Sie sind auf Seite 1von 53

ASME Sec.

2 Part C

Dr.G.Buvanashekaran
Welding Research Institute
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited
Tiruchirappalli 620 014
Email: gbs@bheltry.co.in
CRITERIA FOR WELDING CONSUMABLES
SELECTION

PROCESS CRITERIA
Full penetration
Partial penetration
Dilution aspect for welding/overlay
Which process?
SMAW, SAW, MIG/MAG
FCAW and TIG
CRITERIA FOR WELDING CONSUMABLES
SELECTION

BASE MATERIAL PROPERTY


eg. strength

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
eg. Carbon equivalent

TOUGHNESS
Charpy V notch strength of parent
plate at specified temperature
CRITERIA FOR WELDING CONSUMABLES
SELECTION

WELDING POSITION
Flat, Vertical down etc

PRODUCT FORM
Plate, tube, pipe etc

HYDROGEN IN WELD METAL


Content in ppm, measurement method
CRITERIA FOR WELDING CONSUMABLES
SELECTION

CORROSION RESISTANCE
esp. in stainless steels
Importance of delta ferrite
COST
Application Vs cost
Avoid over design and over welding
Consideration on penetration
PRODUCTIVITY
Deposition rate
melting rate
CRITERIA FOR WELDING CONSUMABLES
SELECTION

CODE REQUIREMENTS
Heat input restrictions

SERVICE CONDITIONS
-Offshore applications involving highest
standards of material cleanliness and workmanship
-Alaska Pipe line

SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS
Like Irradiation requirements
Retention of strength/ impact after multiple HT
WELDING CONSUMABLES
SELECTION CRITERIA

IN REAL WORLD, ONE HAS TO DO

•PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION -PQR

AND

•PERFORMANCE QUALIFICATION - WPS


SMAW CONSUMABLES
FOR STEELS

For Carbon steel - AWS 5.1 E60xx or E70xx

For Low alloy steels- AWS 5.5 E70xx UPTO E120xx

For stainless steels- AWS 5.4 CR/NI


60XX TYPES
E6010/6011(CELLULOSIC)
E6012/6013(RUTILE)
E6020/6027(IRON OXIDE/CARBONATE)

E7015/7016 (BASIC COATED)


E7018/7028 (BASIC COATED+Fe)
-Deposition efficiency >=100%
-Medium
-to High
60XX TYPES

E6010/6011(CELLULOSIC)
HIGH GAS EVOLUTION
FIERY ARC
DEEP PENETRATION
THIN FRIABLE SLAG
ALL POSITION
CROSS-COUNTRY PIPLINES
60XX TYPES
E6012/6013(RUTILE)
THICK SLAG
EASY SLAG REMOVAL
FINE RIPPLES
GOOD FOR ROOT PASS
MEDIUM PENETRATION
70XX TYPES
E7015/7015(BASIC COATED)
METAL CARBONATE
+ FLOURIDE
LOW HYDROGEN WELD METAL
ALLOY TRANSFER VERY GOOD
TOUGHNESS AT LOW TEMPERTURES
VERY GOOD
HI TEMP BAKING DURING MANUFACTURE
70X8 TYPES VARIANTS

E7018(MEDIUM COATED,BASIC
100-120% EFFICIENCY)

E7028(THICKLY COATED,BASIC
HIGH EFFICIENCY 160-240% )

E7048(BASIC LOW HYDROGEN


VERTICAL DOWN)
LOW ALLOY STEELTYPES
ALPHANUMERIC DESIGNATORS –
A1,B2,C1,C2 ETC
7018 A1
8018 B2
MILITARY LIKE SPEC
7018M
9018M AS WELDED CONDITION
STAINLESS STEELTYPES

COMPOSITION TO MATCH BASE


MATERIAL
IMPORTANCE OF DELTA FERRITE IN
AUSTENITIC WELD METAL
L TYPES MAX CARBON 0.04%
SUBMERGED ARC WELDING CONSUMABLES

FILLER MATERIALS SAW FLUXES

Wire / Solid electrodes


Fused fluxes
Cored wires
Agglomerated fluxes
Strip electrodes

Metal powders
SOLID WIRE ELECTRODES

AWS5.17 – Carbon steel electrodes and fluxes for SAW


AWS5.23 – Low-alloy steel electrodes and fluxes for
SAW

Characteristics of solid wires:

-Cu coating for better electrical conductivity &


corrosion resistance
-Continuous wire in spool / drum for longer operation
-
CORED WIRES

1. Flux cored wires – Surfacing applications


Fluxes supply alloying elements and
shielding required for the process.
Mostly, fluoride based minerals are used for
improved shielding and detachability

2. Metal cored wires- Hardfacing applications


For high alloy requirement – C, Mn, Cr
Ease of manufacturing with brittle alloys than solid
wire
STRIP ELECTRODES

Why strip electrodes:


Higher productivity – min 2X SAW conventional
Lower dilution level – Up to 10% shall be
achieved

Applications - Surfacing (Hardfacing)


Cladding (SS)

Forms - Solid and cored


Thickness - 0.5mm
Width -30, 60, 90, 120 and 150mm
METAL POWDERS

Iron powder - Low carbon & Extra low carbon


- For surfacing and building up
after root weld

Alloy powders - for hardfacing / surfacing

Advantage - Required surface property


- Repair / overlay of any
component
AWS5.17
AWS5.17
AWS5.17
AWS5.17
AWS5.17
AWS5.17
AWS5.23
AWS5.23
AWS5.23

