), Er
Vitamin D Fat 10 µg[17] Rickets and osteomalacia 50 µg Hypervitaminosis D Fish, eggs, liver, mushrooms
gocalciferol (D2)

Deficiency is very rare; sterility in males


Tocopherols, tocotrienol and miscarriage in females, Increased congestive heart failure seen in one Many fruits and vegetables, nuts and
Vitamin E Fat 15.0 mg 1,000 mg
s mild hemolytic anemia in newborn large randomized study.[19] seeds
infants[18]

Phylloquinone, menaqui Increases coagulation in patients Leafy green vegetables such as


Vitamin K Fat 120 µg Bleeding diathesis N/D
nones taking warfarin.[20] spinach, egg yolks, liver
Dietary element RDA (U.S.) [mg][10] UL (U.S. and EU) [mg][11][12][13]
Minerals
Amount Category
High nutrient density
dietary sources
Insufficiency Excess
Sweet potato, tomato, potato,
A systemic electrolyte and is
beans, lentils, dairy products,
Potassium 4700 NE; NE Quantity essential in coregulating ATP with hypokalemia hyperkalemia
seafood, banana, prune, carrot,
sodium
orange [14]

Needed for production of


Table salt (sodium chloride) is the
Chlorine 2300 3600; NE Quantity hydrochloric acid in the stomach hypochloremia hyperchloremia
main dietary source.
and in cellular pump functions
A systemic electrolyte and is Table salt (sodium chloride, the
Sodium 1500 2300; NE Quantity essential in coregulating ATP with main source), sea hyponatremia hypernatremia
potassium vegetables, milk, and spinach.
Dairy products, eggs, canned
Needed for muscle, heart and fish with bones (salmon,
digestive system health, builds sardines), green leafy
Calcium 1200 2500; 2500 Quantity hypocalcaemia hypercalcaemia
bone, supports synthesis and vegetables, nuts, seeds, tofu,
function of blood cells thyme, oregano, dill,
cinnamon.[15]
A component of bones
Red meat, dairy foods, fish,
(see apatite), cells, in energy
poultry, bread, rice, oats.[16][17] In
Phosphorus 700 4000; 4000 Quantity processing, in DNA and ATP (as hypophosphatemia hyperphosphatemia
biological contexts, usually seen
phosphate) and many other
as phosphate[18]
functions
Spinach, legumes, nuts, seeds,
Required for processing ATP and hypomagnesemia,
Magnesium 420 350; 250 Quantity whole grains, peanut butter, hypermagnesemia
for bones magnesium deficiency
avocado[19]
Required for many proteins and
Meat, seafood, nuts, beans, dark
Iron 18 45; NE Trace enzymes, notably hemoglobin to iron deficiency iron overload disorder
chocolate[20]
prevent anemia
Pervasive and required for
several enzymes such
Oysters*, red meat, poultry, nuts,
Zinc 11 40; 25 Trace as carboxypeptidase, liver zinc deficiency zinc toxicity
whole grains, dairy products[21]
alcohol dehydrogenase,
and carbonic anhydrase
Grains, legumes, seeds, nuts,
Manganese 2.3 11; NE Trace A cofactor in enzyme functions manganese deficiency manganism
leafy vegetables, tea, coffee[22]
Required component of many Liver, seafood, oysters, nuts,
Copper 0.9 10; 5 Trace redox enzymes, seeds; some: whole grains, copper deficiency copper toxicity
including cytochrome c oxidase legumes[22]
•Required for synthesis of thyroid
hormones, thyroxine and triiodot Seaweed (kelp or kombu)*,
Iodine 0.150 1.1; 0.6 Trace iodine deficiency iodismHyperthyroidism[24]
hyronine and to grains, eggs, iodized salt[23]
prevent goiter:Iodine in biology
Involved in glucose and lipid
metabolism, although its
Broccoli, grape juice (especially
mechanisms of action in the
Chromium 0.035 NE; NE Trace red), meat, whole grain Chromium deficiency Chromium toxicity
body and the amounts needed
products[27]
for optimal health are not well-
defined[25][26]
The oxidases xanthine
Molybdenum 0.045 2; 0.6 Trace oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, Legumes, whole grains, nuts[22] molybdenum deficiency molybdenum toxicity[29]
and sulfite oxidase[28]
Malnutrition
What to have? And why to have?
Let’s move to Fitness…