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION REQUIREMENT FOR SOLID ELECTRODES


AWS5.23
AWS5.23
Chemical composition requirement for solid and composite electrodes
SAW FLUXES - CLASSIFICATION

Manufacturing Chemical Composition

1. Agglomerated 1.Acidic MS
2. Fused CS
2. Basic
3. Sintered AB
3. Neutral
AR
BF
FUSED FLUXES

1. Very high chemical homogeneity


2. Non-hygroscopic and easy storage
3. Quite slag pool with less gas evolution
4. Fines shall be removed without changing the
composition
5. Recycling of used flux without affecting the grain
size and chemistry
6. Suitable for high speed welding
AGGLOMERATED FLUXES

1. Low process temperature – possibility of


extensive use of metallic de-oxidisers and ferro
alloys
2. Lower bulk density facilitate higher thickness of
flux layer – better shielding
3. Excellent detachability of fused slag
4. Colour pigmentation possible for identification

5. Removal of fines may alter the chemistry


6. Tendency to absorb moisture
7. Evolution of gases in the molten pool
CHEMICAL / BASICITY INDEX

Classified based on BASICITY INDEX (BI)

Basic compounds
BI= --------------------------------
Acidic compounds

CaO+CaF2+MgO+K2O+Na2O+½(MnO+FeO)
= -----------------------------------------------------------------------
SiO2+½(Al2O3+TiO2+ZrO2)

If BI is <0.7/0.8 - Acidic flux


<0.8 – 1.0> Neutral flux
> 1.0 – Basic flux
CHEMICAL / BASICITY INDEX ….

• ACIDIC FLUXES:
High weld metal O2 content, High Si recovery,
Loss of C

• NEUTRAL FLUXES:
No significant change of weld metal
composition, Less O2 content

• BASIC FLUXES:
No change on weld metal C, Loss of S & Si
CHEMICAL - CLASSIFICATION
MS Manganese MnO+SiO2 >50%
Silicate
CS Calcium CaO+MgO+SiO2>60%
Silicate
AR Aluminate Al2O3+TiO2>45%
Rutile
AB Aluminate Al2O3+CaO+MgO>45%
Basic Al2O3>20%
BF Basic CaO+MgO+MnO+CaF2>50%
Fluoride SiO2<22%, CaF2<15%
COMPOSITION- CLASSIFICATION
MS Tolerant to rust, High Highly suitable for
Manganese speed, Moderate Single pass
Silicate strength & toughness

CS High current, Tolerant Also suitable for


Calcium Silicate to rust, good Multipass welds
toughness
B Strength & toughness Not tolerant to rust,
Basic in multipass limited to DC+, poor
slag detachability
AB Fairly high current, fast Limited use in
Alumina Basic welding speeds multipass

AR Fairly high current, fast Slag detachability


Alumina Rutile welding speeds, even in narrow
Tolerant to rust groove
FLUX WIRE - QUALIFICATION

1. WELD METAL CHEMISTRY


2. GROOVE WELD FOR MECHANICAL
PROPERTIES AND SOUNDNESS
3. DIFFUSIBLE HYDROGEN
4. RADIOGRAPHIC TEST
5. TENSION TEST
6. IMPACT TEST
WELD PAD FOR CHEMICAL ANALYSIS
GROOVE WELD TEST ASSEMBLY
SELECTION CRITERIA OF WIRE-FLUX
COMBINATION

1. Material composition
2. Weld strength (Tensile, impact etc)
3. Operating environment (trophical, subsea etc)
4. Joint design, accessability etc.
5. Type of load acting on the component
6. Acceptance criteria – by the user
AWS Standards for GMAW and FCAW
consumable wires

AWS A5.18 Carbon steel solid wire for GMAW


AWS A5.28 Low - Alloy steel solid wires for GMAW
AWS A5.9 Stainless steel solid wires for GMAW
AWS A5.20 Carbon steel Flux cored wires for FCAW
AWS A5.29 Alloy steel Flux cored wires for FCAW
AWS A5.22 Stainless steel Flux cored wires for FCAW
AWS A5.32 Standard for shielding gas classification
Classification of Carbon steel consumable
electrode wires meant for GMAW
applications [ AWS A5.18 ]
E70S-6
E - electrode wire
70 - UTS of weldmetal in 10,000th psi.
S - Solid wire
6 - Chemical composition of the wire
E70C-1 C – Composite wire
METAL CORED WIRE
Type M1 :
Superior Usability in Thin Sheet Welding
[ Arc Stability, Burn-through resistance etc.]
Type M2 :
Low Spatter
Superior Bead Shape
Suited for Plate Thickness from 7 to 16 mm
Steel construction & Bridge etc.
Type M3 :
High deposition efficiency
Thick Plate Welding
Usability Characteristics
• Wire cast
• Helix

Performance Characteristics
• Chemical composition.
• Radiography quality joint
• UTS, YS & Elongation.
• Impact energy value at specified temperature
WELDING CONSUMABLES FOR
FCAW
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS:
open arc
self shielded
metal powder
Eg: ER70 T1
Wires in tubular form
70,000 psi tensile strength
High alloy recovery
High productivity
WELDING CONSUMABLES
FOR TIG SOLID WIRES
CARBON STEEL-SFA5.18
LOW ALLOY STEEL-SFA 5.28
STAINLESS STEEL-SFA5.9

Verwandte Interessen